Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Food capture, transport and swallowing in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)
    Meer, N.M.M.E. van; Weller, H.I. ; Manafzadeh, A.R. ; Kaczmarek, E.B. ; Scott, B. ; Gussekloo, S.W.S. ; Wilga, C.D. ; Brainerd, E.L. ; Camp, A.L. - \ 2019
    In: SCIB 2019 Annual Meeting Abstracts. - Tampa : Society for Experimental Biology - p. 414 - 414.
    Intra-oropharyngeal food transport and swallowing in white-spotted bamboo sharks
    Meer, Noraly M.M.E. van; Weller, Hannah I. ; Manafzadeh, Armita R. ; Kaczmarek, Elska B. ; Scott, Bradley ; Gussekloo, Sander W.S. ; Wilga, Cheryl D. ; Brainerd, Elizabeth L. ; Camp, Ariel L. - \ 2019
    Journal of Experimental Biology 2019 (2019)222. - ISSN 0022-0949 - 9 p.

    Despite the importance of intraoral food transport and swallowing, relatively few studies have examined the biomechanics of these behaviors in non-tetrapods, which lack a muscular tongue. Studies show that elasmobranch and teleost fishes generate water currents as a ‘hydrodynamic tongue’ that presumably transports food towards and into the esophagus. However, it remains largely unknown how specific musculoskeletal motions during transport correspond to food motion. Previous studies of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) hypothesized that motions of the hyoid, branchial arches and pectoral girdle, generate caudal motion of the food through the long oropharynx of modern sharks. To test these hypotheses, we measured food and cartilage motion with XROMM during intra-oropharyngeal transport and swallowing (N=3 individuals, 2–3 trials per individual). After entering the mouth, food does not move smoothly toward the esophagus, but rather moves in distinct steps with relatively little retrograde motion. Caudal food motion coincides with hyoid elevation and a closed mouth, supporting earlier studies showing that hyoid motion contributes to intra-oropharyngeal food transport by creating caudally directed water currents. Little correspondence between pectoral girdle and food motion was found, indicating minimal contribution of pectoral girdle motion. Transport speed was fast as food entered the mouth, slower and step-wise through the pharyngeal region and then fast again as it entered the esophagus. The food's static periods in the step-wise motion and its high velocity during swallowing could not be explained by hyoid or girdle motion, suggesting these sharks may also use the branchial arches for intra-oropharyngeal transport and swallowing
    Determination of aphid transmission efficiencies for N, NTN and Wilga strains of Potato virus Y
    Verbeek, M. ; Piron, P.G.M. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Cuperus, C. ; Bovenkamp, G. van den; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2010
    precisielandbouw - aardappelen - akkerbouw - virusziekten - aardappelvirus y - myzus persicae - aphididae - insectenbestrijding - insectenetende dieren - verspreiders - precision agriculture - potatoes - arable farming - viral diseases - potato virus y - myzus persicae - aphididae - insect control - insectivores - distributors
    REFs (Relative Efficiency Factor) are used in the Dutch PVY (Potato virus Y genus Potyvirus) control system to calculate vector pressure and determine the haulm destruction date.
    Determination of aphid transmission efficiencies for N, NTN and Wilga strains of Potato virus Y
    Verbeek, M. ; Piron, P.G.M. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Cuperus, C. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2010
    Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) causes high economic losses worldwide, especially in the production of seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). PVY control systems rely on measuring virus pressure and vector pressure in the field. Calculation of the vector pressure is based on the relative efficiency factors (REFs) of aphid species, which express the transmission efficiency of aphid species in relation to the efficiency of Myzus persicae, the most efficient vector of PVYhttp://www.aab.org.uk/images/ADV_VIROLOGY_PP&BF.pdf
    Determination of aphid transmission efficiencies for N, NTN and Wilga strains of Potato virus Y (Poster P # Vb1)
    Verbeek, M. - \ 2010
    In 2007 a new virus was reported in tomato crops in the South-East of Spain. This virus causes a severe disease in tomato, inducing heavy necrosis in leaves and fruits. The local farmers called this disease ‘Torrado’, which means roasted or burned. The virus has spherical particles of approximately 28 nm in diameter which are composed of three coat proteins and harbour two ssRNA’s of approximately 8 and 5 kb. Analysis of the full length sequence revealed that the virus could not be placed in any known plant virus genus. The new virus was named Tomato torrado virus (ToTV), and placed in the newly created, and recently ICTV ratified, genus Torradovirus. One year later a second species of the genus Torradovirus was identified in tomato crops in Mexico and named Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV) (marchitez means withered)
    Determination of aphid transmission efficiencies for N, NTN and Wilga strains of Potato virus Y
    Verbeek, M. ; Piron, P.G.M. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Cuperus, C. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2010
    In: Plant Viruses: Exploiting Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems. 11th International Plant Virus Epidemiology Symposium and 3rd Workshop of the Plant Virus Ecology Network, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA, 20-24 June 2010. - The International Society for Plant Pathology (ISPP) - p. 39 - 39.
    Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) causes high economic losses worldwide, especially in the production of seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). PVY control systems rely on measuring virus pressure and vector pressure in the field. Calculation of the vector pressure is based on the relative efficiency factors (REFs) of aphid species, which express the transmission efficiency of aphid species in relation to the efficiency of Myzus persicae, the most efficient vector of PVY.In the Netherlands, in the 1980s, aphid’s REFs were determined using aphids caught alive in the field. Thus, experiments were conducted using limited numbers of aphids and only during the potato growing season. We have now developed a system which allows us to test virus transmission whole year round, using aphid clones reared in insect chambers. Using the new system, we determined the aphids’ relative transmission efficiency factors (REFs) for six isolates of the PVY strains PVYN, PVYNTN and PVYN-Wi. Biotype Mp2 of M. persicae showed comparable average transmission efficiencies for all isolates, and was used as an internal control to determine the REFs of 18 other aphid species. The newly determined REFs for PVYN were comparable to previously reported values. New REFs for the PVYNTN strains were overall comparable to the REFs for PVYN, except for Aphis frangulae and Schizaphis graminum. For PVYN-Wi six aphid species showed higher REFs (Acyrthosiphon pisum, A. fabae, Aphis nasturtii, Aphis spp., P. humuli and R. padi). Only A. frangulae shows a lower REF for PVYN-Wi. In addition three aphid species (Aulacorthum solani, Myzus ascalonicus and S. graminum) for which no REF was determined earlier were found to be capable to transmit PVY and their REFs were determined.
    Determination of aphid transmission efficiencies for N, NTN and Wilga strains of Potato virus Y
    Verbeek, Martin - \ 2010
    Determination of aphid transmission efficiencies for N, NTN and Wilga strains of Potato virus Y
    Verbeek, M. ; Piron, P.G.M. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Cuperus, C. ; Bovenkamp, G. van den; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2010
    In: Book of abstracts EAPR 2010. 14th Triennial meeting of the Virology Section of the European Association for Potato Research (EAPR), Hamar, Norway, 4-9 July 2010. - Ås, Norway : Bioforsk - ISBN 9788217006640 - p. 44 - 44.
    Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) causes high economic losses worldwide, especially in the production of seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). PVY control systems rely on measuring virus pressure and vector pressure in the field. Calculation of the vector pressure is based on the relative efficiency factors (REFs) of aphid species, which express the transmission efficiency of aphid species in relation to the efficiency of Myzus persicae, the most efficient vector of PVY. In the Netherlands, in the 1980s, aphid’s REFs were determined using aphids caught alive in the field. Thus, experiments were conducted using limited numbers of aphids and only during the potato growing season. We have now developed a system which allows us to test virus transmission whole year round, using aphid clones reared in insect chambers
    Determination of aphid transmission efficiencies for N, NTN and Wilga strains of Potato virus Y.
