Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Change detection between digital surface models from airborne laser scanning and dense matching using convolutional neural networks
Zhang, Z. ; Vosselman, G. ; Gerke, M. ; Persello, C. ; Tuia, D. ; Yang, M.Y. - \ 2019
In: ISPRS Geospatial Week 2019, 10–14 June 2019, Enschede, The Netherlands. - ISPRS (ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences ) - p. 453 - 460.
Airborne Laser Scanning - Change Detection - Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) - Dense Image Matching - Digital Surface Model (DSM)

Airborne photogrammetry and airborne laser scanning are two commonly used technologies used for topographical data acquisition at the city level. Change detection between airborne laser scanning data and photogrammetric data is challenging since the two point clouds show different characteristics. After comparing the two types of point clouds, this paper proposes a feed-forward Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to detect building changes between them. The motivation from an application point of view is that the multimodal point clouds might be available for different epochs. Our method contains three steps: First, the point clouds and orthoimages are converted to raster images. Second, square patches are cropped from raster images and then fed into CNN for change detection. Finally, the original change map is post-processed with a simple connected component analysis. Experimental results show that the patch-based recall rate reaches 0.8146 and the precision rate reaches 0.7632. Object-based evaluation shows that 74 out of 86 building changes are correctly detected.

A Natural Supramolecular Saponin Hydrogelator for Creation of Ultrastable and Thermostimulable Food-Grade Foams
Ma, Lulu ; Li, Qing ; Du, Zhenya ; Su, Enyi ; Liu, Xiao ; Wan, Zhili ; Yang, Xiaoquan - \ 2019
Advanced Material Interfaces (2019). - ISSN 2196-7350
glycyrrhizic acid - responsive foams - saponin nanofibrils - supramolecular self-assembly - ultrastability

A new class of food-grade foams that are ultrastable, thermostimulable, and processable can be created simply by using the naturally occurring saponin glycyrrhizic acid (GA) as the sole stabilizer. The creation of this “superfoam” is based on the spatially controllable self-assembly of supramolecular GA nanofibril hydrogelators at the air–water interface and in the continuous phase. The rapid adsorption of GA nanofibrils at the bubble surface, forming a multilayer interfacial network, combined with the formation of viscoelastic fibrillar hydrogel networks in the continuous phase, enables the foams having ultrastability over months or years without the water drainage induced phase separation, which have been evidenced using small angle X-ray scattering and microscopy techniques. Such ultrastable foams can be rapidly destabilized on demand by heating, which induces the melting of the fibrillar networks. These thermoresponsive foams can be reversibly switched between stable and unstable by simply changing the temperature, based on the reversible gel–sol phase transition of the supramolecular hydrogel inside the foam. This is the first finding of a natural edible surfactant system that foams very well and can be used solely to make advanced foams with the qualities of simplicity, ultrastability, stimulability, and processability, which make them viable for many sustainable applications.

Impact hotspots of reduced nutrient discharge shift across the globe with population and dietary changes
Wang, Xu ; Daigger, Glen ; Vries, Wim de; Kroeze, Carolien ; Yang, Min ; Ren, Nan Qi ; Liu, Junxin ; Butler, David - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

Reducing nutrient discharge from wastewater is essential to mitigating aquatic eutrophication; however, energy- and chemicals-intensive nutrient removal processes, accompanied with the emissions of airborne contaminants, can create other, unexpected, environmental consequences. Implementing mitigation strategies requires a complete understanding of the effects of nutrient control practices, given spatial and temporal variations. Here we simulate the environmental impacts of reducing nutrient discharge from domestic wastewater in 173 countries during 1990–2050. We find that improvements in wastewater infrastructure achieve a large-scale decline in nutrient input to surface waters, but this is causing detrimental effects on the atmosphere and the broader environment. Population size and dietary protein intake have the most significant effects over all the impacts arising from reduction of wastewater nutrients. Wastewater-related impact hotspots are also shifting from Asia to Africa, suggesting a need for interventions in such countries, mostly with growing populations, rising dietary intake, rapid urbanisation, and inadequate sanitation.

