A diagnostic tool for supporting policymaking on urban resilience
Wardekker, Arjan ; Wilk, Bettina ; Brown, Valerie ; Uittenbroek, Caroline ; Mees, Heleen ; Driessen, Peter ; Wassen, Martin ; Molenaar, Arnoud ; Walda, Jim ; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2020
Cities 101 (2020). - ISSN 0264-2751
Choices - Diagnostic tool - Urban governance - Urban resilience
Urban resilience has become a popular notion among urban policymakers and scientists, as a way to deal with the many complex issues that cities face. While it has positive connotations and resonates with local urban agendas, it is not always clear what it means and what factors contribute to resilience. Additionally, critical literature observes that people's views on what resilience means can differ strongly and the many choices that are made in planning and implementing resilience are often left implicit. In this paper, we describe a diagnostic tool that tackles these issues by (1) distilling resilience principles and narratives that provide a comprehensive picture of the different pathways that resilience-building could take, and (2) making explicit and facilitating reflection on the choices embedded in planning for urban resilience. We illustrate the tool with an application on urban flood risk management in Rotterdam. We conclude that the Resilience Diagnostic Tool is useful to reflect on the local goals of resilience-building, to diagnose choices made in urban plans, and to reflect on their consequences. It supports policymakers in making deliberate, transparent and goal-oriented choices on urban resilience.
Runhaar, Hens ; Wilk, B. ; Driessen, P. ; Dunphy, N. ; Persson, A. ; Meadowcroft, J. ; Mullally, G. - \ 2020
In: Architectures of Earth System Governance. Institutional Complexity and Structural Transformation / Biermann, F., Kim, R., Cambridge University Press - p. 146 - 164.
Environmental policy integration (EPI) is the incorporation of environmental concerns and objectives into non-environmental policy areas, such as energy, transport and agriculture, as opposed to pursuing such objectives through purely environmental policy practices. EPI is promoted to overcome policy incoherence and institutional fragmentation, to address the driving forces of environmental degradation and to promote innovation and synergy. But how effective are EPI strategies employed in practice? In this chapter we provide a meta-analysis of scientific, empirical research on EPI to address this question. An important finding is the discrepancy between the adoption of EPI in terms of objectives and commitments and its actual implementation, that is, translation into concrete measures. Overall, we found relatively few cases where environmental objectives were given a substantial status in non-environmental policies. The barriers we identified suggest that the actual detailed design or architecture of the strategies that are employed to promote EPI really matters.
Are we restoring functional fens? – The outcomes of restoration projects in fens re-analysed with plant functional traits
Klimkowska, Agata ; Goldstein, Klara ; Wyszomirski, Tomasz ; Kozub, Łukasz ; Wilk, Mateusz ; Aggenbach, Camiel ; Bakker, Jan P. ; Belting, Heinrich ; Beltman, Boudewijn ; Blüml, Volker ; Vries, Yzaak De; Geiger-udod, Beate ; Grootjans, Ab P. ; Hedberg, Petter ; Jager, Henk J. ; Kerkhof, Dick ; Kollmann, Johannes ; Pawlikowski, Paweł ; Pleyl, Elisabeth ; Reinink, Warner ; Rydin, Hakan ; Schrautzer, Joachim ; Sliva, Jan ; Stańko, Robert ; Sundberg, Sebastian ; Timmermann, Tiemo ; Wołejko, Lesław ; Burg, Rob F. Van Der; Hoek, Dick Van Der; Diggelen, Jose M.H. Van; Heerden, Adrie Van; Tweel, Loekie Van; Vegelin, Kees ; Kotowski, Wiktor ; Guo, Xiao - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)4. - ISSN 1932-6203
In peatland restoration we often lack an information whether re-established ecosystems are functionally similar to non-degraded ones. We re-analysed the long-term outcomes of restoration on vegetation and plant functional traits in 38 European fens restored by rewetting (18 sites) and topsoil removal (20 sites). We used traits related to nutrient acquisition strategies, competitiveness, seed traits, and used single- and multi-trait metrics. A separate set of vegetation records from near-natural fens with diverse plant communities was used to generate reference values to aid the comparisons. We found that both restoration methods enhanced the similarity of species composition to non-degraded systems but trait analysis revealed differences between the two approaches. Traits linked to nutrient acquisition strategies indicated that topsoil removal was more effective than rewetting. After topsoil removal competitive species in plant communities had decreased, while stress-tolerant species had increased. A substantial reduction in nutrient availability ruled out the effect of initial disturbance. An ability to survive and grow in anoxic conditions was enhanced after restoration, but the reference values were not achieved. Rewetting was more effective than topsoil removal in restricting variation in traits values permitted in re-developing vegetation. We found no indication of a shift towards reference in seed traits, which suggested that dispersal constraint and colonization deficit can be a widespread phenomena. Two functional diversity indices: functional richness and functional dispersion showed response to restoration and shifted values towards reference mires and away from the degraded systems.