    Verbeek, M. ; Piron, P.G.M. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Cuperus, C. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2010
    Annals of Applied Biology 156 (2010)1. - ISSN 0003-4746 - p. 39 - 49.
    helper component protein - relative efficiency - rhopalosiphum-padi - myzus-persicae - netherlands - potyvirus - vectors - pvyn - behavior - virions
    Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) causes high economic losses worldwide, especially in the production of seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). PVY control systems rely on measuring virus pressure and vector pressure in the field. Calculation of the vector pressure is based on the relative efficiency factors (REFs) of aphid species. These REFs express the transmission efficiency of aphid species in relation to the transmission efficiency of Myzus persicae, the most efficient vector of PVY. In this paper, we report on the determination of aphids' relative transmission efficiency factors (REFs) for isolates of the PVY strains PVYN, PVYNTN and PVYN-Wi. Biotype Mp2 of M. persicae was tested for its transmission efficiency for six PVY isolates (one PVYN, three PVYNTN and two PVYN-Wi isolates) and showed comparable average transmission efficiencies for all isolates. The transmission rate of this biotype for the six PVY isolates was set to 1 and Mp2 was used as an internal control in transmission experiments to determine the REFs of three other biotypes of M. persicae and 16 other aphid species (three biotypes per species when available) for the six PVY isolates. Comparing the calculated REFs for PVYN with the REFs reported in the previous century for PVYN, we observe overall comparable REFs, except for Aphis fabae, Aphis spp., Hyperomyzus lactucae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Rhopalosiphum padi, which have a lower REF in our experiments, and Aphis frangulae and Phorodon humuli, which have now a higher REF. Comparing the new REFs found for the PVYNTN strains with the new REFs for PVYN, we observe that they are overall comparable, except for A. frangulae (0.17 compared with 0.53) and Schizaphis graminum (0.05 compared with 0.00). Comparing the REFs calculated for PVYN-Wi with those calculated for PVYN, we can observe six aphid species with higher REFs (Acyrthosiphon pisum, A. fabae, Aphis nasturtii, Aphis spp., P. humuli and R. padi). Only the species A. frangulae shows a lower REF for PVYN-Wi compared with the transmission efficiency of PVYN. Three aphid species (Aulacorthum solani, Myzus ascalonicus and S. graminum) for which no REF was determined earlier were found to be capable to transmit PVY and their REFs were determine
    Vragen bij toename Y-virus (Interview met René van der Vlugt)
    Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2009
    Nieuwe oogst / Magazine gewas 27.11.2009 (2009). - ISSN 1871-093X - 1 p.
    Y-virus in het veld verschuift qua soort: steeds meer stammen NTNen Wilga, en minder N en O. "De overdrachtefficiëntie van nieuwe Y-stammen kan hoger zijn, maar dat verklaart slechts deels de toegenomen problemen met Y-virus", zegt virusonderzoeker René van der Vlugt van Wageningen UR
    Determination of aphids’ Relative Efficiency Factors for the N, NTN and Wilga strains of Potato virus Y
    Verbeek, Martin - \ 2009
    Determination of aphid transmission efficiencies for N, NTN and Wilga strains of Potato Virus Y
    Vlugt, Rene van der - \ 2009
    Aphid vectors and transmission of Potato virus Y strains
    Verbeek, M. ; Piron, P.G.M. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Bovenkamp, G.W. van den; Miedema, G. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2009
    In: Fifth Joint meeting of the DPG working group “Viruskrankheiten der Pflanzen” and the “ Nederlandse Kring voor Plantevirologie”, Hamburg, Germany, 8-9 April 2009. - Hamburg, Germany : Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft - p. P18 - P18.
    In the last 5 years Dutch seed potato growers have faced increasing problems with Potato virus Y (PVY) despite a decrease over the past 20 years in the number of aphids caught during the potato-growing season. In the Netherlands the control system for PVY is based on virus monitoring in the field, flight data of aphids and postharvest control. Aphids are caught, counted and assigned a value according to their relative efficiency factor (REF). The aphid flight data are used to set dates for haulm destruction. Given the current problems with PVY, this system, developed in the 1980s, may no longer be adequate to control the current virus situation in the field. Although it was found that REFs of different aphids are still valid for transmission of PVYN, higher transmission rates were found for PVYNTN and PVYN-Wilga. This could explain the increasing PVY infection in the field
    Determination of aphid transmission efficiencies for N, NTN and Wilga strains of Potato virus Y
    Verbeek, M. ; Piron, P.G.M. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Cuperus, C. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2009
    Aspects of Applied Biology 94 (2009). - ISSN 0265-1491 - p. 11 - 17.
