Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Detecting Building Changes between Airborne Laser Scanning and Photogrammetric Data
Zhang, Zhenchao ; Vosselman, George ; Gerke, Markus ; Persello, Claudio ; Tuia, Devis ; Yang, Michael Ying - \ 2019
Remote Sensing 11 (2019)20. - ISSN 2072-4292 - 17 p.
Detecting topographic changes in an urban environment and keeping city-level point clouds up-to-date are important tasks for urban planning and monitoring. In practice, remote sensing data are often available only in different modalities for two epochs. Change detection between airborne laser scanning data and photogrammetric data is challenging due to the multi-modality of the input data and dense matching errors. This paper proposes a method to detect building changes between multimodal acquisitions. The multimodal inputs are converted and fed into a light-weighted pseudo-Siamese convolutional neural network (PSI-CNN) for change detection. Different network configurations and fusion strategies are compared. Our experiments on a large urban data set demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Our change map achieves a recall rate of 86.17%, a precision rate of 68.16%, and an F1-score of 76.13%. The comparison between Siamese architecture and feed-forward architecture brings many interesting findings and suggestions to the design of networks for multimodal data processing.
Joint toxicity of binary complexes of cartap, spirotetramat, copper, and cadmium to Vibrio fischeri
Yin, Hong Yang ; Zhao, Yuan ; Zheng, Yi ; Bao, Cong ; Huang, Xin Xin ; Ding, Ying Jie ; Cai, Qiang - \ 2019
Journal of Agro-Environment Science 38 (2019)9. - ISSN 1672-2043 - p. 2080 - 2085.
Acute toxicity - Heavy metals - Joint toxicity evaluation - Pesticide - Vibrio fischeri

In view of the widespread use of cartap, spirotetramat, and common heavy metal pollutants, such as copper and cadmium in agri? cultural activities, the joint toxicity of their complexes on Vibrio fischeri was studied. The EC50(median effective concentration)was calcu? lated with the acute toxic effects of binary complex contamination on Vibrio fischeri employing different exposure times. The Mixtures Toxic? ity Index method was employed to evaluate the joint toxicity. The acute toxicity experiments showed that the EC50 of copper, cadmium, car? tap, and spirotetramat on Vibrio fischeri at 15 mins was 0.53, 0.74, 79.06 mg·L-1, and 116.67 mg·L-1, respectively. The joint toxicity of car? tap and heavy metals on Vibrio fischeri was mainly additive. When the spirotetramat accounted for a low proportion in the binary mixtures, the joint toxicity was partially additive. The presence of cartap and spirotetramat may slow down the rate of metal ions entering the cell. Therefore, the study of exposure time for joint toxicity on Vibrio fischeri should be extended to 45 mins.

Propolis modulates the gut microbiota and improves the intestinal mucosal barrier function in diabetic rats
Xue, Meilan ; Liu, Ying ; Xu, Hongwei ; Zhou, Zhitong ; Ma, Yan ; Sun, Ting ; Liu, Man ; Zhang, Huaqi ; Liang, Hui - \ 2019
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 118 (2019). - ISSN 0753-3322
16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing - Diabetes - Gut microbiota - Propolis - Short chain fatty acid

Objective: Diabetes mellitus is associated with gut microbiota disturbance and intestinal mucosal injuries. This study investigated the influence of propolis on the gut microbiota and intestinal mucosa in rats with diabetes. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to the control group, model group, and three propolis groups (supplemented with 80, 160, and 240 mg/kg·bw propolis, respectively). A high-fat diet combined with a streptozotocin (STZ) abdominal injection were used to induce diabetes in the rats. After 4 weeks, the intestinal histopathological analysis of the ileum was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma insulin, glucose tolerance (OGTT) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured. The expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the ileum was measured using western blotting. The molecular ecology of the fecal gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. The contents of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: After propolis treatment, compared to the model group, FBG and HbA1c levels declined, while the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) increased. The levels of TJ proteins in the ileum increased in the propolis groups. The tight junctions and gap junctions of the intestinal epithelium were also improved in the propolis groups. The contents of the feces acetic acid, propionic acid and butyrate were increased in the propolis groups. 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing revealed that the composition of the gut microbiota of rats in the propolis supplement group was significantly improved. Conclusions: Compared to the model group, propolis exerted hypoglycemic effects in diabetic rats, and it repaired intestinal mucosal damage, benefited the communities of the gut microbiota and increased SCFA levels in diabetic rats.

