Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Can multi-use of the sea be safe? A framework for risk assessment of multi-use at sea
Hoof, L. van; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Banach, J.L. ; Röckmann, C. ; Goossen, M. - \ 2019
Ocean & Coastal Management (2019). - ISSN 0964-5691
Multi-use at sea - Risk assessment - Risk governance - Seaweed production - Wind farms

By 2050 the world population is expected to reach 10 billion people. This population needs food, water and energy. Increasingly, opportunities are sought out at sea to accommodate these needs. As there is already competition for space, especially in the near-shore, opportunities for multi-use, including the combination of, for example, food and energy production in a single location, are sought. One issue that needs to be addressed to allow for multi-use at sea is safety. Existing frameworks for (marine) risk assessment tend to be rather sector specific and, although existing models and frameworks for risk analysis provide useful elements for an integrated analysis, none of the approaches fully caters for the need of having a framework based on a cyclical process of stakeholder input in all steps of the process of risk identification, risk management and risk evaluation and communication, identifying actions to be taken and providing tools useful in each of the steps, while integrating the three perspectives of maritime safety, food (and feed) safety, and environmental impact assessment and the different perspectives of the actors involved. This study developed a common framework for the risk assessment of multi-use at sea, consisting of six steps (Exploring, Understanding, Appraising, Deciding, Implementing and Evaluating & Communication). The framework encompasses and integrates an analysis of food and feed safety aspects, the safety of people and equipment, and environmental safety aspects. For each step, actions are defined, tools that can be of help to stakeholders are presented, and stakeholder participation measures are described. The framework is iterative and dynamic in its nature; with constant communication and evaluation of progress, decisions can be taken to either take a step forward or back. The framework is developed to assist operators and producers, policymakers, and other stakeholders in assessing and managing risks of multi-use at sea.

Parametrizing Horizontally-Averaged Wind and Temperature Profiles in the Urban Roughness Sublayer
Theeuwes, Natalie E. ; Ronda, Reinder J. ; Harman, Ian N. ; Christen, Andreas ; Grimmond, Sue B. - \ 2019
Boundary-Layer Meteorology 173 (2019)3. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 321 - 348.
Roughness sublayer - Temperature profile - Urban canopy - Wind profile

Tower-based measurements from within and above the urban canopy in two cities are used to evaluate several existing approaches that parametrize the vertical profiles of wind speed and temperature within the urban roughness sublayer (RSL). It is shown that current use of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) in numerical weather prediction models can be improved upon by using RSL corrections when modelling the vertical profiles of wind speed and friction velocity in the urban RSL using MOST. Using anisotropic building morphological information improves the agreement between observed and parametrized profiles of wind speed and momentum fluxes for selected methods. The largest improvement is found when using dynamically-varying aerodynamic roughness length and displacement height. Adding a RSL correction to MOST, however, does not improve the parametrization of the vertical profiles of temperature and heat fluxes. This is expected since sources and sinks of heat are assumed uniformly distributed through a simple flux boundary condition in all RSL formulations, yet are highly patchy and anisotropic in a real urban context. Our results can be used to inform the choice of surface-layer representations for air quality, dispersion, and numerical weather prediction applications in the urban environment.

Mutagenesis of odorant coreceptor Orco fully disrupts foraging but not oviposition behaviors in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta
Fandino, Richard A. ; Alexander, H. ; Bisch-Knaden, S. ; Zhang, J. ; Bucks, S. ; Nguyen, T.A.T. ; Schröder, K. ; Werckenthin, Achim ; Rybak, J. ; Stengl, Monika ; Knaden, M. ; Hansson, Bill S. ; Groβe-Wilde, Ewald - \ 2019
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019)31. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 15677 - 15685.
CRISPR-Cas9 - Insect olfaction - Insect-plant interactions - Manduca sexta - Orco

