Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Composting dairy cattle feces at Indonesian small-scale dairy farmsa : results of a composting trial in Lembang Sub-District, West Java
    Sefeedpari, Paria ; Vries, Marion de; Buisonjé, Fridtjof de; Suharyono, Deni ; Wouters, Bram ; Zahra, Windi Al - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 1262) - 25
    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of composting different ratios of fresh dairy cow feces and amendment material on the composition and the cost price of compost. To this end, mass balance, nutrients losses and the costs of composting were analysed in two composting trials with different ratios of cattle feces to dry amendment (‘postal’, i.e. broiler manure mixed with bedding material) in a practical farm and experimental farm in Lembang Sub-District, West Java, Indonesia. Results showed that composting reduced the weight of input materials and increased the dry matter content, thereby increasing the concentration of nutrients (total nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P)) in the final compost product compared to the initial mixture. Much N was lost during composting, particularly mineral N. Extending the composting period to eight weeks further increased the DM content and resulted in a more stable compost. Using more amendment material (postal) in the initial mixture or extending the composting period, however, led to a higher cost price of compost. It was concluded that reducing the amount of amendment material (postal) and shortening the length of the composting period can reduce the cost price of compost, but may affect the quality of the final compost product. Results showed larger differences between farms than between ratios of cow feces and amendment material, suggesting that compost management practices play an important role.
    Association of antimicrobial usage with faecal abundance of aph(3’)-III, ermB, sul2 and tetW resistance genes in veal calves in three European countries
    Yang, Dongsheng ; Gompel, Liese Van; Luiken, Roosmarijn E.C. ; Sanders, Pim ; Joosten, Philip ; Heijnsbergen, Eri van; Wouters, Inge M. ; Scherpenisse, Peter ; Chauvin, Claire ; Wadepohl, Katharina ; Greve, Gerdit D. ; Jongerius-Gortemaker, Betty G.M. ; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H.G. ; Soumet, Christophe ; Skarżyńska, Magdalena ; Juraschek, Katharina ; Fischer, Jennie ; Wasyl, Dariusz ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Dewulf, Jeroen ; Schmitt, Heike ; Mevius, Dik J. ; Heederik, Dick J.J. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. - \ 2020
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 56 (2020)4. - ISSN 0924-8579
    Antimicrobial resistance - qPCR - Resistance genes - Risk factors - Veal calves

    Background: High antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in veal calves remain a source of concern. As part of the EFFORT project, the association between AMU and the abundance of faecal antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in veal calves in three European countries was determined. Methods: In 2015, faecal samples of veal calves close to slaughter were collected from farms located in France, Germany and the Netherlands (20 farms in France, 20 farms in the Netherlands and 21 farms in Germany; 25 calves per farm). Standardized questionnaires were used to record AMU and farm characteristics. In total, 405 faecal samples were selected for DNA extraction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to quantify the abundance (16S normalized concentration) of four ARGs [aph(3’)-III, ermB, sul2 and tetW] encoding for resistance to frequently used antimicrobials in veal calves. Multiple linear mixed models with random effects for country and farm were used to relate ARGs to AMU and farm characteristics. Results: A significant positive association was found between the use of trimethoprim/sulfonamides and the concentration of sul2 in faeces from veal calves. A higher weight of calves on arrival at the farm was negatively associated with aph(3’)-III and ermB. Lower concentrations of aph(3’)-III were found at farms with non-commercial animals present. Furthermore, farms using only water for the cleaning of stables had a significantly lower abundance of faecal ermB and tetW compared with other farms. Conclusion: A positive association was found between the use of trimethoprim/sulfonamides and the abundance of sul2 in faeces in veal calves. Additionally, other relevant risk factors associated with ARGs in veal calves were identified, such as weight on arrival at the farm and cleaning practices.

    Divergent evolution of pcf/scr74 effectors in oomycetes is associated with distinct recognition patterns in solanaceous plants
    Lin, Xiao ; Wang, Shumei ; Rond, Laura de; Bertolin, Nicoletta ; Wouters, Roland H.M. ; Wouters, Doret ; Domazakis, Emmanouil ; Bitew, Mulusew Kassa ; Win, Joe ; Dong, Suomeng ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Birch, Paul ; Kamoun, Sophien ; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A. - \ 2020
    mBio 11 (2020)3. - ISSN 2161-2129 - p. 1 - 12.
    Apoplastic effector - MAMP - Phytophthora infestans - Potato late blight - Surface immune receptor