Amazon forest response to CO2 fertilization dependent on plant phosphorus acquisition
Fleischer, Katrin ; Rammig, Anja ; Kauwe, Martin G. De; Walker, Anthony P. ; Domingues, Tomas F. ; Fuchslueger, Lucia ; Garcia, Sabrina ; Goll, Daniel S. ; Grandis, Adriana ; Jiang, Mingkai ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Hofhansl, Florian ; Holm, Jennifer A. ; Kruijt, Bart ; Leung, Felix ; Medlyn, Belinda E. ; Mercado, Lina M. ; Norby, Richard J. ; Pak, Bernard ; Randow, Celso von; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Schaap, Karst J. ; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J. ; Wang, Ying Ping ; Yang, Xiaojuan ; Zaehle, Sönke ; Zhu, Qing ; Lapola, David M. - \ 2019
Nature Geoscience 12 (2019). - ISSN 1752-0894 - p. 736 - 741.

Global terrestrial models currently predict that the Amazon rainforest will continue to act as a carbon sink in the future, primarily owing to the rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. Soil phosphorus impoverishment in parts of the Amazon basin largely controls its functioning, but the role of phosphorus availability has not been considered in global model ensembles—for example, during the Fifth Climate Model Intercomparison Project. Here we simulate the planned free-air CO2 enrichment experiment AmazonFACE with an ensemble of 14 terrestrial ecosystem models. We show that phosphorus availability reduces the projected CO2-induced biomass carbon growth by about 50% to 79 ± 63 g C m−2 yr−1 over 15 years compared to estimates from carbon and carbon–nitrogen models. Our results suggest that the resilience of the region to climate change may be much less than previously assumed. Variation in the biomass carbon response among the phosphorus-enabled models is considerable, ranging from 5 to 140 g C m−2 yr−1, owing to the contrasting plant phosphorus use and acquisition strategies considered among the models. The Amazon forest response thus depends on the interactions and relative contributions of the phosphorus acquisition and use strategies across individuals, and to what extent these processes can be upregulated under elevated CO2.

Differential Effects of Dry vs. Wet Heating of β-Lactoglobulin on Formation of sRAGE Binding Ligands and sIgE Epitope Recognition
Zenker, Hannah E. ; Ewaz, Arifa ; Deng, Ying ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Neerven, R.J. van; Jong, Nicolette W. De; Wichers, Harry J. ; Hettinga, Kasper A. ; Teodorowicz, Malgorzata - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 2072-6643
aggregation - allergenicity - CML - glycation - IgE binding - sRAGE - β-lactoglobulin

The effect of glycation and aggregation of thermally processed β-lactoglobulin (BLG) on binding to sRAGE and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) from cow milk allergic (CMA) patients were investigated. BLG was heated under dry conditions (water activity < 0.7) and wet conditions (in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4) at low temperature (<73 °C) and high temperatures (>90 °C) in the presence or absence of the milk sugar lactose. Nε-(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine (CML) western blot and glycation staining were used to directly identify glycation structures on the protein fractions on SDS-PAGE. Western blot was used to specify sRAGE and sIgE binding fractions. sRAGE binding was highest under wet-heated BLG independent of the presence of the milk sugar lactose. Under wet heating, high-molecular-weight aggregates were most potent and did not require the presence of CML to generate sRAGE binding ligands. In the dry system, sRAGE binding was observed only in the presence of lactose. sIgE binding affinity showed large individual differences and revealed four binding profiles. Dependent on the individual, sIgE binding decreased or increased by wet heating independent of the presence of lactose. Dry heating required the presence of lactose to show increased binding to aggregates in most individuals. This study highlights an important role of heating condition-dependent protein aggregation and glycation in changing the immunogenicity and antigenicity of cow's milk BLG.

Nitrogen Deposition Maintains a Positive Effect on Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in the 21st Century Despite Growing Phosphorus Limitation at Regional Scales
Fleischer, Katrin ; Dolman, A.J. ; Molen, Michiel K. van der; Rebel, Karin T. ; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Wassen, Martin J. ; Pak, Bernard ; Lu, Xingjie ; Rammig, Anja ; Wang, Ying Ping - \ 2019
Global Biogeochemical Cycles 33 (2019)6. - ISSN 0886-6236 - p. 810 - 824.
carbon sequestration - land carbon sink - nitrogen deposition - nitrogen fixation - phosphorus limitation - terrestrial ecosystems