The hawkmoth Manduca sexta and one of its preferred hosts in the North American Southwest, Datura wrightii, share a model insect-plant relationship based on mutualistic and antagonistic life-history traits. D. wrightii is the innately preferred nectar source and oviposition host for M. sexta. Hence, the hawkmoth is an important pollinator while the M. sexta larvae are specialized herbivores of the plant. Olfactory detection of plant volatiles plays a crucial role in the behavior of the hawkmoth. In vivo, the odorant receptor coreceptor (Orco) is an obligatory component for the function of odorant receptors (ORs), a major receptor family involved in insect olfaction. We used CRISPR-Cas9 targeted mutagenesis to knock out (KO) the MsexOrco gene to test the consequences of a loss of OR-mediated olfaction in an insect-plant relationship. Neurophysiological characterization revealed severely reduced antennal and antennal lobe responses to representative odorants emitted by D. wrightii. In a wind-tunnel setting with a flowering plant, Orco KO hawkmoths showed disrupted flight orientation and an ablated proboscis extension response to the natural stimulus. The Orco KO gravid female displayed reduced attraction toward a nonflowering plant. However, more than half of hawkmoths were able to use characteristic odor-directed flight orientation and oviposit on the host plant. Overall, OR-mediated olfaction is essential for foraging and pollination behaviors, but plant-seeking and oviposition behaviors are sustained through additional OR-independent sensory cues.

Oceanic heat transport into the Arctic under high and low CO 2 forcing
Linden, Eveline C. van der; Bars, Dewi Le; Bintanja, Richard ; Hazeleger, Wilco - \ 2019
Climate Dynamics 53 (2019)7-8. - ISSN 0930-7575 - p. 4763 - 4780.
Arctic climate change - Equilibrium climate states - Gyre transport - Nordic Seas - Oceanic heat transport

Enhanced ocean heat transport into the Arctic is linked to stronger future Arctic warming and polar amplification. To quantify the impact of ocean heat transport on Arctic climate, it is imperative to understand how its magnitude and the associated mechanisms change in other climate states. This paper therefore assesses the ocean heat transport into the Arctic at 70 N for climates forced with a broad range of carbon dioxide concentration levels, ranging from one-fourth to four times modern values. We focused on ocean heat transports through the Arctic entrances (Bering Strait, Canadian Archipelago, and Nordic Seas) and identified relative contributions of volume and temperature to these changes. The results show that ocean heat transport differences across the five climate states are dominated by heat transport changes in the Nordic Seas, although in the warmest climate state heat transport through the Bering Strait plays an almost equally important role. This is primarily caused by changes in horizontal currents owing to anomalous wind responses and to differential advection of thermal anomalies. Changes in sea ice cover play a prominent role by modulating the surface heat fluxes and the impact of wind stresses on ocean currents. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and its associated heat transport play a more modest role in the ocean heat transport into the Arctic. The net effect of these changes is that the poleward ocean heat transport at 70 N strongly increases from the coldest climate to the warmest climate state.

ENSPRESO - an open, EU-28 wide, transparent and coherent database of wind, solar and biomass energy potentials
Ruiz, P. ; Nijs, W. ; Tarvydas, D. ; Sgobbi, A. ; Zucker, A. ; Pilli, R. ; Jonsson, R. ; Camia, A. ; Thiel, C. ; Hoyer-Klick, C. ; Longa, F. Dalla; Kober, T. ; Badger, J. ; Volker, P. ; Elbersen, B.S. ; Brosowski, A. ; Thrän, D. - \ 2019
Energy Strategy Reviews 26 (2019). - ISSN 2211-467X
Biomass - Energy system model - National - Open data - Potentials - Regional - Renewable - Solar - Wind

Data on the potential generation of energy from wind, solar and biomass is crucial for analysing their development, as it sets the limits on how much additional capacity it is feasible to install. This paper presents the methodologies used for the development of ENSPRESO, ENergy System Potentials for Renewable Energy SOurces, an EU-28 wide, open dataset for energy models on renewable energy potentials, at national and regional levels for the 2010–2050 period. In ENSPRESO, coherent GIS-based land-restriction scenarios are developed. For wind, resource evaluation also considers setback distances, as well as high resolution geo-spatial wind speed data. For solar, potentials are derived from irradiation data and available area for solar applications. Both wind and solar have separately a potential electricity production which is equivalent to three times the EU's 2016 electricity demand, with wind onshore and solar requiring 16% and 1.4% of total land, respectively. For biomass, agriculture, forestry and waste sectors are considered. Their respective sustainable potentials are equivalent to a minimum 10%, 1.5% and 1% of the total EU primary energy use. ENSPRESO can enrich the results of any energy model (e.g. JRC-EU-TIMES) by improving its analyses of the competition and complementarity of energy technologies.