    Plants deploy cell surface receptors known as pattern-recognition re ceptors (PRRs) that recognize non-self molecules from pathogens and microbes to defend against invaders. PRRs typically recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that are usually widely conserved, some even across kingdoms. Here, we report an oomycete-specific family of small secreted cysteine-rich (SCR) proteins that displays divergent patterns of sequence variation in the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. A subclass that includes the conserved effector PcF from Phytophthora cactorum activates immunity in a wide range of plant species. In contrast, the more diverse SCR74 subclass is specific to P. infestans and tends to trigger immune responses only in a limited number of wild potato genotypes. The SCR74 response was recently mapped to a G-type lectin receptor kinase (GLecRK) locus in the wild potato Solanum microdontum subsp. gigantophyllum. The G-LecRK locus displays a high diversity in Solanum host species compared to other solanaceous plants. We propose that the diversification of the SCR74 proteins in P. infestans is driven by a fast coevolutionary arms race with cell surface immune receptors in wild potato, which contrasts the presumed slower dynamics between conserved apoplastic effectors and PRRs. Understanding the molecular determinants of plant immune responses to these divergent molecular patterns in oomycetes is expected to contribute to deploying multiple layers of disease resistance in crop plants. IMPORTANCE Immune receptors at the plant cell surface can recognize invading microbes. The perceived microbial molecules are typically widely conserved and therefore the matching surface receptors can detect a broad spectrum of pathogens. Here we describe a family of Phytophthora small extracellular proteins that consists of conserved subfamilies that are widely recognized by solanaceous plants. Remarkably, one subclass of SCR74 proteins is highly diverse, restricted to the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans and is specifically detected in wild potato plants. The diversification of this subfamily exhibits signatures of a coevolutionary arms race with surface receptors in potato. Insights into the molecular interaction between these potato-specific receptors and the recognized Phytophthora proteins are expected to contribute to disease resistance breeding in potato.

    RLP/K enrichment sequencing; a novel method to identify receptor-like protein (RLP) and receptor-like kinase (RLK) genes
    Lin, Xiao ; Armstrong, Miles ; Baker, Katie ; Wouters, Doret ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Wolters, Pieter J. ; Hein, Ingo ; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A. - \ 2020
    New Phytologist 227 (2020)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1264 - 1276.
    genotyping by sequencing (GBS) - pattern recognition receptor (PRR) - Phytophthora infestans - potato - receptor-like kinase (RLK) - receptor-like protein (RLP) - RenSeq - RLP/K enrichment sequencing (RLP/KSeq)

    The identification of immune receptors in crop plants is time-consuming but important for disease control. Previously, resistance gene enrichment sequencing (RenSeq) was developed to accelerate mapping of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) genes. However, resistances mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) remain less utilized. Here, our pipeline shows accelerated mapping of PRRs. Effectoromics leads to precise identification of plants with target PRRs, and subsequent RLP/K enrichment sequencing (RLP/KSeq) leads to detection of informative single nucleotide polymorphisms that are linked to the trait. Using Phytophthora infestans as a model, we identified Solanum microdontum plants that recognize the apoplastic effectors INF1 or SCR74. RLP/KSeq in a segregating Solanum population confirmed the localization of the INF1 receptor on chromosome 12, and led to the rapid mapping of the response to SCR74 to chromosome 9. By using markers obtained from RLP/KSeq in conjunction with additional markers, we fine-mapped the SCR74 receptor to a 43-kbp G-LecRK locus. Our findings show that RLP/KSeq enables rapid mapping of PRRs and is especially beneficial for crop plants with large and complex genomes. This work will enable the elucidation and characterization of the nonNLR plant immune receptors and ultimately facilitate informed resistance breeding.