We concluded that targeting only one type of environmental stressor does not lead to a recovery of fens, as it provides insufficient level of stress to restore a functional ecosystem. In general, restoration efforts do not ensure the re-establishment and long-term persistence of fens. Restoration efforts result in recovery of fen ecosystems, confirmed with our functional trait analysis, although more rigid actions are needed for restoring fully functional mires, by achieving high and constant levels of anoxia and nutrient stresses.
Mainstreaming climate adaptation: taking stock about "what works" from empirical research worldwide
Runhaar, Hens ; Wilk, B. ; Persson, A. ; Uittenbroek, C.J. ; Wamsler, C. - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)4. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 1201 - 1210.
Adaptation to a changing climate is unavoidable. Mainstreaming climate adaptation objectives into existing policies, as opposed to developing dedicated adaptation policy, is widely advocated for public action. However, knowledge on what makes mainstreaming effective is scarce and fragmented. Against this background, this paper takes stock of peer-reviewed empirical analyses of climate adaptation mainstreaming, in order to assess current achievements and identify the critical factors that render mainstreaming effective. The results show that although in most cases adaptation policy outputs are identified, only in a minority of cases this translates into policy outcomes. This B implementation gap
is most strongly seen in developing countries. However, when it comes to the effectiveness of outcomes, we found no difference across countries. We conclude that more explicit definitions and unified frameworks for adaptation mainstreaming research are required to allow for future research syntheses
and well-informed policy recommendations.
Het Festuca ovina-complex in Nederland. 3. De smalbladige schapengrassen
Haveman, R. - \ 2015
Gorteria 37 (2015). - ISSN 0017-2294 - p. 181 - 190.
After a reply to De Wilde-Duyfjes, who commented on an earlier published treatment of the relatively broad-leaved sheep fescues, the Dutch small-leaved sheep fescues are discussed. Taxonomy and nomenclature of the small-leaved sheep fescues closely related to Festuca ovina is confusing. Until 2005, Dutch literature only recognised two taxa: F. filiformis Pourr. and F. ovina L. In Belgium, Great-Britain and Germany at least four taxa have been recognised: F. ovina subsp. hirtula (Hack. ex Travis) M.J.Wilk. and F. ovina subsp. ophioliticola (Kerguélen) M.J.Wilk. (= F. guestfalica Boenn. ex Reichb), as well as the two taxa already mentioned. In this paper, it is argued that the tetraploid taxa are best considered as subspecies of F. guestfalica Boenn. ex Reichb. and separate from F. ovina. Morphometric analysis of a part of the collection of the herbarium of Naturalis in Leiden (L) and the herbarium of the author revealed that all four taxa can be distiguished in the Netherlands as well. Festuca filiformis is the most common one and occurs on acidic and mostly sandy soils all over the country. Festuca guestfalica subsp. hirtula is quite common on acidic sandy soil of the lateral moraines and blown outs in the central part of the country (Veluwe). Festuca guestfalica subsp. guestfalica occurs in South Limburg, where it grows on heavy metal soils in the floodplain of the River Geul. The subspecies is extremely rare and in such decline there that it has locally become almost extinct. Recently, however, it was found on chalk outcrops in South Limburg and at a single locality in the Veluwe. Possibly, the subspecies may occur at other localities outside its known distribution area as well. Two collections from Apeldoorn, collected in the 19th century, probably belong to Festuca ovina. No recent collections of this species are known.