External shocks, agent interactions, and endogenous feedbacks — Investigating system resilience with a stylized land use model
Chen, Yang ; Bakker, Martha M. ; Ligtenberg, Arend ; Bregt, Arnold K. - \ 2019
Ecological Complexity (2019). - ISSN 1476-945X
Complex Adaptive Systems - Human-environment interactions - Nonlinearity - Path-dependency - Social-Ecological Systems - Tipping points

Dynamics of coupled Social-Ecological Systems (SES) result from the interplay of society and ecology. To assess SES resilience, we constructed an Agent-Based Model (ABM) of a land use system as a stereotypical example of SES and investigated how resilience of the represented system is affected by both external disturbances and internal dynamics. The model explicitly considered different aspects of resilience in a framework derived from literature, which includes “resilience to”, “resilience of”, “resilience at”, “resilience due to”, and “indicators of resilience”. External disturbances were implemented as shocks in crop yields. Internal dynamics comprised of two types of social interaction between agents (learning and cooperation), an ecological feedback of soil depletion and an economic feedback of agglomeration benefits. We systematically varied these mechanisms and measured indicators that reflected spatial, social, and economic resilience. Results showed that (1) internal mechanisms increased the ability of the system to recover from external shocks, (2) feedbacks resulted in different regimes of crop cultivation, each with a distinctive set of functions, and (3) resilience is not a generic system property, but strongly depends on what system function is considered. We recommend future studies to include internal dynamics, especially feedbacks, and to systematically assess them across different aspects of resilience.

The Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison phase 1 simulation dataset
Müller, Christoph ; Elliott, Joshua ; Kelly, David ; Arneth, Almut ; Balkovic, Juraj ; Ciais, Philippe ; Deryng, Delphine ; Folberth, Christian ; Hoek, Steven ; Izaurralde, Roberto C. ; Jones, Curtis D. ; Khabarov, Nikolay ; Lawrence, Peter ; Liu, Wenfeng ; Olin, Stefan ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Reddy, Ashwan ; Rosenzweig, Cynthia ; Ruane, Alex C. ; Sakurai, Gen ; Schmid, Erwin ; Skalsky, Rastislav ; Wang, Xuhui ; Wit, Allard de; Yang, Hong - \ 2019
Scientific Data 6 (2019)1. - ISSN 2052-4463 - 1 p.

The Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI) phase 1 dataset of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) provides an unprecedentedly large dataset of crop model simulations covering the global ice-free land surface. The dataset consists of annual data fields at a spatial resolution of 0.5 arc-degree longitude and latitude. Fourteen crop modeling groups provided output for up to 11 historical input datasets spanning 1901 to 2012, and for up to three different management harmonization levels. Each group submitted data for up to 15 different crops and for up to 14 output variables. All simulations were conducted for purely rainfed and near-perfectly irrigated conditions on all land areas irrespective of whether the crop or irrigation system is currently used there. With the publication of the GGCMI phase 1 dataset we aim to promote further analyses and understanding of crop model performance, potential relationships between productivity and environmental impacts, and insights on how to further improve global gridded crop model frameworks. We describe dataset characteristics and individual model setup narratives.

Use of edah improves maize morphological and mechanical traits related to lodging
Zhang, Qian ; Zhang, Lizhen ; Chai, Mengzhu ; Yang, Deguang ; Werf, Wopke van der; Evers, Jochem ; Duan, Liusheng - \ 2019
Agronomy Journal 111 (2019)2. - ISSN 0002-1962 - p. 581 - 591.