In search of pipistrelle bats: study aims to reveal impact of offshore wind turbines
Lagerveld, S. - \ 2019

Wind turbines on the North Sea are hazardous obstacles for migrating bats. By equipping 500 of the animals with transmitters, WUR is trying to assess the consequences of this. Resource spent a morning with researcher Sander Lagerveld’s bat team.

The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 : Displacement and population level effects in 5 selected species
Kooten, Tobias van; Soudijn, Floor ; Tulp, Ingrid ; Chen, Chun ; Benden, Daniel ; Leopold, Mardik - \ 2019
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C063/19) - 116
Improving the precision and accuracy of animal population estimates with aerial image object detection
Eikelboom, Jasper A.J. ; Wind, Johan ; Ven, Eline van de; Kenana, Lekishon M. ; Schroder, Bradley ; Knegt, Henrik J. de; Langevelde, Frank van; Prins, Herbert H.T. - \ 2019
Methods in Ecology and Evolution (2019). - ISSN 2041-210X
computer vision - convolutional neural network - deep machine learning - drones - game census - image recognition - savanna - wildlife survey

Animal population sizes are often estimated using aerial sample counts by human observers, both for wildlife and livestock. The associated methods of counting remained more or less the same since the 1970s, but suffer from low precision and low accuracy of population estimates. Aerial counts using cost-efficient Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or microlight aircrafts with cameras and an automated animal detection algorithm can potentially improve this precision and accuracy. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the multi-class convolutional neural network RetinaNet in detecting elephants, giraffes and zebras in aerial images from two Kenyan animal counts. The algorithm detected 95% of the number of elephants, 91% of giraffes and 90% of zebras that were found by four layers of human annotation, of which it correctly detected an extra 2.8% of elephants, 3.8% giraffes and 4.0% zebras that were missed by all humans, while detecting only 1.6 to 5.0 false positives per true positive. Furthermore, the animal detections by the algorithm were less sensitive to the sighting distance than humans were. With such a high recall and precision, we posit it is feasible to replace manual aerial animal count methods (from images and/or directly) by only the manual identification of image bounding boxes selected by the algorithm and then use a correction factor equal to the inverse of the undercounting bias in the calculation of the population estimates. This correction factor causes the standard error of the population estimate to increase slightly compared to a manual method, but this increase can be compensated for when the sampling effort would increase by 23%. However, an increase in sampling effort of 160% to 1,050% can be attained with the same expenses for equipment and personnel using our proposed semi-automatic method compared to a manual method. Therefore, we conclude that our proposed aerial count method will improve the accuracy of population estimates and will decrease the standard error of population estimates by 31% to 67%. Most importantly, this animal detection algorithm has the potential to outperform humans in detecting animals from the air when supplied with images taken at a fixed rate.