Candidate Distributions for Climatological Drought Indices (SPI and SPEI)
Stagge, James H. ; Tallaksen, Lena M. ; Gudmundsson, Lukas ; Loon, Anne F. Van; Stahl, Kerstin - \ 2015
International Journal of Climatology 35 (2015)13. - ISSN 0899-8418 - p. 4027 - 4040.
Drought index - Potential evapotranspiration - Probability distribution - SPEI - SPI - Standardized Precipitation Index
The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a well-reviewed meteorological drought index recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and its more recent climatic water balance variant, the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), both rely on selection of a univariate probability distribution to normalize the index, allowing for comparisons across climates. Choice of an improper probability distribution may impart bias to the index values, exaggerating or minimizing drought severity. This study compares a suite of candidate probability distributions for use in SPI and SPEI normalization using the 0.5° × 0.5° gridded Watch Forcing Dataset (WFD) at the continental scale, focusing on Europe. Several modifications to the SPI and SPEI methodology are proposed, as well as an updated procedure for evaluating SPI/SPEI goodness of fit based on the Shapiro-Wilk test. Candidate distributions for SPI organize into two groups based on their ability to model short-term accumulation (1-2 months) or long-term accumulation (>3 months). The two-parameter gamma distribution is recommended for general use when calculating SPI across all accumulation periods and regions within Europe, in agreement with previous studies. The generalized extreme value distribution is recommended when computing the SPEI, in disagreement with previous recommendations.
White adipose tissue reference network: a knowledge resource for exploring potential health-relevant relations
Kelder, T. ; Summer, G. ; Caspers, M. ; Schothorst, E.M. van; Keijer, J. ; Duivenvoorde, Loes ; Klaus, S. ; Volgt, A. ; Bohnert, L. ; Pico, C. ; Palou, A. ; Bonet, M.L. ; Dembinska-Kiec, A. ; Malczewska-Malec, M. ; Kieć-Wilk, Beata ; Bas, J.M. del; Caimari, A. ; Arola, L. ; Erk, M. van; Ommen, Ben van; Radonjic, M. - \ 2015
Genes & Nutrition 10 (2015)1. - ISSN 1555-8932
metabolic syndrome - high-fat - transcription factor - biological networks - insulin-secretion - gene-expression - cell biology - short-term - obesity - diet
Optimal health is maintained by interaction of multiple intrinsic and environmental factors at different levels of complexity-from molecular, to physiological, to social. Understanding and quantification of these interactions will aid design of successful health interventions. We introduce the reference network concept as a platform for multi-level exploration of biological relations relevant for metabolic health, by integration and mining of biological interactions derived from public resources and context-specific experimental data. A White Adipose Tissue Health Reference Network (WATRefNet) was constructed as a resource for discovery and prioritization of mechanism-based biomarkers for white adipose tissue (WAT) health status and the effect of food and drug compounds on WAT health status. The WATRefNet (6,797 nodes and 32,171 edges) is based on (1) experimental data obtained from 10 studies addressing different adiposity states, (2) seven public knowledge bases of molecular interactions, (3) expert's definitions of five physiologically relevant processes key to WAT health, namely WAT expandability, Oxidative capacity, Metabolic state, Oxidative stress and Tissue inflammation, and (4) a collection of relevant biomarkers of these processes identified by BIOCLAIMS ( http://bioclaims.uib.es ). The WATRefNet comprehends multiple layers of biological complexity as it contains various types of nodes and edges that represent different biological levels and interactions. We have validated the reference network by showing overrepresentation with anti-obesity drug targets, pathology-associated genes and differentially expressed genes from an external disease model dataset. The resulting network has been used to extract subnetworks specific to the above-mentioned expert-defined physiological processes. Each of these process-specific signatures represents a mechanistically supported composite biomarker for assessing and quantifying the effect of interventions on a physiological aspect that determines WAT health status. Following this principle, five anti-diabetic drug interventions and one diet intervention were scored for the match of their expression signature to the five biomarker signatures derived from the WATRefNet. This confirmed previous observations of successful intervention by dietary lifestyle and revealed WAT-specific effects of drug interventions. The WATRefNet represents a sustainable knowledge resource for extraction of relevant relationships such as mechanisms of action, nutrient intervention targets and biomarkers and for assessment of health effects for support of health claims made on food products.