Lodging in maize (Zea mays L.) is a major constraint to crop yield and quality, especially at high plant densities. A novel growth regulator EDAH, which contains ethephon and diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6), has been recently introduced in maize cultivation in China to alleviate lodging and yield loss. In this study, we aimed to identify how lodging-relevant morphological and mechanical traits of two maize genotypes respond to EDAH at different plant densities. Two maize hybrids (Zhengdan 958 and Pioneer 335) were compared in treatments with or without EDAH at plant densities of 4.5, 6.0, 7.5 and 9.0 plants m -2 . Lodging percentage was increased at higher plant density in both varieties due to weaker stems and taller plants. The use of EDAH significantly decreased lodging by increasing stem breaking strength, associated with larger stem diameter and higher stem cellulose and lignin contents compared with untreated check. The moment of the wind force on the plant was reduced by the use of EDAH as a result of lower ear positions, more erect leaves, smaller top leaf areas, and shorter internodes. At low plant density, the reduction of lodging by EDAH was mainly due to morphological changes, while at high plant density, the reduction in lodging was mainly due to improved stem breaking strength. We conclude that EDAH reduces lodging risk through the improvement of both morphological and mechanical plant traits and that these effects are expressed across a range of plant densities. The results help to better understand the mechanism of lodging-yield relationships.

Energy Efficient Phosphorus Recovery by Microbial Electrolysis Cell Induced Calcium Phosphate Precipitation
Lei, Yang ; Du, Mengyi ; Kuntke, Philipp ; Saakes, Michel ; Weijden, Renata van der; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2019
ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering 7 (2019)9. - ISSN 2168-0485 - p. 8860 - 8867.
amorphous calcium phosphate - bioelectrochemical - energy consumption - local high pH - phosphate removal

Phosphorus (P) removal and recovery from waste streams is essential for a sustainable world. Here, we updated a previously developed abiotic electrochemical P recovery system to a bioelectrochemical system. The anode was inoculated with electroactive bacteria (electricigens) which are capable of oxidizing soluble organic substrates and releasing electrons. These electrons are then used for the reduction of water at the cathode, resulting in an increase of pH close to the cathode. Hence, phosphate can be removed with coexisting calcium ions as calcium phosphate at the surface of the cathode with a much lower energy input. Depending on the available substrate (sodium acetate) concentration, an average current density from 1.1 ± 0.1 to 6.6 ± 0.4 A/m 2 was achieved. This resulted in a P removal of 20.1 ± 1.5% to 73.9 ± 3.7%, a Ca removal of 10.5 ± 0.6% to 44.3 ± 1.7% and a Mg removal of 2.7 ± 1.9% to 16.3 ± 3.0%. The specific energy consumption and the purity of the solids were limited by the relative low P concentration (0.23 mM) in the domestic wastewater. The relative abundance of calcium phosphate in the recovered product increased from 23% to 66% and the energy consumption for recovery was decreased from 224 ± 7 kWh/kg P to just 56 ± 6 kWh/kg P when treating wastewater with higher P concentration (0.76 mM). An even lower energy demand of 21 ± 2 kWh/kg P was obtained with a platinized cathode. This highlights the promising potential of bioelectrochemical P recovery from P-rich waste streams.

Functionalization at Will of Rim-Differentiated Pillar[5]arenes
Demay-Drouhard, Paul ; Du, Ke ; Samanta, Kushal ; Wan, Xintong ; Yang, Weiwei ; Srinivasan, Rajavel ; Sue, Andrew C.H. ; Zuilhof, Han - \ 2019
Organic Letters 21 (2019)11. - ISSN 1523-7060 - p. 3976 - 3980.

The development of an efficient synthetic route toward rim-differentiated C 5 -symmetric pillar[5]arenes (P[5]s), whose two rims are decorated with different chemical functionalities, opens up successive transformations of this macrocyclic scaffold. This paper describes a gram-scale synthesis of a C 5 -symmetric penta-hydroxy P[5] precursor, and a range of highly efficient reactions that allow functionalizing either rim at will via, e.g., sulfur(VI) fluoride exchange (SuFEx) reactions, esterifications, or Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. Afterward, BBr 3 demethylation activates another rim for similar functionalizations.

Meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies in neonates reveals widespread differential DNA methylation associated with birthweight
Küpers, Leanne K. ; Monnereau, Claire ; Sharp, Gemma C. ; Yousefi, Paul ; Salas, Lucas A. ; Ghantous, Akram ; Page, Christian M. ; Reese, Sarah E. ; Wilcox, Allen J. ; Czamara, Darina ; Starling, Anne P. ; Novoloaca, Alexei ; Lent, Samantha ; Roy, Ritu ; Hoyo, Cathrine ; Breton, Carrie V. ; Allard, Catherine ; Just, Allan C. ; Bakulski, Kelly M. ; Holloway, John W. ; Everson, Todd M. ; Xu, Cheng Jian ; Huang, Rae Chi ; Plaat, Diana A. van der; Wielscher, Matthias ; Merid, Simon Kebede ; Ullemar, Vilhelmina ; Rezwan, Faisal I. ; Lahti, Jari ; Dongen, Jenny van; Langie, Sabine A.S. ; Richardson, Tom G. ; Magnus, Maria C. ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Xu, Zongli ; Duijts, Liesbeth ; Zhao, Shanshan ; Zhang, Weiming ; Plusquin, Michelle ; DeMeo, Dawn L. ; Solomon, Olivia ; Heimovaara, Joosje H. ; Jima, Dereje D. ; Gao, Lu ; Bustamante, Mariona ; Perron, Patrice ; Wright, Robert O. ; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva ; Zhang, Hongmei ; Karagas, Margaret R. ; Gehring, Ulrike ; Marsit, Carmen J. ; Beilin, Lawrence J. ; Vonk, Judith M. ; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Bergström, Anna ; Örtqvist, Anne K. ; Ewart, Susan ; Villa, Pia M. ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Standaert, Arnout R.L. ; Håberg, Siri E. ; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. ; Taylor, Jack A. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Yang, Ivana V. ; Kechris, Katerina ; Nawrot, Tim S. ; Silver, Matt J. ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Richiardi, Lorenzo ; Kogevinas, Manolis ; Litonjua, Augusto A. ; Eskenazi, Brenda ; Huen, Karen ; Mbarek, Hamdi ; Maguire, Rachel L. ; Dwyer, Terence ; Vrijheid, Martine ; Bouchard, Luigi ; Baccarelli, Andrea A. ; Croen, Lisa A. ; Karmaus, Wilfried ; Anderson, Denise ; Vries, Maaike de; Sebert, Sylvain ; Kere, Juha ; Karlsson, Robert ; Arshad, Syed Hasan ; Hämäläinen, Esa ; Routledge, Michael N. ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Feinberg, Andrew P. ; Newschaffer, Craig J. ; Govarts, Eva ; Moisse, Matthieu ; Fallin, M.D. ; Melén, Erik ; Prentice, Andrew M. ; Kajantie, Eero ; Almqvist, Catarina ; Oken, Emily ; Dabelea, Dana ; Boezen, H.M. ; Melton, Phillip E. ; Wright, Rosalind J. ; Koppelman, Gerard H. ; Trevisi, Letizia ; Hivert, Marie France ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Munthe-Kaas, Monica C. ; Murphy, Susan K. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Wiemels, Joseph ; Holland, Nina ; Herceg, Zdenko ; Binder, Elisabeth B. ; Davey Smith, George ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Lie, Rolv T. ; Nystad, Wenche ; London, Stephanie J. ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Relton, Caroline L. ; Snieder, Harold ; Felix, Janine F. - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from −183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (P Bonferroni < 1.06 x 10 −7 ). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10 −74 ) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10 −3 ), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.

