Hazardous Chemicals in Plastics in Marine Environments : International Pellet Watch
Yamashita, Rei ; Tanaka, Kosuke ; Yeo, Bee Geok ; Takada, Hideshige ; Franeker, Jan A. van; Dalton, Megan ; Dale, Eric - \ 2019
In: Hazardous Chemicals Associated with Plastics in the Marine Environment Springer Verlag (Handbook of Environmental Chemistry ) - ISBN 9783319955667 - p. 163 - 183.
Additives - Equilibrium - Open ocean - Pellets - Sorption
Marine plastic debris, including microplastics <5Â mm, contain additives as well as hydrophobic chemicals sorbed from surrounding seawater. A volunteer-based global monitoring programme entitled International Pellet Watch (IPW) is utilizing the sorptive nature of plastics, more specifically of beached polyethylene (PE) pellets, in order to measure persistent organic pollutants (POPs) throughout the world. Spatial patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides have been revealed. Original data of IPW show large piece-to-piece variability in PCB concentrations in pellets collected at each location. This is explained by the combination of slow sorption/desorption and large variabilities of speed and route of floating plastics. The sporadically high concentrations of POPs, both sorbed chemicals and hydrophobic additives, are frequently observed in pellets and the other microplastics in open ocean and remote islands. This poses a chemical threat to marine ecosystems in remote areas.
Tenure, property rights and forest landscape restoration
Jong, Wil de; Zon, Marieke van der; Urushima, Andrea Flores ; Youn, Yeo Chang ; Liu, Jinlong ; Li, Ning - \ 2018
In: Forest Landscape Restoration London : Taylor and Francis - ISBN 9781138084292 - p. 158 - 175.
Legal tenure and related property rights are relevant and important in forest landscape restoration (FLR), although the assumption that ensuring legal tenure with full property rights is a decisive incentive in and of itself for forest restoration is not supported by empirical evidence. Legal tenure status over forest lands, and property rights derived from legal tenure, are diverse between countries, and even within countries. Case studies from China, Vietnam and Nepal show that even when legal tenure is held over forest land, the property rights derived from tenure may be severely constrained and not necessarily widely recognized, respected or protected. Legal tenure may be a less desired option in terms of rights that are granted, and other arrangements, that is, customary arrangements or other forms of non-statutory enforced arrangements, may result in more secure rights. When FLR is desired, legal tenure needs to be addressed, but what kind of tenure is provided to forest users, what rights the tenure implies, and what constraints are the most appropriate depend on the wider legal, political and social context in which forest restoration is being pursued.
High-resolution mapping of genes involved in plant stage-specific partial resistance of barley to leaf rust
Yeo, F.K.S. ; Bouchon, R. ; Kuijken, R. ; Loriaux, A. ; Boyd, C. ; Niks, R.E. ; Marcel, T.C. - \ 2017
Molecular Breeding 37 (2017)4. - ISSN 1380-3743
Barley - High resolution mapping - Puccinia - Quantitative trait locus (QTL) - Resistance
Partial resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) Rphq11 and rphq16 against Puccinia hordei isolate 1.2.1 were previously mapped in seedlings of the mapping populations Steptoe/Morex and Oregon Wolfe Barleys, respectively. In this study, QTL mapping was performed at adult plant stage for the two mapping populations challenged with the same rust isolate. The results suggest that Rphq11 and rphq16 are effective only at seedling stage, and not at adult plant stage. The cloning of several genes responsible for partial resistance of barley to P. hordei will allow elucidation of the molecular basis of this type of plant defence. A map-based cloning approach requires to fine-map the QTL in a narrow genetic window. In this study, Rphq11 and rphq16 were fine-mapped using an approach aiming at speeding up the development of plant material and simplifying its evaluation. The plant materials for fine-mapping were identified from early plant materials developed to produce QTL-NILs. The material was first selected to carry the targeted QTL in heterozygous condition and susceptibility alleles at other resistance QTLs in homozygous condition. This strategy took four to five generations to obtain fixed QTL recombinants (i.e., homozygous resistant at the Rphq11 or rphq16 QTL alleles, homozygous susceptible at the non-targeted QTL alleles). In less than 2 years, Rphq11 was fine-mapped into a 0.2-cM genetic interval and a 1.4-cM genetic interval for rphq16. The strongest candidate gene for Rphq11 is a phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase. Thus far, no candidate gene was identified for rphq16.
Haplotype divergence and multiple candidate genes at Rphq2, a partial resistance QTL of barley to Puccinia hordei
Yeo Kuok San, Freddy ; Wang, Y. ; Vozabova, Tereza ; Huneau, C. ; Leroy, P. ; Chalhoub, B. ; Qi, X.Q. ; Niks, R.E. ; Marcel, T.C. - \ 2016
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 129 (2016)2. - ISSN 0040-5752 - 16 p.