One stop shop: backbones trees for important phytopathogenic genera: I (2014)
Hyde, K.D. ; Nilsson, R.H. ; Alias, S.A. ; Ariyawansa, H.A. ; Blair, J.E. ; Cai, L. ; Cock, A.W.A.M. de; Dissanayake, A.J. ; Glockling, S.L. ; Goonasekara, I.D. ; Gorczak, M. ; Hahn, M. ; Jayawardena, R.S. ; Kan, J.A.L. van; Laurence, M.H. ; Lévesque, C.A. ; Li, X. ; Liu, J.K. ; Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N. ; Manamgoda, D.S. ; Martin, F.N. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; McTaggart, A.R. ; Mortimer, P.E. ; Nair, P.V.R. ; Pawlowska, J. ; Rintoul, T.L. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Spies, C.F.J. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Taylor, P.W.J. ; Terhem, R.B. ; Udayanga, D. ; Vaghefi, N. ; Walther, G. ; Wilk, M. ; Wrzosek, M. ; Xu, J.C. ; Yan, J.Y. ; Zhou, N. - \ 2014
Fungal Diversity 67 (2014). - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 21 - 125.
internal transcribed spacer - ribosomal dna-sequences - vegetative compatibility groups - plant-pathogenic fungi - citrus black spot - spored graminicolous colletotrichum - sporisorium-macalpinomyces complex - fragment-length-polymorphisms - botrytis-cinerea popu
Many fungi are pathogenic on plants and cause significant damage in agriculture and forestry. They are also part of the natural ecosystem and may play a role in regulating plant numbers/density. Morphological identification and analysis of plant pathogenic fungi, while important, is often hampered by the scarcity of discriminatory taxonomic characters and the endophytic or inconspicuous nature of these fungi. Molecular (DNA sequence) data for plant pathogenic fungi have emerged as key information for diagnostic and classification studies, although hampered in part by non-standard laboratory practices and analytical methods. To facilitate current and future research, this study provides phylogenetic synopses for 25 groups of plant pathogenic fungi in the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mucormycotina (Fungi), and Oomycota, using recent molecular data, up-to-date names, and the latest taxonomic insights. Lineage-specific laboratory protocols together with advice on their application, as well as general observations, are also provided. We hope to maintain updated backbone trees of these fungal lineages over time and to publish them jointly as new data emerge. Researchers of plant pathogenic fungi not covered by the present study are invited to join this future effort. Bipolaris, Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeria, Botrytis, Choanephora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Diaporthe, Diplodia, Dothiorella, Fusarium, Gilbertella, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Neofusicoccum, Pestalotiopsis, Phyllosticta, Phytophthora, Puccinia, Pyrenophora, Pythium, Rhizopus, Stagonosporopsis, Ustilago and Verticillium are dealt with in this paper.
Fungal Planet description sheets: 154–213
Crous, P.W. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Guarro, J. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Bank, M. van der; Swart, W.J. ; Stchigel, A.M. ; Cano-Lira, J.F. ; Roux, J. ; Madrid, H. ; Damm, U. ; Wood, A.R. ; Shuttleworth, L.A. ; Hodges, C.S. ; Munster, M. ; Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M. de; Zúñiga-Estrada, L. ; Cruywagen, E.M. ; Hoog, G.S. de; Silvera, C. ; Najafzadeh, J. ; Davison, E.M. ; Davison, P.J.N. ; Barrett, M.D. ; Barrett, R.L. ; Manamgoda, D.S. ; Minnis, A.M. ; Kleczewski, N.M. ; Flory, S.L. ; Castlebury, L.A. ; Clay, K. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Maússe-Sitoe, S.N.D. ; Chen, S. ; Lechat, C. ; Hairaud, M. ; Lesage-Meessen, L. ; Pawlowska, J. ; Wilk, M. ; Sliwinska-Wyrzychowska, A. ; Metrak, M. ; Wrzosek, M. ; Pavlic-Zupanc, D. ; Maleme, H.M. ; Slippers, B. ; Mac Cormack, W.P. ; Archuby, D.I. ; Grünwald, N.J. ; Tellería, M.T. ; Dueñas, M. ; Martín, M.P. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Beer, Z.W. de; Perez, C.A. ; Gené, J. ; Marin-Felix, Y. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2013
Persoonia 31 (2013). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 188 - 296.