The ecology of infrastructure decommissioning in the North Sea: what we need to know and how to achieve it
Fowler, A.M. ; Jørgensen, A.M. ; Coolen, J.W.P. ; Jones, D.O.B. ; Svendsen, J.C. ; Brabant, R. ; Rumes, B. ; Degraer, S. - \ 2019
ICES Journal of Marine Science (2019). - ISSN 1054-3139 - 18 p.
artificial reefs - biodiversity - conservation - decommissioning - ecosystem - marine policy - North Sea - offshore infrastructure - platform - sustainability - wind farm
As decommissioning of oil and gas (O&G) installations intensifies in the North Sea, and worldwide, debate rages regarding the fate of these novel habitats and their associated biota—a debate that has important implications for future decommissioning of offshore wind farms (OWFs). Calls to relax complete removal requirements in some circumstances and allow part of an O&G installation to be left in the marine environment are increasing. Yet knowledge regarding the biological communities that develop on these structures and their ecological role in the North Sea is currently insufficient to inform such decommissioning decisions. To focus debate regarding decommissioning policy and guide ecological research, we review environmental policy objectives in the region, summarize existing knowledge regarding ecological aspects of decommissioning for both O&G and OWF installations, and identify approaches to address knowledge gaps through science–industry collaboration. We find that in some cases complete removal will conflict with other policies regarding protection and restoration of reefs, as well as the conservation of species within the region. Key ecological considerations that are rarely considered during decommissioning decisions are: (i) provision of reef habitat, (ii) productivity of offshore ecosystems, (iii) enhancement of biodiversity, (iv) protection of the seabed from trawling, and (v) enhancement of connectivity. Knowledge gaps within these areas will best be addressed using industry infrastructure and vessels for scientific investigations, re-analysis of historical data held by industry, scientific training of industry personnel, joint research funding opportunities, and trial decommissioning projects.
Oil and gas platforms as artificial substrates for epibenthic North Sea fauna: Effects of location and depth
Schutter, Miriam ; Dorenbosch, Martijn ; Driessen, Floor M.F. ; Lengkeek, Wouter ; Bos, Oscar G. ; Coolen, Joop W.P. - \ 2019
Journal of Sea Research 153 (2019). - ISSN 1385-1101
Hard substrates - benthos - species richness - ROV videos - offshore constructions
Offshore oil and gas platforms, shipwrecks and wind farms are known to act as artificial reefs, attracting a broad range of marine species such as algae, invertebrate species and fish. Using Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) videos made for technical inspection of eight Dutch and nine Danish oil and gas platforms, we characterize the abundance and diversity of invertebrates and fish species found on or around these artificial hard substrates. Dutch platforms located in the southern part of the North Sea were at depths ranging from 26 to 46 meters, whereas Danish platforms located about 400 km further north were deeper (40 – 66 m). A total of 38 taxa were identified. The most common species were Mytilus edulis (Mollusca), Metridium senile (Cnidaria) and Asterias rubens (Echinodermata). One non-indigenous species was identified: Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora). A significant clustering of species communities was found based on geographical location: a southern cluster close to the Dutch shoreline and a northern cluster near Denmark (p=0.01). Species diversity was not significantly different between geographical clusters; however, average Braun-Blanquet abundance was significantly higher on in the northern cluster (p<0.05). Invertebrate and fish communities did not change significantly with depth. However, depth zone was a significant clustering factor (p=0.01): communities closer to the seafloor (maximum depth minus 5 m) were characterized by higher species diversity and species richness compared to communities found closer to the surface (<10 m). Future research should focus on the potential role of habitat complexity, substrate orientation and type, and inter-specific relations in explaining the different communities on offshore platforms.
Ecology of the brown crab (Cancer pagurus) : and production potential for passive fisheries in Dutch offshore wind farms
Tonk, L. ; Rozemeijer, M.J.C. - \ 2019
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C064/19A) - 48
Sky view factor calculations and its application in urban heat island studies
Dirksen, M. ; Ronda, R.J. ; Theeuwes, N.E. ; Pagani, G.A. - \ 2019
Urban Climate 30 (2019). - ISSN 2212-0955
Netherlands - Sky view factor - UHI - Urban planning

The sky view factor (SVF) is essential to describe the urban climatology at scales below 100m. This proxy for net radiation depends on the height of the obstacles in its surroundings. The SVF was calculated from a rasterized point cloud height dataset (with 6 − 10 points per m2). The resulting SVF depends on grid-resolution, search radius and number of directions. Previous research related the diurnal maximum urban heat island (UHI) of the canopy layer to the diurnal temperature range, solar irradiance, wind speed, vegetation fraction and SVF. The goal of this study is to determine the sensitivity of the SVF and the impact on the UHI. Within the Netherlands a test area of 70km2 was selected, including: urban areas, meadows and forests. There is a high sensitivity for grid-resolution. Therefore the impact of the SVFs grid resolution on the maximum UHI is explored. Results show that the fourth largest city within the Netherlands, Utrecht, has a mean diurnal maximum UHI of 3.1 °C using a 1m SVF resolution. But, with a 3m SVF resolution the UHI is on average 0.6 °C lower. This highlights the significance of a fine grid resolution which can capture houses, alleys and trees.