    Zoektocht naar alternatieven voor soja als vervanger van dierlijk eiwit
    Nieuwland, Maaike ; Klaassen, Niels ; Kuiper, Nadine ; Thijssens, Miel ; Wouters, Aaron ; Schaeffer, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Zoektocht naar vervangers dierlijk eiwit : Alternatieven voor soja
    Nieuwland, M. ; Klaassen, Niels ; Kuiper, Nadine ; Thijssens, Miel ; Wouters, Aaron ; Schaeffer, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Voedingsindustrie : vakblad 27 (2020)3. - ISSN 2213-5758 - p. 40 - 43.
    Steeds meer consumenten stappen, mede uit duurzaamheidsoverwegingen, over naar een dieet met minder vlees. De markt voor vleesvervangers groeit in volume, kwaliteit en variatie. Het overgrote deel van deze vleesalternatieven bestaat uit soja, vaak in combinatie met gluten. Maar soja als vleesvervanger is niet zaligmakend. Wat zijn goede alternatieven?
    Effects of feeding and manure management interventions on technical and environmental performance of Indonesian dairy farms : Results of a pilot study in Lembang Sub-District, West Java
    Vries, Marion de; Wouters, Bram ; Suharyono, Deni ; Sutiarto, Amin ; Berasa, Sehati Efri - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 1237) - 37
    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate effects of feeding and manure management interventions on the technical, economic, and environmental performance of Indonesian dairy farms, and to assess the adoption potential of these interventions. Various interventions were tested on 18 practical dairy farms in Lembang Sub-District in West Java, Indonesia. Results showed that ration balancing, mineral supplementation, feeding high quality compound concentrate feed, and (vermi-) composting have potential to improve the profitability of dairy farming, health of dairy cows, and/or reduce environmental pollution of dairy farming.
    Wouters, Hendrik ; Petrova, Irina Y. ; Heerwaarden, Chiel C. Van; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi ; Teuling, Adriaan J. ; Meulenberg, Vicky ; Santanello, Joseph A. ; Miralles, Diego G. - \ 2019
    The framework CLASS4GL is designed to facilitate the investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer evolution in response to different land and atmospheric conditions observed around the world. The core of the platform is the model CLASS that is used to simulate the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer. Instruction video about the boundary layer processes and how they are considered in the CLASS model can be found as on the CLASS model website. Observational data from balloons, satellites and reanalysis, are used to constrain and initialize the model. CLASS4GL uses 2 million global balloon soundings from the integrated global radio sounding archive and satellite data from the last 40 years.
    Entry Points for Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Small-Scale Dairy Farms: Looking Beyond Milk Yield Increase
    Vries, Marion de; Zahra, Windi Al ; Wouters, Adriaan P. ; Middelaar, Corina E. van; Oosting, Simon J. ; Tiesnamurti, Bess ; Vellinga, Theun V. - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3 (2019). - ISSN 2571-581X
    climate change mitigation - dairy cattle - feeding - greenhouse gases - manure management

    Increasing milk yield per cow is considered a promising climate change mitigation strategy for small-scale dairy farms in developing countries. As it can be difficult to increase cow productivity, mitigation options beyond this production strategy need to be identified. The aim of this study was to identify entry points for mitigation of GHG emissions in small-scale dairy farms in Lembang Sub-district, West Java, Indonesia. Data on herd composition, productivity, feeding, and manure management were collected in a survey of 300 randomly selected dairy farms. Characteristics of farms with the 25% lowest (<3291 kg milk/cow/y), medium 50% (3291–4975 kg milk/cow/y), and 25% highest milk yields (≥4976 kg milk/cow/y) were compared. Life cycle assessment was then performed to estimate the cradle-to-farm gate GHG emission intensity (EI) of farms. The relationship between EI and milk yield per cow for all farms was modeled and farms with an EI below and above their predicted EI were compared (“low” and “high” EI farms). Results showed that milk yield explained 57% of the variance in EI among farms. Farms with medium and high milk yields were more often specialized farms, fed more tofu waste and compound feed, and had higher feed costs than farms with low milk yields (P < 0.05). Farms with high milk yields also applied less manure on farm land than farms with low milk yields (P < 0.05). Low EI farms had fewer cows, and fed less rice straw, more cassava waste, and more compound concentrate feed (particularly the type of concentrates consisting largely of by-products from milling industries) than high EI farms (P < 0.05). In addition, low EI farms discharged more manure, stored less solid manure, used less manure for anaerobic digestion followed by daily spreading, and applied less manure N on farmland than high EI farms (P < 0.05). Some associations were affected by confounding factors. Farm management factors associated with milk yield and the residual variation in EI were considered potential entry points for GHG mitigation. Feeding less rice straw and discharging manure, however, were considered unsuitable mitigation strategies because of expected trade-offs with other environmental issues or negative impacts on food-feed competition.

    Nutritional impact on molecular and physiological adaptations to exercise : nutrition matters
    Knuiman, Pim - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.F. Witkamp; M.T.E. Hopman, co-promotor(en): M.R. Mensink; J.A. Wouters. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463950060 - 191

    Skeletal muscle responds to exercise by a diversity of processes that collectively contribute to short-term and structural adaptations to the demanded performance capacities. There is common consensus that, in general, adequate nutrient availability during and after exercise is important to maximise skeletal muscle adaptation and ultimately performance. At the same time, several knowledge gaps remain regarding the precise mechanisms underlying these effects on adaptation, the most optimal nutrient composition in relation to type of exercise, optimal timing etc.