sp-nov - colletotrichum-sansevieriae - anamorph genus - south-africa - 1st report - phytophthora-ipomoeae - leaf-blight - genera - phylogeny - botryosphaeriaceae
Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium (Poland) and Stachybotrys oleronensis from Iris (France). Two species of Chrysosporium are described from Antarctica, namely C. magnasporum and C. oceanitesii. Finally, Licea xanthospora is described from Australia, Hypochnicium huinayensis from Chile and Custingophora blanchettei from Uruguay. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Neomycosphaerella from Pseudopentameris macrantha (South Africa), and Paramycosphaerella from Brachystegia sp. (Zimbabwe). Novel hyphomycete genera include Pseudocatenomycopsis from Rothmannia (Zambia), Neopseudocercospora from Terminalia (Zambia) and Neodeightoniella from Phragmites (South Africa), while Dimorphiopsis from Brachystegia (Zambia) represents a novel coelomycetous genus. Furthermore, Alanphillipsia is introduced as a new genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae with four species, A. aloes, A. aloeigena and A. aloetica from Aloe spp. and A. euphorbiae from Euphorbia sp. (South Africa). A new combination is also proposed for Brachysporium torulosum (Deightoniella black tip of banana) as Corynespora torulosa. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
Novel Multilayer IR-786-loaded Nanocarriers for Intracellular Delivering: Characterization, Imaging, and Internalization in Human Cancer Cell Lines
Bazylinska, U. ; Saczko, J. ; Zielinska, K. ; Wilk, K.A. - \ 2012
Chemistry Letters / Chemical Society of Japan 41 (2012)10. - ISSN 0366-7022 - p. 1354 - 1356.
We aimed to fabricate new oil-core polyelectrolyte-shell nanocapsules loaded with IR-786 cyanine, a third generation photosensitizer, and to evaluate their biocompatibility upon different human cancer cell lines, i.e., breast (MCF-7/WT), skin melanoma (MEWO), and lung (A549). The nanocarriers were fabricated via direct layer-by-layer adsorption of polyanionic poly(L-glutamic acid) sodium salt (PGA) and polycationic poly(L-lysine) (PLL) on a positively charged nanoemulsion template stabilized by N,N-bis[3,3'-(trimethylammonio)propyl]-dodecaneamide dimethylsulfate, C-12(TAPAMS)(2). All studied nanocapsules demonstrated good capacity for IR-786 encapsulation, cellular internalization, and low cytotoxicity.
Website Samenwerken aan Vaardigheden
Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, ; Poot, E.H. - \ 2011
GreenQ Improvement Centre, Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Priva, Wilk van der Sande en TNO
tuinbouw - innovaties - kennisoverdracht - kennisvalorisatie - technologie - glastuinbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - samenwerking - vaardigheden - nederland - horticulture - innovations - knowledge transfer - knowledge exploitation - technology - greenhouse horticulture - sustainability - cooperation - skills - netherlands
Website over het samenwerken aan vaardigheden met als doel de toepassing van nieuwe, duurzame technologieën in de tuinbouw te bevorderen. Iedere Nederlandse tuinbouwondernemer, technisch toeleverancier of voorlichter kan hiervoor nieuwe duurzame technologieën aandragen. Uit de geleverde ideeën worden jaarlijks vijf projectvoorstellen geformuleerd, die door de samenwerkingspartners als project worden uitgevoerd, de informatie die daaruit voort komt, wordt dan beschikbaar gesteld aan alle relevante partijen binnen de Nederlandse tuinbouwsector.