Analysis of urban rainfall from hourly to seasonal scales using high-resolution radar observations in the Netherlands
Manola, Iris ; Steeneveld, Gert Jan ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Holtslag, Albert A.M. - \ 2019
International Journal of Climatology (2019). - ISSN 0899-8418
extreme rainfall - rain radar observations - synoptic weather types - urban rainfall

In this article an analysis of urban rainfall from hourly to seasonal scales is conducted for the Netherlands, with a focus on its capital, Amsterdam. In addition, the potential of synoptic weather types and local wind directions to categorize extreme rainfall in Amsterdam is assessed. An analysis of gauge-adjusted daily radar rainfall retrievals with 1 km spatial resolution for 10 years shows that rainfall is enhanced over Dutch cities compared to their rural surroundings, with a maximum of a 14.2% increase over the largest cities in winter. The annual cumulative rainfall in Amsterdam appears to be significantly higher compared to its surroundings. This is due both to the higher frequency of occurrence of urban rainfall and to the higher hourly mean intensities. Extreme hourly rainfall rates appear to be affected by urban areas only in summer. Diurnal and weekly rainfall cycles do not reveal any significant urban influence. A wind direction analysis reveals that extreme rainfall events can primarily be attributed to westerly and next to southerly air masses. An analysis of the Jenkinson and Collinson (JC) and the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) weather types with rainfall and extreme rainfall events reveals that the JC weather types are more indicative of situations associated with rainfall extremes, whereas the DWD weather types are more indicative of situations resulting in higher accumulated rainfall amounts.

Trends in and closure of the atmospheric angular momentum budget in the 20th century in ERA-20C
Veerman, Menno A. ; Heerwaarden, Chiel C. van - \ 2019
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society (2019). - ISSN 0035-9009 - 14 p.
20th century - angular momentum - balance - budget - ERA-20C - trends

It is well known that global warming in the 20th century has influenced the global circulation of the atmosphere. Atmospheric angular momentum (AAM), a measure of the rotation of the atmosphere around the Earth's axis, is a useful quantity to investigate changes in the global atmospheric circulation. In this study, 20th century trends in the AAM budget are determined using the ERA-20C reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). In addition, the closure of the AAM budget is determined to assess the ability of ERA-20C to conserve angular momentum. The total AAM has increased in the 20th century, associated mainly with an increasing relative (zonal wind) AAM in most of the stratosphere and the tropical upper troposphere, and a poleward redistribution in the midlatitudes. These trends can be related to the warming in the troposphere and cooling in the lower stratosphere found in this study, likely caused by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Ω-AAM, representing the rotation of the atmosphere along with the Earth, shows no clear trend, but a spurious peak around 1920. This peak is caused by a global increase in surface pressure and is considered an artefact of changes in the amount of assimilated observations. It is also found that the AAM budget is not well closed in ERA-20C, which is mainly the result of the assimilation of observations during production of the reanalysis. The trends in the AAM budget in ERA-20C are likely affected by changes in the number of assimilated observations and should be validated with other reanalyses in further research.

European mega-heatwaves linked to drought
Vila-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi ; Heerwaarden, Chiel van; Teuling, Ryan - \ 2019

Heatwaves in Europe have become increasingly frequent and intense in recent years. This summer, Western Europe has already been hit by two severe heatwaves. Researchers from Ghent University and Wageningen University & Research have found a common ingredient of such European mega-heatwaves: drought conditions in the regions the wind blows from.

Boven de stad is het nog heter
Heusinkveld, Bert ; Krol, Maarten ; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan - \ 2019

Hitte-eiland Een stad wordt warmer dan het buitengebied, door al die stenen en een gebrek aan wind. Maar tot hoe hoog gaat dat ‘hitte-eiland’ door? Onderzoekers deden unieke proeven, in hartje Amsterdam.

Alarm over smog: risico voor de gezondheid
Heusinkveld, Bert ; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan - \ 2019

In heel Nederland is de kans op zware smog door de hitte en de wind uit het Ruhrgebied zo groot dat de 'alarmdrempel' wordt bereikt. Niet alleen astmapatiënten krijgen last, maar iedereen loopt risico.

Alarm over smog: risico voor de gezondheid
Steeneveld, Gert-Jan ; Heusinkveld, Bert - \ 2019

In heel Nederland is de kans op zware smog door de hitte en de wind uit het Ruhrgebied zo groot dat de 'alarmdrempel' wordt bereikt. Niet alleen astmapatiënten krijgen last, maar iedereen loopt risico.

Low-level stratiform clouds and dynamical features observed within the southern West African monsoon
Dione, Cheikh ; Lohou, Fabienne ; Lothon, Marie ; Adler, Bianca ; Babić, Karmen ; Kalthoff, Norbert ; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier ; Bezombes, Yannick ; Gabella, Omar - \ 2019
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19 (2019)13. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 8979 - 8997.