    This dissertation addresses some of these unsolved issues by studying the role of carbohydrates and proteins during adaptation following different forms of exercise. The first part (chapters 2 – 4) focusses on carbohydrate availability with resistance exercise, whereas the second part (chapters 5 - 7) specifically addresses the effects and potential of protein supplementation with endurance training. In chapter 2 we reviewed the existing literature regarding the role of skeletal muscle glycogen with endurance and resistance exercise. Based on this review we concluded that the role of muscle glycogen levels and/or carbohydrate availability on the skeletal muscle adaptive response to resistance exercise requires further scientific attention. To experimentally explore this, we assessed the impact of a pre-exercise meal that differed in macronutrient content on skeletal muscle glycogen levels and acute transcriptional level analysing specific mRNAs in the post-resistance exercise period in chapter 3. Specifically, after a glycogen depleting endurance exercise session in the morning, subjects received an isocaloric mixed meal containing different amounts of carbohydrates and fat 2 hours before a resistance exercise session in the afternoon, while ample protein was provided throughout the day. We hypothesized that some of the selected mRNAs associated with substrate metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis would differ between the nutritional conditions, without any changes in proteolytic genes. The findings described in chapter 3 demonstrated that muscle mRNA responses related to exercise adaptation were minimally affected by the pre-exercise meals that differed in macronutrient composition. In chapter 4, derived from the same study, we describe the analysis of a number of plasma cytokine patterns during the day to investigate whether these mediators were affected by carbohydrate availability. We hypothesized that some selected cytokines would differ between nutritional conditions, whereas other circulating cytokines suggested to be involved in skeletal muscle adaptation would not respond differently. Our main finding was that a pre-exercise meal in general did not influence plasma cytokine responses in the post-resistance exercise period. Findings of chapter 3 and 4 contribute to the view that carbohydrate availability during resistance exercise is of minor importance when aiming for an acute positive skeletal muscle adaptive response. In addition, our data question the importance of carbohydrates as both substrate for resistance exercise and as modulator of the skeletal muscle response that underlies adaptation. Yet, at present it might be premature to change carbohydrate recommendations for individuals performing resistance exercise. Shifting our focus to proteins, we first reviewed the effects and possible underlying physiological mechanisms of protein supplementation on the adaptive response to endurance training in Chapter 5. To further explore these insights, we performed a double-blind randomised controlled trial with repeated measures to determine whether protein supplementation impacts the adaptive response to endurance training. In chapter 6 we provide proof-of-concept that protein supplementation elicited greater increases in VO2max and stimulated lean mass gain in response to prolonged endurance training. To our knowledge, this was the first double-blind randomised controlled trial with repeated measures showing that protein supplementation enhances the adaptive response to endurance training. These remarkable effects of protein on VO2max that were observed give rise to questions regarding their underlying mechanisms. To this end, we analysed the muscle transcriptome to gain insight into changes in the steady-state gene expression. In chapter 7, we demonstrated that prolonged endurance training changed expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix organisation, energy metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Changes in extracellular matrix organisation tended to be greater in the protein group than in the control group and these greater transcriptional changes may reflect the enhanced physiological adaptation as a result of protein supplementation.

    Protein supplementation elicits greater gains in maximal oxygen uptake capacity and stimulates lean mass accretion during prolonged endurance training: a double-blind randomized controlled trial
    Knuiman, Pim ; Loon, Luc J.C. van; Wouters, Jeroen ; Hopman, Maria ; Mensink, Marco - \ 2019
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 110 (2019)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 508 - 518.
    body composition - endurance training - maximal oxygen uptake capacity - protein supplementation - skeletal muscle oxidative capacity