Angiogenesis in Balb/c mice under beta-carotene supplementation in diet
Razny, U. ; Polus, P. ; Kiec-wilk, B. ; Wator, L. ; Hartwich, J. ; Keijer, J. - \ 2010
Genes & Nutrition 5 (2010)1. - ISSN 1555-8932 - p. 9 - 16.
chemotaxis - activation
Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing ones. The most important steps in angiogenesis include detachment, proliferation, migration, homing and differentiation of vascular wall cells, which are mainly endothelial cells and their progenitors. The study focused on the effect of beta-carotene (BC) supplementation (12,000 mg/kg) in the diet on angiogenesis in Balb/c mice. Female Balb/c mice were fed for 5 weeks with two different diets: with BC or without BC supplementation. After 4 weeks of feeding, Balb/c mice were injected subcutaneously with two matrigel plugs with or without basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Six days later, the animals were killed, and the matrigel plugs were used for immunohistochemical staining with CD31 antibody and for gene expression analysis. Microarray and Real-Time PCR data showed down-regulation of genes involved in proliferation and up-regulation of genes encoding inhibitors of apoptosis, proteins regulating cell adhesion, matrix-degrading enzymes and proteins involved in the VEGF pathway. The results of this study demonstrated that BC proangiogenic activity (with or without bFGF) in vivo seemed to be more significantly associated with cells’ protection from apoptosis and their stimulation of chemotaxis/homing than cell proliferation.
Praktische teeltkennis paprika in een semigesloten kas 2008 : resultaten bij het Improvement Centre
Gelder, A. de; Driever, S.M. ; Wingerden, W.K.R.E. van; Nieboer, S. - \ 2009
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw 293) - 38
capsicum - capsicum annuum - teelt onder bescherming - teelt - gewasproductie - semi-gesloten kassen - glastuinbouw - capsicum - capsicum annuum - protected cultivation - cultivation - crop production - semi-closed greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture
In een afdeling van het Improvement Centre is in 2008 een proef met Paprika uitgevoerd waarbij voor de conditionering van het kasklimaat koele lucht boven het gewas kon worden geblazen. De warmtewisselaars – beschikbaar gesteld en geïnstalleerd door Wilk van der Sande- zijn dicht bij de bodem gemonteerd onder de kasgoot en de lucht wordt door verticale buizen boven het gewas in de kas geblazen, de koeling kon maximaal 400 W/m2 aan warmte uit de kas halen. De beheersing van de temperatuur resulteerde in minder opening van de luchtramen en een CO2 concentratie van gemiddeld iets meer dan 800 ppm, (minimaal 700 en maximaal 1000). Boven de 700 W/m2 instraling werd het scherm gesloten. Geteeld is de cultivar Spider met zaaidatum 1 november en plantdatum 21 december 2007. Als substraat is Maximum kokos gebruikt. In de teelt is bewust gewerkt aan beheersing van de plantbelasting door te snoeien of groen te oogsten als de plantbelasting te hoog werd voor de verwachte lichthoeveelheid in de volgende periode Deze strategie heeft positief gewerkt. De combinatie van conditionering van het kasklimaat en sturing van de plantbelasting heeft geresulteerd in een productie van 30.2 kg rode paprika en 3.3 kg groene en 1,4 kg klasse II. Het gemiddelde vruchtgewicht over de gehele teeltperiode was 183 gram. De grofheid van de vruchten was goed, alleen in de zomer daalde het vruchtgewicht oiv. hoge plantbelasting. Zetting ging in het algemeen spontaan. Wel zagen we dat vruchten die aanvankelijk leken te aborteren, bij voldoende aanbod van assimilaten weer uitgroeiden. Hierdoor kwam ook het lagere vruchtgewicht in de zomer. Bij koeling van bovenaf bleek een voldoende sterke en horizontaal gerichte luchtstroming van de koele lucht nodig te zijn om deze goed over de gehele kas te verdelen. De koele lucht moet goed kunnen mengen met de warme kaslucht om geen ongewenste neerwaartse beweging van koele lucht te krijgen. Tijdens de proef zijn daarom de uitblaas monden boven in de kas aangepast. Na de aanpassing was de temperatuur verdeling in de kas homogener. De productie is nagerekend m.b.v. modellen. Uit die berekeningen komt dat de productie in de eerste helft van de teelt lager is dan het model verwacht en in de tweede helft van de teelt juist hoger is. De periode van verhoogde productie komt overeen met de aanpassingen die zijn gedaan om de verdeling van de koele lucht te verbeteren. De proef heeft laten zien dat een meerproductie door conditionering en bewuste sturing van de plantbelasting te realiseren is in Paprika. Duidelijk is dat de voordelen van een hogere CO2 concentratie in de periode met veel licht pas in de tweede helft van de teelt een productie voordeel oplevert. In de periode maart-half mei zal bij Paprika in een geconditioneerde teelt nog geen productie voordeel zijn te halen
Nutritional factors and progenitor cell differentiation
Dembinska-Kiec, A. ; Polus, A. ; Grzybowska, J. ; Kiec-wilk, B. ; Balwierz, A. ; Keijer, J. ; Schmitz, G. - \ 2007
Genes & Nutrition 2 (2007)1. - ISSN 1555-8932 - p. 115 - 118.