Effects of climate change and adaptation options on winter wheat yield under rainfed Mediterranean conditions in southern Portugal
Yang, Chenyao ; Fraga, Helder ; Ieperen, Wim van; Trindade, Henrique ; Santos, João A. - \ 2019
Climatic Change 154 (2019)1-2. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 159 - 178.
Crop modeling - Dryland environment - EURO-CORDEX - Multi-model ensemble - Regional climate projections - STICS

Projected warming and drying trends over the Mediterranean region represent a substantial threat for wheat production. The present study assesses winter wheat yield response to potential climate change and estimates the quantitative effectiveness of using early flowering cultivars and early sowing dates as adaptation options for the major wheat production region of Portugal. A crop model (STICS) is used for this purpose, which is calibrated for yield simulations before projecting future yields. Climate projections over 2021–2050 and 2051–2080 under two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) are retrieved from bias-adjusted datasets, generated by a ten-member climate model ensemble. Projected intensification of water deficits and more frequent high-temperature events during late spring (April–June), coinciding with the sensitive grain filling stage, primarily result in continuous mean yield losses (relative to 1981–2010) by − 14% (both scenarios) during 2021–2050 and by − 17% (RCP4.5) or − 27% (RCP8.5) during 2051–2080, also accompanied by increased yield variabilities. Of evaluated adaptation options at various levels, using earlier flowering cultivars reveals higher yield gains (26–38%) than that of early sowings (6–10%), which are able to reverse the yield reductions. The adopted early flowering cultivars successfully advance the anthesis onset and grain filling period, which reduces or avoids the risks of exposure to enhanced drought and heat stresses in late spring. In contrast, winter warming during early sowing window could affect vernalization fulfillment by slowing effective chilling accumulation, thus increasing the pre-anthesis growth length with limited effects on advancing reproductive stage. Crop yield projections and explored adaptation options are essential to assess food security prospects (availability and stability) of dry Mediterranean areas, providing crucial insights for appropriate policymaking.

Assembly processes of waterbird communities across subsidence wetlands in China: A functional and phylogenetic approach
Li, Chunlin ; Zhang, Yong ; Zha, Daode ; Yang, Sen ; Huang, Zheng Y.X. ; Boer, Willem F. de - \ 2019
Diversity and Distributions (2019). - ISSN 1366-9516
assembly process - environmental filtering - functional diversity - phylogenetic diversity - subsidence wetland - waterbird assemblage

Aim: Although assembly processes have been studied in a wide range of taxa, determining assembly rules remains controversial, particularly in assemblages consisted of species with strong dispersal capacities. Moreover, few studies focused on communities in recently human-created habitats. We tested two prevailing but opposing hypotheses, environmental filtering and limiting similarity, in waterbird communities across subsidence wetlands created by underground coal mining in China, with an aim to better understand assembly processes in communities composed of highly mobile species in human-dominated landscape. Location: The North China Plain. Methods: We quantified taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of the waterbird assemblages in different seasons and compared the mean pairwise distances (MPD) and the mean nearest taxon distances (MNTD) with null models to examine whether co-occurring species were clustered or overdispersed on the functional dendrogram or phylogenetic tree. Independent contributions of multi-scale habitat variables therein were determined using a hierarchical partitioning method. Results: We showed asynchronous patterns of seasonal dynamics among the multiple diversity metrics, with highest species diversity during autumn migration. Generally, the co-occurring species were functionally and phylogenetically clustered. Habitat variables had stronger effects on the functional structure than on the phylogenetic structure of the communities. The degree of functional clustering increased in older and larger wetlands, while the assemblages shifted from functional clustering to overdispersion with increasing habitat diversity, landscape connectivity and human disturbance. Main conclusions: The waterbird assemblages were mainly structured by environmental filtering, and the assembly processes were significantly affected by habitat variables, with stronger effects on functional diversity. Our study highlights the importance of environmental filtering and habitat variables in structuring assemblages dominated by species with high dispersal capacities and suggests that increasing habitat diversity and reducing disturbances will contribute to waterbird conservation in this human-dominated landscape.