    BACKGROUND: Endurance training induces numerous cardiovascular and skeletal muscle adaptations, thereby increasing maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO2max). Whether protein supplementation enhances these adaptations remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to determine the impact of protein supplementation on changes in VO2max during prolonged endurance training. METHODS: We used a double-blind randomized controlled trial with repeated measures among 44 recreationally active, young males. Subjects performed 3 endurance training sessions per week for 10 wk. Supplements were provided immediately after each exercise session and daily before sleep, providing either protein (PRO group; n = 19; 21.5 ± 0.4 y) or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate as control (CON group; n = 21; 22.5 ± 0.5 y). The VO2max, simulated 10-km time trial performance, and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after 5 and 10 wk of endurance training. Fasting skeletal muscle tissue samples were taken before and after 5 and 10 wk to measure skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, and fasting blood samples were taken every 2 wk to measure hematological factors. RESULTS: VO2max increased to a greater extent in the PRO group than in the CON group after 5 wk (from 49.9 ± 0.8 to 54.9 ± 1.1 vs 50.8 ± 0.9 to 53.0 ± 1.1 mL · kg-1 · min-1; P < 0.05) and 10 wk (from 49.9 ± 0.8 to 55.4 ± 0.9 vs 50.8 ± 0.9 to 53.9 ± 1.2 mL · kg-1 · min-1; P < 0.05). Lean body mass increased in the PRO group whereas lean body mass in the CON group remained stable during the first 5 wk (1.5 ± 0.2 vs 0.1 ± 0.3 kg; P < 0.05) and after 10 wk (1.5 ± 0.3 vs 0.4 ± 0.3 kg; P < 0.05). Throughout the intervention, fat mass reduced significantly in the PRO group and there were no changes in the CON group after 5 wk (-0.6 ± 0.2 vs -0.1 ± 0.2 kg; P > 0.05) and 10 wk (-1.2 ± 0.4 vs -0.2 ± 0.2 kg; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Protein supplementation elicited greater gains in VO2max and stimulated lean mass accretion but did not improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and endurance performance during 10 wk of endurance training in healthy, young males. This trial was registered at as NCT03462381.

    Endotoxin and particulate matter emitted by livestock farms and respiratory health effects in neighboring residents
    Rooij, Myrna M.T. de; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Erbrink, Hans J. ; Hagenaars, Thomas J. ; Hoek, Gerard ; Ogink, Nico W.M. ; Winkel, Albert ; Heederik, Dick J.J. ; Wouters, Inge M. - \ 2019
    Environment International 132 (2019). - ISSN 0160-4120
    Air pollution - Emissions - Endotoxin - Livestock farming - Public health - Spatial modelling

    Background: Living in livestock-dense areas has been associated with health effects, suggesting airborne exposures to livestock farm emissions to be relevant for public health. Livestock farm emissions involve complex mixtures of various gases and particles. Endotoxin, a pro-inflammatory agent of microbial origin, is a constituent of livestock farm emitted particulate matter (PM) that is potentially related to the observed health effects. Quantification of livestock associated endotoxin exposure at residential addresses in relation to health outcomes has not been performed earlier. Objectives: We aimed to assess exposure-response relations for a range of respiratory endpoints and atopic sensitization in relation to livestock farm associated PM10 and endotoxin levels. Methods: Self-reported respiratory symptoms of 12,117 persons participating in a population-based cross-sectional study were analyzed. For 2494 persons, data on lung function (spirometry) and serologically assessed atopic sensitization was additionally available. Annual-average PM10 and endotoxin concentrations at home addresses were predicted by dispersion modelling and land-use regression (LUR) modelling. Exposure-response relations were analyzed with generalized additive models. Results: Health outcomes were generally more strongly associated with exposure to livestock farm emitted endotoxin compared to PM10. An inverse association was observed for dispersion modelled exposure with atopic sensitization (endotoxin: p =.004, PM10: p =.07) and asthma (endotoxin: p =.029, PM10: p =.022). Prevalence of respiratory symptoms decreased with increasing endotoxin concentration at the lower range, while at the higher range prevalence increased with increasing concentration (p <.05). Associations between lung function parameters with exposure to PM10 and endotoxin were not statistically significant (p >.05). Conclusions: Exposure to livestock farm emitted particulate matter is associated with respiratory health effects and atopic sensitization in non-farming residents. Results indicate endotoxin to be a potentially plausible etiologic agent, suggesting non-infectious aspects of microbial emissions from livestock farms to be important with respect to public health.