    Strains of Potato virus Y in Dutch seed potato culture
    Vlugt, R.A.A. van der; Verbeek, M. ; Piron, P.G.M. ; Cuperus, C. ; Bovenkamp, G. van den; Haan, E. de - \ 2008
    In: Book of Abstracts. The 3rd Conference of the International Working Group on Legume and Vegetable viruses (IWGLVV), Ljubljana, Slovenia, 20-23 August 2008. - Ljubljana, Slovenia : National Institute of Biology (NIB), Department of Biotechnology and Systems Biology - p. 31 - 31.
    Over the recent years Potato virus Y presents a growing problem in Dutch seed potato culture. In recent years a significant % of seed potato lots was de-classified due to PVY infections. This apparent increase in PVY infections was unexpected since no increase in field symptoms were observed and the numbers of aphids caught in the yellow water traps and high suction traps showed a clear decline over the last 10 years.. In 2006 a project was initiated to investigate the possible causes for the increase in PVY infections. Firstly a survey was performed on potato plant material grown in the control fields of the General Inspection Service (NAK), to determine the distribution of PVY strains, including the ‘new’ PVYNTN and PVYN-Wilga strains. This plant material is representative of Dutch seed potato stocks. In the control fields tubers, which were taken from stocks tested by ELISA, are grown to evaluate the earlier laboratory tests. Samples were tested by ELISA using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. All ELISA positive samples were further tested for the presence of PVYN, PVYO, PVYNTN and PVYN-Wilga by two molecular methods and in addition inoculated onto a set of indicator plants. Results showed that PVY strains populations in the Netherlands shifted significantly and that PVYNTN and PVYN-Wilga are more spread then generally assumed. In addition to field monitoring and post-harvest control, the control system for potato viruses, including PVY in the Netherlands, is also based on monitoring the flight data of a selected group of aphids. The aphids caught are counted and assigned a value according to their Relative Efficiency Factor (REF). When the cumulative values reach a certain threshold a date for haulm destruction is set, to prevent virus infections of the tubers. Given the current problems with PVY, this system, developed in the 1980’s, may no longer be sufficient to control the current virus situation in the field. In our project the question is addressed whether a shift in aphid populations has occurred and if the REF’s determined in the 1980’s are still valid for M. persicae and other aphids for the PVY strains found in the Netherlands nowadays. A new system was set up to determine the REF’s for known PVY transmitters and other aphids that are presently caught in the field. Figures of transmission efficiencies of different aphid species for different PVY strains will be presented.
    Strains of Potato virus Y in Dutch seed potato culture
    Vlugt, R.A.A. van der; Verbeek, M. ; Cuperus, C. ; Piron, P.G.M. ; Haan, E. de; Bovenkamp, G.W. van den - \ 2008
    In: Proceedings of the 13th European Association for Potato Research Virology Section Meeting, Coylumbridge (Aviemore), Scotland, United Kingdom, 17-22 June 2007. - - p. 191 - 192.
    Potato virus Y (PVY) is a growing problem in Dutch seed potato culture, with an increasing number of seed potato lots failing to meet quality standards. The reasons for this are unknown. In addition to the well-known PVYN and PVYO strains, several new strains of PVY have been reported, of which PVYNTN and PVYN-Wilga (both characterised as being between PVYN and PVYO) are the best known. In 2006, a survey for PVY strains was done on potato plant material grown in the control fields of the General Inspection Service NAK. This material is representative of Dutch seed potato stocks. In the survey, over 120 samples showing distinct PVY symptoms were collected. Each sample was tested by ELISA using polyclonal antibodies for PVY and monoclonal antibodies to distinguish PVYN from PVYO/PVYC. All ELISA-positive samples were further tested for the presence of PVYN, PVYO, PVYNTN and PVYN-Wilga by two molecular methods and in addition inoculated to a set of indicator plants. The results show that a significant shift in PVY strain populations in the Netherlands has occurred and that PVYNTN and PVYN-Wilga are more widespread than previously assumed
    Aphid vectors and transmission of Potato virus Y strains
    Verbeek, M. ; Piron, P.G.M. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Bovenkamp, G.W. van den; Miedema, G. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2008
    In: Proceedings of the 13th European Association for Potato Research Virology Section Meeting, Coylumbridge (Aviemore), Scotland, United Kingdom, 17-22 June 2007. - - p. 192 - 192.