Nonlinear surface rheology and interfacial microstructure imaging of WPI particles and their constituents
Yang, J. ; Thielen, I. ; Berton-Carabin, C.C. ; Linden, E. van der; Sagis, L.M.C. - \ 2019
- 1 p.
Nonlinear surface rheology and interfacial microstructure imaging of WPI particles and their constituents
Yang, Jack - \ 2019
protein pickering stabilizer - air/water interface - microstructure - surface rheology - Lissajous plots - atomic microscopy
Morphological and quality characterization of grape berry and rachis in response to postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene and elevated oxygen and carbon dioxide atmospheres
Wang, Lei ; Luo, Zisheng ; Li, Junhao ; Yang, Mingyi ; Yan, Jiawei ; Lu, Hongyan ; Li, Dong ; Chen, Cunkun ; Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani ; Wu, Bin ; Li, Li - \ 2019
Postharvest Biology and Technology 153 (2019). - ISSN 0925-5214 - p. 107 - 117.
1-Methylcyclopropene - Berry - Elevated O /CO atmosphere - Gene expression - Rachis

This research studied the morphological characterization and quality attributes of ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Yongyou NO.1’ (Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis labrusca L.) grape berry and rachis in response to postharvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) alone or in combination with elevated 80% O 2 (H-O 2 ) / 20% CO 2 (H-CO 2 ). Results indicated that the integrated application of exogenous 1-MCP alone and combined with H-O 2 /H-CO 2 significantly prevented the rachis browning and chlorophyll degradation, maintained the cellular microstructure integrity and promoted esters and terpenes synthesis. Additionally, the transcriptional expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis was sharply downregulated by 1-MCP treatment in both cultivar rachis and berries. And genes expression related to softening was also downregulated by 1-MCP alone and plus elevated O 2 /CO 2 atmospheres treatment. Particularly, the combinatorial treatment of 1-MCP and H-O 2 effectively impeded berry abscission and alcohols accumulation; whereas 1-MCP with H-CO 2 treatment maintained the membrane permeability in berries. Nevertheless, 1-MCP alone or in combination with elevated atmospheres did not significantly affect total soluble solids and titratable acidity and did not harm sensory quality in both ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Yongyou NO.1’ cultivars after 32 days of storage.

Influence of Cell Configuration and Long-Term Operation on Electrochemical Phosphorus Recovery from Domestic Wastewater
Lei, Yang ; Remmers, Jorrit Christiaan ; Saakes, Michel ; Weijden, Renata D. Van Der; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2019
ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering 7 (2019)7. - ISSN 2168-0485 - p. 7362 - 7368.
Calcium phosphate - Current density - Electrode distance - Energy consumption - Local high pH

Phosphorus (P) is an important, scarce, and irreplaceable element, and therefore its recovery and recycling are essential for the sustainability of the modern world. We previously demonstrated the possibility of P recovery by electrochemically induced calcium phosphate precipitation. In this Article, we further investigated the influence of cell configuration and long-term operation on the removal of P and coremoved calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and inorganic carbon. The results indicated that the relative removal of P was faster than that of Ca, Mg, and inorganic carbon initially, but later, due to decreased P concentration, the removal of Ca and Mg became dominant. A maximum P removal in 4 days is 75% at 1.4 A m -2 , 85% at 8.3 A m -2 and 92% at 27.8 A m -2 . While a higher current density improves the removal of all ions, the relative increased removal of Ca and Mg affects the product quality. While the variation of electrode distance and electrode material have no significant effects on P removal, it has implication for reducing the energy cost. A 16-day continuous-flow test proved calcium phosphate precipitation could continue for 6 days without losing efficiency even when the cathode was covered with precipitates. However, after 6 days, the precipitates need to be collected; otherwise, the removal efficiency dropped for P removal. Economic evaluation indicates that the recovery cost lies in the range of 2.3-201.4 euro/kg P, depending on P concentration in targeted wastewater and electrolysis current. We concluded that a better strategy for producing a product with high P content in an energy-efficient way is to construct the electrochemical cell with cheaper stainless steel cathode, with a shorter electrode distance, and that targets P-rich wastewater.