    Risicomodellering veehouderij en gezondheid (RVG) : modellering van regionale endotoxineconcentraties en relaties met gezondheidseffecten
    Heederik, Dick ; Erbrink, Hans ; Farokhi, Azadeh ; Hagenaars, Thomas ; Hoek, Gerard ; Ogink, Nico ; Rooij, Myrna de; Smit, Lidwien ; Winkel, Albert ; Wouters, Inge - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research (IRAS UU 2019-01) - 133
    Atmospheric boundary layer dynamics from balloon soundings worldwide: CLASS4GL v1.0
    Wouters, Hendrik ; Petrova, Irina Y. ; Heerwaarden, Chiel C. Van; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi ; Teuling, Adriaan J. ; Meulenberg, Vicky ; Santanello, Joseph A. ; Miralles, Diego G. - \ 2019
    Geoscientific Model Development 12 (2019)5. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 2139 - 2153.
    The coupling between soil, vegetation and atmosphere is thought to be crucial in the development and intensification of weather extremes, especially meteorological droughts, heat waves and severe storms. Therefore, understanding the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and the role of land–atmosphere feedbacks is necessary for earlier warnings, better climate projection and timely societal adaptation. However, this understanding is hampered by the difficulties of attributing cause–effect relationships from complex coupled models and the irregular space–time distribution of in situ observations of the land–atmosphere system. As such, there is a need for simple deterministic appraisals that systematically discriminate land–atmosphere interactions from observed weather phenomena over large domains and climatological time spans. Here, we present a new interactive data platform to study the behavior of the ABL and land–atmosphere interactions based on worldwide weather balloon soundings and an ABL model. This software tool – referred to as CLASS4GL (, last access: 27 May 2018) – is developed with the objectives of (a) mining appropriate global observational data from ∼15 million weather balloon soundings since 1981 and combining them with satellite and reanalysis data and (b) constraining and initializing a numerical model of the daytime evolution of the ABL that serves as a tool to interpret these observations mechanistically and deterministically. As a result, it fully automizes extensive global model experiments to assess the effects of land and atmospheric conditions on the ABL evolution as observed in different climate regions around the world. The suitability of the set of observations, model formulations and global parameters employed by CLASS4GL is extensively validated. In most cases, the framework is able to realistically reproduce the observed daytime response of the mixed-layer height, potential temperature and specific humidity from the balloon soundings. In this extensive global validation exercise, a bias of 10.1 m h−1, −0.036 K h−1 and 0.06 g kg−1 h−1 is found for the morning-to-afternoon evolution of the mixed-layer height, potential temperature and specific humidity. The virtual tool is in continuous development and aims to foster a better process understanding of the drivers of the ABL evolution and their global distribution, particularly during the onset and amplification of weather extremes. Finally, it can also be used to scrutinize the representation of land–atmosphere feedbacks and ABL dynamics in Earth system models, numerical weather prediction models, atmospheric reanalysis and satellite retrievals, with the ultimate goal of improving local climate projections, providing earlier warning of extreme weather and fostering a more effective development of climate adaptation strategies
    Intestinal epithelial N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D links dietary fat to metabolic adaptations in obesity and steatosis
    Everard, Amandine ; Plovier, Hubert ; Rastelli, Marialetizia ; Hul, Matthias Van; Wouters d’Oplinter, Alice de; Geurts, Lucie ; Druart, Céline ; Robine, Sylvie ; Delzenne, Nathalie M. ; Muccioli, Giulio G. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Luquet, Serge ; Flamand, Nicolas ; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Cani, Patrice D. - \ 2019
    Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    Variations in N-acylethanolamines (NAE) levels are associated with obesity and metabolic comorbidities. Their role in the gut remains unclear. Therefore, we generated a mouse model of inducible intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), a key enzyme involved in NAE biosynthesis (Napepld∆IEC). We discovered that Napepld∆IEC mice are hyperphagic upon first high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, and develop exacerbated obesity and steatosis. These mice display hypothalamic Pomc neurons dysfunctions and alterations in intestinal and plasma NAE and 2-acylglycerols. After long-term HFD, Napepld∆IEC mice present reduced energy expenditure. The increased steatosis is associated with higher gut and liver lipid absorption. Napepld∆IEC mice display altered gut microbiota. Akkermansia muciniphila administration partly counteracts the IEC NAPE-PLD deletion effects. In conclusion, intestinal NAPE-PLD is a key sensor in nutritional adaptation to fat intake, gut-to-brain axis and energy homeostasis and thereby constitutes a novel target to tackle obesity and related disorders.