Key message: Rphq2, a minor gene for partial resistance toPuccinia hordei, was physically mapped in a 188 kbp introgression with suppressed recombination between haplotypes ofrphq2andRphq2barley cultivars.Abstract: Partial and non-host resistances to rust fungi in barley (Hordeum vulgare) may be based on pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Understanding partial resistance may help to understand non-host resistance, and vice versa. We constructed two non-gridded BAC libraries from cultivar Vada and line SusPtrit. Vada is immune to non-adapted Puccinia rust fungi, and partially resistant to P. hordei. SusPtrit is susceptible to several non-adapted rust fungi, and has been used for mapping QTLs for non-host and partial resistance. The BAC libraries help to identify genes determining the natural variation for partial and non-host resistances of barley to rust fungi. A major-effect QTL, Rphq2, for partial resistance to P. hordei was mapped in a complete Vada and an incomplete SusPtrit contig. The physical distance between the markers flanking Rphq2 was 195 Kbp in Vada and at least 226 Kbp in SusPtrit. This marker interval was predicted to contain 12 genes in either accession, of which only five genes were in common. The haplotypes represented by Vada and SusPtrit were found in 57 and 43 %, respectively, of a 194 barley accessions panel. The lack of homology between the two haplotypes probably explains the suppression of recombination in the Rphq2 area and limit further genetic resolution in fine mapping. The possible candidate genes for Rphq2 encode peroxidases, kinases and a member of seven-in-absentia protein family. This result suggests that Rphq2 does not belong to the NB-LRR gene family and does not resemble any of the partial resistance genes cloned previously.
Towards map-based cloning of partial resistance QTLs of barley to Puccinia hordei
Yeo, F.K.S. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Rients Niks. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570733 - 185
hordeum vulgare - gerst - ziekteresistentie - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - puccinia hordei - partiële resistentie - loci voor kwantitatief kenmerk - genkartering - plantenveredeling - hordeum vulgare - barley - disease resistance - plant pathogenic fungi - puccinia hordei - partial resistance - quantitative trait loci - gene mapping - plant breeding
Partial resistance of barley to Puccinia hordei and near-nonhost resistance to non-adapted rust fungi inherit polygenically. The two types of resistance seem to share some genes and have a similar prehaustorial mechanism of resistance, but partial resistance is less strong than near-nonhost resistance of barley. Partial resistance to adapted, “host”, rust fungi seems, therefore, like a weak form of nonhost resistance to non-adapted rust fungi. If partial resistance and nonhost resistance are indeed based on the same principles, one can understand nonhost resistance by studying partial resistance and vice versa. To study partial and nonhost resistance, as well as their association, the candidate gene(s) for resistance must be cloned and characterized for their action.
Five resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for partial resistance (Rphq2, Rphq3, Rphq4, Rphq11 and Rphq16) and one nonhost resistance QTL (Rnhq) were selected to pursue map-based cloning. First, the effect of the QTLs was verified in near-isogenic lines (NILs). The NILs of Rphq2, Rphq3, Rphq4 and Rnhq (QTL-NILs) were available in L94 genetic background. L94 is extremely susceptible to Puccinia hordei, and, at seedling stage, somewhat susceptible to certain non-adapted rust fungi. The experimental barley line SusPtrit is also susceptible to P. hordei but, at seedling stage, also very susceptible to at least nine species of non-adapted rust fungi. In Chapter 3, we developed NILs in SusPtrit background for Rphq2, Rphq3, Rphq11, Rphq16 and two alleles of Rnhq, viz. L94 and Vada alleles. The effect of each QTL in L94 and SusPtrit genetic backgrounds was tested not only against different isolates of P. hordei but also against different species and isolates of non-adapted rust fungi. The QTL-NILs suggested that the effects of the partial resistance genes depended on rust species and rust isolates. Some introgressions conferred resistance to a broader spectrum of rust species and isolates than others, the broadest being the Rphq11-introgression. The NILs may overestimate the spectrum of effectiveness of the partial resistance genes because some NILs contain inadvertent donor genome in the background and the introgressed QTL region may contain several linked resistance genes, each with a narrow resistance spectrum. The introgression would then confer a resistance spectrum that is the combination of the spectra of several linked resistance genes. Allowing for the possibility of linkage of narrow-spectrum resistance genes, our study suggests that some genes may be involved in partial as well as nonhost resistance. Data also suggest that genetic background may play a role in the resistance conferred by the QTL-introgression.