    In the last 5 years Dutch seed potato growers have faced increasing problems with Potato virus Y (PVY) despite a decrease over the past 20 years in the number of aphids caught during the potato-growing season. In the Netherlands the control system for PVY is based on virus monitoring in the field, flight data of aphids and postharvest control. Aphids are caught, counted and assigned a value according to their relative efficiency factor (REF). The aphid flight data are used to set dates for haulm destruction. Given the current problems with PVY, this system, developed in the 1980s, may no longer be adequate to control the current virus situation in the field. Although it was found that REFs of different aphids are still valid for transmission of PVYN, higher transmission rates were found for PVYNTN and PVYN-Wilga. This could explain the increasing PVY infection in the field
    Aphid vectors and transmission of potato virus Y strains
    Verbeek, M. ; Piron, P.G.M. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der; Bovenkamp, G. van den; Miedema, G. - \ 2008
    In the last 5 years Dutch seed potato growers have faced increasing problems with Potato virus Y (PVY) despite a decrease over the past 20 years in the number of aphids caught during the potato-growing season. In the Netherlands the control system for PVY is based on virus monitoring in the field, flight data of aphids and postharvest control. Aphids are caught, counted and assigned a value according to their relative efficiency factor (REF). The aphid flight data are used to set dates for haulm destruction. Given the current problems with PVY, this system, developed in the 1980s, may no longer be adequate to control the current virus situation in the field. Although it was found that REFs of different aphids are still valid for transmission of PVYN, higher transmission rates were found for PVYNTN and PVYN-Wilga. This could explain the increasing PVY infection in the field http://www.njf.nu/site/seminarRedirect.asp?p=1004&intSeminarID=402&strSemInfoType=pro
    Strains of Potato virus Y in Dutch seed potato culture
    Vlugt, R.A.A. van der; Verbeek, M. ; Piron, P.G.M. ; Cuperus, C. ; Bovenkamp, G. van den; Haan, E. de - \ 2007
    In: Program and Abstracts. 10th Int Plant Virus Epidemiology Symposium: "Controlling Epidemics of Emerging and Established Plant Virus Diseases - The Way Forward", Icrisat, India, 15-19 October 2007. - Australia and India : International Plant Virus Epidemiology Committee (IPVEC) of International Society of Plant - p. 53 (OP - 52).
    Over the recent years Potato virus Y (PVY) presents a growing problem in Dutch seed potato culture. In the years 2002 – 2004 approximately 10 – 15% of the seed potato lots was declassified because of the levels of PVY infection exceeded quality standards. In 2006 an even higher percentage was reported. Aphid vectors form an important factor in the spread of PVY. However, the increasing levels of infections with PVY are in contrast to the decreasing numbers of aphids caught in the yellow water traps and high suction traps used to monitor aphid flights. In addition to the well-known PVY-N and PVY-O standard strains, several new strains of PVY have been reported of which PVY-NTN and PVY-N-Wilga are currently the best known. Both strains are described as genetic recombinants between PVY-N and PVY-O. The presence and possible spread over The Netherlands of these recombinant strains is not known yet. In July 2006 a survey for PVY strains was done on potato plant material grown in the control fields of the General Inspection Service NAK. This plant material is representative of Dutch seed potato stocks. In the control fields tubers, which were taken from stocks tested by ELISA in 2005, are grown to evaluate the earlier laboratory tests by visual inspection. In the survey over 120 samples showing distinct PVY symptoms were collected from different seed lots. Each sample was tested by ELISA using polyclonal antibodies for the presence of PVY and monoclonal antibodies to distinguish PVY-N from PVY-O/C. All ELISA positive samples were further tested for the presence of PVY-N, PVY-O, PVY-NTN and PVY-N-Wilga by two molecular methods and in addition inoculated on a set of indicator plants. Results show that a significant shift in PVY strains populations in the Netherlands has occurred and that PVY-NTN and PVY-N-Wilga are more spread then previously and generally assumed.
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