    A systematic knowledge synthesis on the spatial dimensions of Q fever epidemics
    Rooij, Myrna M.T. de; Leuken, Jeroen P.G. van; Swart, Arno ; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.E. ; Nielen, Mirjam ; Koeijer, Aline A. de; Janse, Ingmar ; Wouters, Inge M. ; Heederik, Dick J.J. - \ 2019
    Zoonoses and Public Health 66 (2019)1. - ISSN 1863-1959 - p. 14 - 25.
    airborne exposure - Coxiella burnetii - epidemiology - Q fever - risk assessment - spatial analysis

    From 2007 through 2010, the Netherlands experienced the largest Q fever epidemic ever reported. This study integrates the outcomes of a multidisciplinary research programme on spatial airborne transmission of Coxiella burnetii and reflects these outcomes in relation to other scientific Q fever studies worldwide. We have identified lessons learned and remaining knowledge gaps. This synthesis was structured according to the four steps of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA): (a) Rapid source identification was improved by newly developed techniques using mathematical disease modelling; (b) source characterization efforts improved knowledge but did not provide accurate C. burnetii emission patterns; (c) ambient air sampling, dispersion and spatial modelling promoted exposure assessment; and (d) risk characterization was enabled by applying refined dose–response analyses. The results may support proper and timely risk assessment and risk management during future outbreaks, provided that accurate and structured data are available and exchanged readily between responsible actors.

    Emissies van endotoxinen uit de veehouderij : eindrapport endotoxine metingen = Emissions of endotoxins from animal production: final report on endotoxin measurements
    Winkel, A. ; Erbrink, J.J. ; Wouters, I.M. ; Huis in ’T Veld, J.W.H. ; Heederik, D.J.J. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1092) - 67
    Cijfers over de emissie van endotoxinen uit stallen zijn nodig als input voor een eventueel endotoxinetoetsingskader ter bescherming van de gezondheid van omwonenden van stallen. Daarnaast zijnemissiecijfers nodig in lopend onderzoek waarin concentratiegradiëntkaarten worden gegenereerd en relatiestussen gemodelleerde endotoxineconcentraties en medische gegevens van bewoners worden onderzocht. Intwee eerdere rapportages is een literatuurstudie uitgevoerd (WLR Rapport 773) en is een eerste setemissiecijfers verkregen waarmee ook indicatieve verspreidingsberekeningen voor een aantal fictieve stallenzijn uitgevoerd (WLR Rapport 959). Dit derde deel van het onderzoek richtte zich op verdere onderbouwingen detaillering van de emissiecijfers en de uitgangspunten voor de verspreidingsmodellering vanendotoxinen. In dit rapport is de eerste set emissiecijfers uitgebreid tot een totaal van 60endotoxinemetingen, verricht bij een totaal van 18 stallen voor leghennen, vleeskuikens, vleesvarkens,zeugen, biggen en melkkoeien. Daarnaast bevat dit rapport twee literatuurstudies die inzichten opleverenvoor het juist vormgeven van de modellering van endotoxinen vanuit stallen naar leefomgeving enomwonenden. Met dit alles is eerder ontbrekende kennis ontwikkeld dat in de toekomst kan dienen alscomponenten van een endotoxine toetsingskader en als een basis voor het project ‘Risicomodelleringveehouderij en gezondheid’.---Data on the emission of endotoxins from livestock farms are needed as input for a possible endotoxinassessment framework for the protection of the health of people living in the vicinity of farms. In addition,emission figures are needed in a current research project in which concentration gradient maps aregenerated and relationships between modelled endotoxin concentrations and residents' medical data areexamined. In two previous reports, a literature study was conducted (WLR Report 773) and a first set ofemission figures was obtained which were used in indicative dispersion calculations at a number of fictitiousfarm sites (WLR Report 959). This third part of the research focused on a further substantiation and detailingof the emission figures and the dispersion modelling of endotoxins. In this report, the first set of emissionfigures has been extended to a total of 60 measurements carried out at a total of 18 livestock houses forlaying hens, broilers, fattening pigs, sows, piglets and dairy cows. In addition, this report contains twoliterature studies that provide insights for a valid design of the dispersion modelling of endotoxins fromlivestock farms to the environment and local residents. With all this, previously lacking knowledge has beendeveloped which in future can serve as components of a possible endotoxin assessment framework and asinput for the project ‘Modelling health risks of livestock houses’.
    The Rule of Law and Accountability – Exploring Trajectories for Democratizing Governance of Global Public Goods and Global Commons
    Groff, Maja ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. - \ 2018
    In: The Commons and a New Global Governance / Cogolati, Samuel, Wouters, Jan, Cheltenham : Edward Elgar Publishing (Leuven Global Governance Series ) - ISBN 9781788118507 - p. 130 - 159.
    Defining the practice of the ‘rule of international law’ as a global public good is, with some exceptions, surprisingly scarce in the literature. Yet, an effective ‘rule of law’ at the international level may be considered a ‘meta’ or ‘core’ global public good, and as an equally fundamental part of global society, as it currently is in domestic, democratic societies. Furthermore, international rule of law is not only a key global public good in itself; it would also support both the provision of ‘classical’ global public goods and the preservation/management of global commons, and the very process of achieving it would be a common good. However, there is something disturbing about a governance system in which core actors (i.e., states) on the one hand can year after year adopt a range of new international norms and goals encased in those norms (e.g., binding multilateral treaties, as well as ‘soft law’ statements), in what might be considered as a manifestation of unity of thought and purpose in global undertakings; yet on the other hand, year after year, allow those core actors to escape (in large part) any formal accountability mechanisms for what they have not done to implement those norms and achieve those goals. Such a circumstance is antithetical to well-accepted governance norms which link legitimate governmental authority, normally associated with democratic forms of government, with the operation of the rule of law and the accountability of subjects to the law. This chapter will first elaborate definitions, in part based on statements made in United Nations’ fora on the subject, to provide an anatomy of components of the rule of (international) law, including perspectives on conceiving of the rule of law as a core global public good. It will then discuss two suggested accountability trajectories associated with building a meaningful global rule of law – ‘input’ and ‘output’ accountability – between states and other relevant actors, identifying some of the associated challenges and proposing various pathways to address them. This chapters suggests that strengthening such accountability trajectories would signal a further ‘democratization’ of the international order.
    The ELR-SOBIR1 complex functions as a two-component receptor-like Kinase to mount defense against phytophthora infestans
    Domazakis, Emmanouil ; Wouters, Doret ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Kamoun, Sophien ; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J. ; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A. - \ 2018
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 31 (2018)8. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 795 - 802.