The NILs also allow fine-mapping of the QTL as was done for Rphq2 in a previous study. In Chapter 4, we target to fine-map another two partial resistance QTLs of our interest, viz. Rphq11 and Rphq16. We, however, did not use the NILs for fine-mapping of Rphq11 and Rphq16. Instead, after validating the effect of Rphq11 and Rphq16 using the early breeding materials for developing NILs of Rphq11 and Rphq16, we developed fixed QTL-recombinants (i.e. homozygous recombinants at the Rphq11/Rphq16 QTL alleles, homozygous susceptible at the non-targeted QTL alleles). The genomic background of fixed QTL-recombinants was still segregating, but expected not to be relevant for the resistance level. Rphq11 was fine-mapped into a 0.2 cM genetic interval and a 1.4 cM genetic interval for Rphq16, before the NILs were ready. The strongest candidate gene for Rphq11 is a phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx). This gene corresponds to the new Rphq11 peak marker – WBE129, located within the refined 0.2 cM genetic intervals and was one of the candidate genes for Rphq11 identified through e-QTL mapping on Steptoe/Morex challenged with the same rust isolate. There was no clear candidate gene identified for Rphq16.
A QTL has to be fine-mapped into a sufficiently narrow genetic window to make physical mapping feasible. Rphq2 with a genetic window of 0.1 cM is ready for physical mapping. In Chapter 5, we have constructed two non-gridded Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries of barley from Vada and SusPtrit. Based on the insert sizes of the BAC clones, the estimated genome coverage of the Vada BAC library is 2.6x and of the SusPtrit BAC library 3.7x. The genome coverage of Vada is comparable to the BAC library of Morex, HVVMRXALLhB and SusPtrit to HVVMRXALLeA. The estimation of genome coverage based on microsatellite markers indicates, however, Vada and SusPtrit BAC libraries to have 5.0x and 6.8x genome coverage, respectively. Based on genome insert size, the BAC library of Vada gives at least 93% probability of identifying a clone corresponding to any sequence of Vada and for the BAC library of SusPtrit a probability of 98% is expected. Together, the two BAC libraries give more than 99% probability of recovering any specific sequence from the barley genome. A tiling path of three BAC clones was constructed for Vada, which cover the Rphq2 genetic window. The physical window of Rphq2 in Vada BAC contig is approximately 195 Kbp. For SusPtrit, the three BAC clones forming the contig did not cover the entire genetic window of Rphq2. The physical length bridged by them is approximately 226 Kbp. The TriAnnot pipeline annotated 12 genes in both the Vada and the SusPtrit contig, but only four of the annotated genes are shared between Vada and SusPtrit. The candidate genes for Rphq2 might be a resistance factor in Vada or a susceptibility factor in SusPtrit. The peroxidases and kinases are good candidates to represent Rphq2. It is possible that one of the peroxidase or kinase gene members in the physical window of Rphq2 explains the resistance phenotype observed. Another possibility is that peroxidase or kinase gene members function as a complex QTL. A member of the Seven in absentia protein family (SINA) can be a candidate as well. The gene families to which previously cloned genes for partial resistance belong were not found to be represented in the Rphq2 region.
We propose to perform functional analysis of candidate genes through Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation of the resistance allele into a susceptible genotype, such as SusPtrit. Unfortunately, SusPtrit is, as so many barley accessions, not amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In Chapter 2, we developed a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population (n=122) by crossing SusPtrit with Golden Promise to develop a ‘Golden SusPtrit’, i.e., a barley line combining SusPtrit’s high susceptibility to non-adapted rust fungi with the high amenability of Golden Promise for transformation. Using the DH population, we identified nine genomic regions occupied by QTLs against four non-adapted rust fungi and P. hordei isolate 1.2.1 (Ph.1.2.1). From 12 DH lines that were most susceptible to the tested non-adapted rust fungi, we selected four DHs for an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency test. We obtained a DH line (SG062N) with transformation efficiency of 11 to 17 transformants per 100 immature embryos. The level of susceptibility of SG062N to non-adapted rust fungi is either similar to or higher than the level of susceptibility of SusPtrit. Against P. hordei, the latency period conferred by SG062N at seedling stage is as short as that conferred by SusPtrit. SG062N, designated ‘Golden SusPtrit’, will be a valuable experimental line that could replace SusPtrit in future nonhost and partial resistance studies, especially for stable transformation using candidate genes that may determine the differences in resistance levels against adapted and non-adapted rust fungi.