The nematode effector MiL648 contributes to virulence through its interactions with the 12-oxophytodienoate reductase OPR2 in tomato
Verhoeven, Ava ; Yang, Yixuan ; Raaij, D.R. van; Steenbrugge, Joris van; Goverse, A. ; Smant, G. - \ 2019
Intercropping cereals with faba bean reduces plant disease incidence regardless of fertilizer input; a meta-analysis
Zhang, Chaochun ; Dong, Yan ; Tang, Li ; Zheng, Yi ; Makowski, David ; Yu, Yang ; Zhang, Fusuo ; Werf, Wopke van der - \ 2019
European Journal of Plant Pathology (2019). - ISSN 0929-1873
Disease control - Intercropping - Meta-analysis - Nutrient management

Ecological intensification of agriculture calls for ecological mechanisms to replace anthropogenic inputs. Cereal/legume intercropping increases yields due to species complementarities, it produces high protein food and feed, and it reduces the need for artificial N fertilizer because legumes fix N biologically. In addition, intercropping has the potential to suppress plant diseases, but its efficacy for disease suppression in cereal/legume mixtures has not been well characterized quantitatively. Here we conducted meta-analysis to quantify the disease suppressive effect of intercropping cereals with legumes at different levels of N fertilizer. Intercropping reduced disease incidence (measured by the odds ratio of disease occurrence) by 45% on average. This reduction was significant (P < 0.01) for four out of six studied pathogens: yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici) and mildew (Blumeria graminis) in wheat (Triticum aestivum), and chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) in faba bean (Vicia faba). Disease reduction was marginally significant for yellow rust in barley (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. hordei) (P < 0.10) and not significant for bean rust (Uromyces fabae). The reduction in disease incidence was greatest during the early stages of epidemics. N fertilizer strongly increased the incidence of powdery mildew of wheat, but it did not affect the incidence of the other diseases and it did not affect the effectiveness of intercropping as a management strategy for disease control. While nitrogen input increased powdery mildew incidence in both sole and intercropped wheat, the incidence was lower in the intercropped than sole wheat at all levels of N input. The disease suppressive effect of intercropping on wheat powdery mildew or any other disease was not affected by the amount of nitrogen fertilizer. The results show that intercropping has a substantial and consistent effect on disease incidence in cereal/faba bean mixtures across studies, but is not sufficient to provide complete disease control. Intercropping is therefore best used as a component in an integrated approach for managing plant diseases.