    The ELICITIN RESPONSE protein (ELR) from Solanum microdontum can recognize INF1 elicitin of Phytophthora infestans and trigger defense responses. ELR is a receptor-like protein (RLP) that lacks a cytoplasmic signaling domain and is anticipated to require interaction with a signaling-competent receptor-like kinase. SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1 (SOBIR1) has been proposed as a general interactor for RLPs involved in immunity and, as such, is a potential interactor for ELR. Here, we investigate whether SOBIR1 is required for response to INF1 and resistance to P. infestans and whether it associates with ELR. Our results show that virus-induced gene silencing of SOBIR1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leads to loss of INF1-triggered cell death and increased susceptibility to P. infestans. Using genetic complementation, we found that the kinase activity of SOBIR1 is required for INF1-triggered cell death. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that ELR constitutively associates with potato SOBIR1 in planta, forming a bipartite receptor complex. Upon INF1 elicitation, this ELR-SOBIR1 complex recruits SERK3 (SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE 3) leading to downstream signaling activation. Overall, our study shows that SOBIR1 is required for basal resistance to P. infestans and for INF1-triggered cell death and functions as an adaptor kinase for ELR.

    Relation between convective rainfall properties and antecedent soil moisture heterogeneity conditions in North Africa
    Petrova, Irina Y. ; Miralles, Diego G. ; Heerwaarden, Chiel C. van; Wouters, Hendrik - \ 2018
    Remote Sensing 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2072-4292
    Convective rainfall initiation - Semi-arid Sahel - Soilmoisture heterogeneity - Soilmoisture-precipitation coupling

    Recent observational studies have demonstrated the relevance of soil moisture heterogeneity and the associated thermally-induced circulation on deep convection and rainfall triggering. However, whether this dynamical mechanism further influences rainfall properties-such as rain volume or timing-has yet to be confirmed by observational data. Here, we analyze 10 years of satellite-based sub-daily soil moisture and precipitation records and explore the potential of strong spatial gradients in morning soil moisture to influence the properties of afternoon rainfall in the North African region, at the 100-km scale. We find that the convective rain systems that form over locally drier soils and anomalously strong soil moisture gradients have a tendency to initiate earlier in the afternoon; they also yield lower volumes of rain, weaker intensity and lower spatial variability. The strongest sensitivity to antecedent soil conditions is identified for the timing of the rain onset; it is found to be correlated with the magnitude of the soil moisture gradient. Further analysis shows that the early initiation of rainfall over dry soils and strong surface gradients yet requires the presence of a very moist boundary layer on that day. Our findings agree well with the expected effects of thermally-induced circulation on rainfall properties suggested by theoretical studies and point to the potential of locally drier and heterogeneous soils to influence convective rainfall development. The systematic nature of the identified effect of soil moisture state on the onset time of rainstorms in the region is of particular relevance and may help foster research on rainfall predictability.

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