Golden SusPtrit: a genetically well transformable barley line for studies on the resistance to rust fungi
Yeo Kuok San, F. ; Hensel, G. ; Vozábová, T. ; Martin-Sanz, A. ; Marcel, T.C. ; Kumlehn, J. ; Niks, R.E. - \ 2014
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 127 (2014)2. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 325 - 337.
quantitative trait loci - puccinia-hordei - mediated transformation - disease resistance - nonhost resistance - brassica-oleracea - pathogens - genes - defense - qtls
Nonhost and partial resistance to Puccinia rust fungi in barley are polygenically inherited. These types of resistance are principally prehaustorial, show high diversity between accessions of the plant species and are genetically associated. To study nonhost and partial resistance, as well as their association, candidate gene(s) for resistance must be cloned and tested in susceptible material where SusPtrit would be the line of choice. Unfortunately, SusPtrit is not amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Therefore, a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population (n = 122) was created by crossing SusPtrit with Golden Promise to develop a ‘Golden SusPtrit’, i.e., a barley line combining SusPtrit’s high susceptibility to non-adapted rust fungi with the high amenability of Golden Promise for transformation. We identified nine genomic regions occupied by resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) against four non-adapted rust fungi and P. hordei isolate 1.2.1 (Ph.1.2.1). Four DHs were selected for an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency test. They were among the 12 DH lines most susceptible to the tested non-adapted rust fungi. The most efficiently transformed DH line was SG062N (11–17 transformants per 100 immature embryos). The level of non-adapted rust infection on SG062N is either similar to or higher than the level of infection on SusPtrit. Against Ph.1.2.1, the latency period conferred by SG062N is as short as that conferred by SusPtrit. SG062N, designated ‘Golden SusPtrit’, will be a valuable experimental line that could replace SusPtrit in nonhost and partial resistance studies, especially for stable transformation using candidate genes that may be involved in rust-resistance mechanisms.
Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in Ireland, AFLP-fingerprinting and boat traffic both indicate an origin from Britain
Pollux, Bart ; Minchin, Dan ; Velde, Gerard Van Der; Alen, Theo Van; Moon-Van Der Staay, Seung Yeo ; Hackstein, Johannes - \ 2003
Freshwater Biology 48 (2003)6. - ISSN 0046-5070 - p. 1127 - 1139.
AFLP - Dreissena polymorpha - Invasions - Ireland - Trade
1. The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is an aquatic nuisance species that invaded Ireland around 1994. We studied the invasion of the zebra mussel combining field surveys and genetic studies, to determine the origin of invasion and the vector of introduction. 2. Field surveys showed that live zebra mussels, attached to the hulls of pleasure boats, were transported from Britain to Ireland. These boats were lifted from British waters onto trailers, transported to Ireland by ferry and lifted into Irish waters within a day. Length-frequency distributions of dead and living mussels on one vessel imported 3 months earlier revealed a traumatic occurrence caused by the overland, air-exposed transportation. Results show that a large number of individuals survived after re-immersion in Irish waters and continued to grow. 3. Zebra mussels from populations in Ireland, Great Britain, the Netherlands, France and North America, were analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP)-fingerprinting to determine the origin of the Irish invasion. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Irish and British mussels clustered closely together, suggesting an introduction from Britain. 4. Ireland remained un-invaded by the zebra mussel for more than 150 year. The introduction of the zebra mussel to Ireland occurred following the abolition of value added tax in January 1993 on imported second-hand boats from the European Union (UK and continental Europe). This, together with a favourable monetary exchange rate at that time, may have increased the risk of invasion of the zebra mussel.
The Effects of Salinity and Sodicity upon Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation in Chickpea
Rao, D.L.N. ; Giller, K.E. ; Yeo, A.R. ; Flowers, T.J. - \ 2002
Annals of Botany 89 (2002)5. - ISSN 0305-7364 - p. 563 - 570.
Production of grain legumes is severely reduced in salt-affected soils because their ability to form and maintain nitrogen-fixing nodules is impaired by both salinity and sodicity (alkalinity). Genotypes of chickpea, Cicer arietinum, with high nodulation capacity under stress were identified by field screening in a sodic soil in India and subsequently evaluated quantitatively for nitrogen fixation in a glasshouse study in a saline but neutral soil in the UK. In the field, pH 8?9 was the critical upper limit for most genotypes studied but genotypes with high nodulation outperformed all others at pH 9?0–9?2. The threshold limit of soil salinity for shoot growth was at ECe 3 dS m–1, except for the high-nodulation selection for which it was ECe 6. Nodulation was reduced in all genotypes at salinities above 3 dS m–1 but to a lesser extent in the high-nodulation selection, which proved inherently superior under both non-saline and stress conditions. Nitrogen fixation was also much more tolerant of salinity in this selection than in the other genotypes studied. The results show that chickpea genotypes tolerant of salt-affected soil have better nodulation and support higher rates of symbiotic nitrogen fixation than sensitive genotypes