During the boreal summer, the monsoon season that takes place in West Africa is accompanied by low stratus clouds over land that stretch from the Guinean coast several hundred kilometers inland. Numerical climate and weather models need finer description and knowledge of cloud macrophysical characteristics and of the dynamical and thermodynamical structures occupying the lowest troposphere, in order to be properly evaluated in this region. The Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field experiment, which took place in summer 2016, addresses this knowledge gap. Low-level atmospheric dynamics and stratiform low-level cloud macrophysical properties are analyzed using in situ and remote sensing measurements continuously collected from 20 June to 30 July at Savè, Benin, roughly 180 km from the coast. The macrophysical characteristics of the stratus clouds are deduced from a ceilometer, an infrared cloud camera, and cloud radar. Onset times, evolution, dissipation times, base heights, and thickness are evaluated. The data from an ultra-high-frequency (UHF) wind profiler, a microwave radiometer, and an energy balance station are used to quantify the occurrence and characteristics of the monsoon flow, the nocturnal low-level jet, and the cold air mass inflow propagating northward from the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. The results show that these dynamical structures are very regularly observed during the entire 41 d documented period. Monsoon flow is observed every day during our study period. The so-called "maritime inflow" and the nocturnal low-level jet are also systematic features in this area. According to synoptic atmospheric conditions, the maritime inflow reaches Savè around 18:00-19:00 UTC on average. This timing is correlated with the strength of the monsoon flow. This time of arrival is close to the time range of the nocturnal low-level jet settlement. As a result, these phenomena are difficult to distinguish at the Savè site. The low-level jet occurs every night, except during rain events, and is associated 65 % of the time with low stratus clouds. Stratus clouds form between 22:00 and 06:00 UTC at an elevation close to the nocturnal low-level jet core height. The cloud base height, 310±30 m above ground level (a.g.l.), is rather stationary during the night and remains below the jet core height. The cloud top height, at 640±100 m a.g.l., is typically found above the jet core. The nocturnal low-level jet, low-level stratiform clouds, monsoon flow, and maritime inflow reveal significant day-to-day and intra-seasonal variability during the summer given the importance of the different monsoon phases and synoptic atmospheric conditions. Distributions of strength, depth, onset time, breakup time, etc. are quantified here. These results contribute to satisfy the main goals of DACCIWA and allow a conceptual model of the dynamical structures in the lowest troposphere over the southern part of West Africa.

Large-Eddy Simulations of the Steady Wintertime Antarctic Boundary Layer
Linden, Steven J.A. van der; Edwards, John M. ; Heerwaarden, Chiel C. van; Vignon, Etienne ; Genthon, Christophe ; Petenko, Igor ; Baas, Peter ; Jonker, Harmen J.J. ; Wiel, Bas J.H. van de - \ 2019
Boundary-Layer Meteorology 173 (2019)2. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 165 - 192.
Antarctic boundary layer - Large-eddy simulations - Long-lived stable boundary layer - Subsidence heating

Observations of two typical contrasting weakly stable and very stable boundary layers from the winter at Dome C station, Antarctica, are used as a benchmark for two centimetre-scale-resolution large-eddy simulations. By taking the Antarctic winter, the effects of the diurnal cycle are eliminated, enabling the study of the long-lived steady stable boundary layer. With its homogeneous, flat snow surface, and extreme stabilities, the location is a natural laboratory for studies on the long-lived stable boundary layer. The two simulations differ only in the imposed geostrophic wind speed, which is identified as the main deciding factor for the resulting regime. In general, a good correspondence is found between the observed and simulated profiles of mean wind speed and temperature. Discrepancies in the temperature profiles are likely due to the exclusion of radiative transfer in the current simulations. The extreme stabilities result in a considerable contrast between the stable boundary layer at the Dome C site and that found at typical mid-latitudes. The boundary-layer height is found to range from approximately 50m to just 5m in the most extreme case. Remarkably, heating of the boundary layer by subsidence may result in thermal equilibrium of the boundary layer in which the associated heating is balanced by the turbulent cooling towards the surface. Using centimetre-scale resolutions, accurate large-eddy simulations of the extreme stabilities encountered in Antarctica appear to be possible. However, future simulations should aim to include radiative transfer and sub-surface heat transport to increase the degree of realism of these types of simulations.

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