beta-carotene - angiogenesis - apoptosis - transcription - receptor - neovascularization - chemotaxis - inhibition - activation - expression
|The chemotactic activity of beta-carotene in endothelial cell progenitors and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: A microarray analysis
Polus, A. ; Kiec-wilk, B. ; Hartwich, J. ; Balwierz, A. ; Stachura, J. ; Dyduch, G. ; Laidler, P. ; Zagajewski, J. ; Langman, T. ; Schmitz, G. ; Goralcsky, R. ; Wertz, K. ; Riss, G. ; Keijer, J. ; Dembinska-Kiec, A. - \ 2006
Experimental and clinical cardiology 11 (2006)2. - ISSN 1205-6626 - p. 117 - 122.
Objectives: Endothelial cells and their progenitors play an important role in angiogenesis that is essential for organogenesis and tissue remodelling, as well as for inflammatory responses and carcinogenesis in all periods of life. In the present study, the authors concentrated on the direct effect of beta-carotene (BC) on human umbilical cord-originated endothelial progenitor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods: BC uptake was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The effect on cell proliferation was measured based on bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Chemotaxis was performed in a Boyden chamber. The influence on tubular-like structure formation was investigated using a three-dimensional assay in Matriget (Becton Dickinson, USA) both in an in vitro and in vivo model. Changes in gene expression were analyzed using the microarray hybridization method. Quantitative gene expression was estimated using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Results: It was shown that BC, in the physiological range of concentrations found in human blood, is a potent activator of chemotaxis of endothelial cells. Microarray data analysis revealed that the genes involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, matrix reorganization and activation of chemotaxis were the most affected by BC genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells. These results were also confirmed in an in vivo angiogenesis model. Conclusion: BC, in the range of physiological concentrations, stimulates early steps of angiogenic activity of endothelial cells by activation of cellular migration, as well as by matrix reorganization and a decrease in cellular adhesion
Aphid Transmission and Buchnera sp. GroEL Affinity of a Potato leafroll virus RTD Deficient Mutant
Wilk, F. van der; Dullemans, A.M. ; Verbeek, M. ; Vega, J. ; Heuvel, J.F.J.M. van den - \ 2005
Fitopatologia Brasileira 30 (2005)3. - ISSN 0100-4158 - p. 259 - 266.
A new virus infecting Myzus persicae has a genome organization similar to the species of the genus Densovirus
Munster, M. van; Dullemans, A.M. ; Verbeek, M. ; Heuvel, J.F.J.M. van den; Reinbold, C. ; Brault, V. ; Clérivet, A. ; Wilk, F. van der - \ 2003
Journal of General Virology 84 (2003). - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 165 - 172.