Seafood allergy: Occurrence, mechanisms and measures
Fu, Linglin ; Wang, Chong ; Zhu, Yang ; Wang, Yanbo - \ 2019
Trends in Food Science and Technology 88 (2019). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 80 - 92.
Background
Seafood is increasingly important as a global primary protein source. However, seafood allergy is a worldwide health problem that affects the quality of life and may even threaten lives. Seafood includes fish and shellfish, for the former parvalbumin is the predominant allergen and for the latter tropomyosin. Seafood allergy is a tightly regulated process involving various cell types, cytokines and other immune constituents. To avoid allergens is still the best option for most people because immunotherapy is hardly available.
Scope and approach
We first describe the occurrence of seafood allergy, including the conditions and costs of seafood allergy consequence, the type, structure, epitopes and cross-reactivity of major seafood allergens and then the mechanism of seafood allergic responses. Then, we discuss current and immerging measures to avoid allergens, to detect allergenic ingredients, to eliminate allergens, and to label seafood allergens.
Key findings and conclusions
Seafood allergy is a tightly regulated undesired process. To assess seafood allergen, novel detection measures with higher sensitivity and efficiency are necessary. To eliminate seafood allergen, physical food processing methods are powerful, especially, combined methods may offer better solutions. To better inform consumers about seafood allergen, labelling regulations should be harmonized worldwide.
Dynamic heterogeneity in complex interfaces of soft interface-dominated materials
Sagis, Leonard M.C. ; Liu, Bingxue ; Li, Yuan ; Essers, Jeffrey ; Yang, Jack ; Moghimikheirabadi, Ahmad ; Hinderink, Emma ; Berton-Carabin, Claire ; Schroen, Karin - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Complex interfaces stabilized by proteins, polymers or nanoparticles, have a much richer dynamics than those stabilized by simple surfactants. By subjecting fluid-fluid interfaces to step extension-compression deformations, we show that in general these complex interfaces have dynamic heterogeneity in their relaxation response that is well described by a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function, with stretch exponent β between 0.4–0.6 for extension, and 0.6–1.0 for compression. The difference in β between expansion and compression points to an asymmetry in the dynamics. Using atomic force microscopy and simulations we prove that the dynamic heterogeneity is intimately related to interfacial structural heterogeneity and show that the dominant mode for stretched exponential relaxation is momentum transfer between bulk and interface, a mechanism which has so far largely been ignored in experimental surface rheology. We describe how its rate constant can be determined using molecular dynamics simulations. These interfaces clearly behave like disordered viscoelastic solids and need to be described substantially different from the 2d homogeneous viscoelastic fluids typically formed by simple surfactants.

Pesticide residues in Nepalese vegetables and potential health risks
Bhandari, Govinda ; Zomer, P. ; Atreya, Kishor ; Mol, J.G.J. ; Yang, X. ; Geissen, V. - \ 2019
Environmental Research 172 (2019). - ISSN 0013-9351 - p. 511 - 521.
We conducted this study in order to assess the pesticide residues in vegetables and examine the related human health risk. Therefore, residues of 23 pesticides (organophosphates, organochlorines, acaricides, fungicides, and insecticides of biological origin) were analysed in the three main vegetable crops grown in Southern Nepal: 27 eggplant, 27 chilli and 32 tomato samples representing (i) conventional (N = 67) and ii) integrated pest management (IPM) fields (N = 19). Pesticide residues were found in 93% of the eggplant samples and in all of the chilli and tomato samples. Multiple residues were observed in 56% of the eggplant samples, 96% of chilli samples and all of the tomato samples. The range (µg/kg) of total detected pesticide residues in eggplants, chillies and tomatoes was 1.71–231, 4.97–507, 13.1–3465, respectively. The most frequently detected pesticides in these vegetables were carbendazim and chloropyrifos. Pesticide residues in 4% of the eggplant, 44% of the tomato and 19% of the chilli samples exceeded the EU maximum residue limits (MRLs). The residues of triazophos, omethoate, chloropyrifos and carbendazim exceeded the EU MRLs. Compared to chilli and eggplant crops, more carbendazim was sprayed onto tomato crops (p < 0.05). We assessed adolescent and adult dietary exposure using hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) equations for the identified pesticides. HQ> 1 was observed for chloropyrifos, triazophos and carbendazim in eggplants; profenofos, triazophos, dimethoate, omethoate, chloropyrifos and carbendazim in tomatoes; and dichlorvos and chloropyrifos in chillies. Of all of the HQs, the highest acute HQ (aHQ) was for triazophos (tomato) in adolescents (aHQ=657) and adults (aHQ=677), showing the highest risks of dietary exposure. The cumulative dietary exposure showed a higher HI for organophosphates (HI>83) and a lower HI for organochlorines, acaricides and biological insecticides (HI<1). The concentration of pesticide residues in the vegetable crops from the IPM field was considerably lower, suggesting a greater ability of IPM systems to reduce the dietary risks from exposure to pesticides.
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