complete nucleotide-sequence - periplaneta-fuliginosa - densonucleosis virus - parvoviruses - replication - expression - initiator - dna - transcription - alignment
The genomic sequence of a new icosahedral DNA virus infecting Myzus persicae has been determined. Analysis of 5499 nt of the viral genome revealed five open reading frames (ORFs) evenly distributed in the 5' half of both DNA strands. Three ORFs (ORF1-3) share the same strand, while two other ORFs (ORF4 and ORF5) are detected in the complementary sequence. The overall genomic organization is similar to that of species from the genus Densovirus. ORFs 1-3 most likely encode the non-structural proteins, since their putative products contain conserved replication motifs, NTP-binding domains and helicase domains similar to those found in the NS-1 protein of parvoviruses. The deduced amino acid sequences from ORFs 4 and 5 show sequence similarities with the structural proteins of the members of the genus Densovirus. These data indicate that this virus is a new species of the genus Densovirus in the family Parvoviridae. The virus was tentatively named Myzus persicae densovirus. The nucleotide sequence reported in this study appears in the EMBL, GenBank and DDBJ nucleotide sequence databases under accession number AY148187.
Characterization of a new densovirus infecting the green peach aphid Myzus persicae
Munster, M. van; Dullemans, A.M. ; Verbeek, M. ; Heuvel, J.F.J.M. van den; Reinbold, C. ; Brault, V. ; Clérivet, A. ; Wilk, F. van der - \ 2003
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 84 (2003). - ISSN 0022-2011 - p. 6 - 14.
parvo-like virus - bemisia-tabaci - homoptera - transmission - purification - aleyrodidae - endocytosis - proteins - disease
A new icosahedral DNA virus was isolated from aphids (Myzus persicae) that showed abnormal growth and development. The purified virus particles have a diameter of 20 nm and contain a single-stranded DNA molecule of approximately 5.7 kb. The viral particles are composed of five structural proteins (92, 85, 68, 64, and 57 kDa). As the main biophysical properties of this virus are similar to those of the members of the genus Densovirus it was tentatively named Myzus persicae densovirus (MpDNV). A PCR-based detection method and a polyclonal antiserum raised against MpDNV allowed the detection of the virus in a single-infected aphid. MpDNV is immunologically related to Junonia coenia densovirus, but not to other members of the subfamily Densovirinae. Biological assays showed that MpDNV could be both transmitted transovarially and horizontally via honeydew and saliva. MpDNV was able to infect whiteflies but not other aphid species tested.
Slabobbelblad en slakringnecrose, twee complexe ziekten
Verbeek, M. ; Wilk, F. van der - \ 2002
Gewasbescherming 33 (2002)2. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 49 - 51.
lactuca sativa - slasoorten - plantenziekten - plantenvirussen - diagnostische technieken - epidemiologie - vectoren - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - bladgroenten - lactuca sativa - lettuces - plant diseases - plant viruses - diagnostic techniques - epidemiology - vectors - plant pathogenic fungi - leafy vegetables
Onderzoek naar de vector van slabobbelblad en slakringnecrose, virusziekten die door bodemschimmels kunnen worden overgebracht
Sequence analysis and genomic organization of Aphid lethal paralysis virus: a new member of the family Dicistroviridae
Munster, M. van; Dullemans, A.M. ; Verbeek, M. ; Heuvel, J.F.J.M. van den; Clerivet, A. ; Wilk, F. van der - \ 2002
Journal of General Virology 83 (2002)12. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 3131 - 3138.
The complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of an aphid-infecting virus, Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV), has been determined. The genome is 9812 nt in length and contains two long open reading frames (ORFs), which are separated by an intergenic region of 163 nt. The first ORF (5' ORF) is preceded by an untranslated leader sequence of 506 nt, while an untranslated region of 571 nt follows the second ORF (3' ORF). The deduced amino acid sequences of the 5' ORF and 3' ORF products respectively showed similarity to the non-structural and structural proteins of members of the newly recognized genus Cripavirus (family Dicistroviridae). On the basis of the observed sequence similarities and identical genome organization, it is proposed that ALPV belongs to this genus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ALPV is most closely related to Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and groups in a cluster with Drosophila C virus and Cricket paralysis virus, while the other members of this genus are more distantly related. Infectivity experiments showed that ALPV can not only infect aphid species but is also able to infect the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, extending its host range to another family of the order Hemiptera