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two dominant nutrients regulating the productivity of most terrestrial ecosystems. The growing imbalance of anthropogenic N and P inputs into the future is estimated to exacerbate P limitation on land and limit the land carbon (C) sink, so that we hypothesized that P limitation will increasingly reduce C sequestered per unit N deposited into the future. Using a global land surface model (CABLE), we simulated the effects of increased N deposition with and without P limitation on land C uptake and the fate of deposited N on land from 1901 to 2100. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that N deposition continued to induce land C sequestration into the future, contributing to 15% of future C sequestration as opposed to 6% over the historical period. P limitation reduced the future land C uptake per unit N deposited only moderately at the global scale but P limitation increasingly caused N deposition to have net negative effects on the land C balance in the temperate zone. P limitation further increased the fraction of deposited N that is lost via leaching to aquatic ecosystems, globally from 38.5% over the historical period to 53% into the future, and up to 75% in tropical ecosystems. Our results suggest continued N demand for plant productivity but also indicate growing adverse N deposition effects in the future biosphere, not fully accounted for in global models, emphasizing the urgent need to elaborate on model representations of N and P dynamics.

Strategies for robust and accurate experimental approaches to quantify nanomaterial bioaccumulation across a broad range of organisms
Petersen, Elijah J. ; Mortimer, Monika ; Burgess, Robert M. ; Handy, Richard ; Hanna, Shannon ; Ho, Kay T. ; Johnson, Monique ; Loureiro, Susana ; Selck, Henriette ; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J. ; Spurgeon, David ; Unrine, Jason ; Brink, Nico W. Van Den; Wang, Ying ; White, Jason ; Holden, Patricia - \ 2019
Environmental Science: Nano covers the benefits... 6 (2019)6. - ISSN 2051-8153 - p. 1619 - 1656.

One of the key components for environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is data on bioaccumulation potential. Accurately measuring bioaccumulation can be critical for regulatory decision-making regarding material hazard and risk, and for understanding the mechanism of toxicity. This perspective provides expert guidance for performing ENM bioaccumulation measurements across a broad range of test organisms and species. To accomplish this aim, we critically evaluated ENM bioaccumulation within three categories of organisms: single-celled species, multicellular species excluding plants, and multicellular plants. For aqueous exposures of suspended single-celled and small multicellular species, it is critical to perform a robust procedure to separate suspended ENMs and small organisms to avoid overestimating bioaccumulation. For many multicellular organisms, it is essential to differentiate between the ENMs adsorbed to external surfaces or in the digestive tract and the amount absorbed across epithelial tissues. For multicellular plants, key considerations include how exposure route and the role of the rhizosphere may affect the quantitative measurement of uptake, and that the efficiency of washing procedures to remove loosely attached ENMs to the roots is not well understood. Within each organism category, case studies are provided to illustrate key methodological considerations for conducting robust bioaccumulation experiments for different species within each major group. The full scope of ENM bioaccumulation measurements and interpretations are discussed including conducting the organism exposure, separating organisms from the ENMs in the test media after exposure, analytical methods to quantify ENMs in the tissues or cells, and modeling the ENM bioaccumulation results. One key finding to improve bioaccumulation measurements was the critical need for further analytical method development to identify and quantify ENMs in complex matrices. Overall, the discussion, suggestions, and case studies described herein will help improve the robustness of ENM bioaccumulation studies.

Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
Bixby, Honor ; Bentham, James ; Zhou, Bin ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Bennett, James E. ; Taddei, Cristina ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Rodriguez-Martinez, Andrea ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Khang, Young Ho ; Sorić, Maroje ; Gregg, Edward W. ; Miranda, J.J. ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. ; Savin, Stefan ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Iurilli, Maria L.C. ; Solomon, Bethlehem D. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Bovet, Pascal ; Chirita-Emandi, Adela ; Hambleton, Ian R. ; Hayes, Alison J. ; Ikeda, Nayu ; Kengne, Andre P. ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Li, Yanping ; McGarvey, Stephen T. ; Mostafa, Aya ; Neovius, Martin ; Starc, Gregor ; Zainuddin, Ahmad A. ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Abdrakhmanova, Shynar ; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila ; Abdul Hamid, Zargar ; Abubakar Garba, Jamila ; Ferrieres, Jean ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Visser, Marjolein ; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2019
Nature 569 (2019)7755. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 260 - 264.

Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities 1,2 . This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity 3–6 . Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017—and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions—was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing—and in some countries reversal—of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.

The value of manure - Manure as co-product in life cycle assessment
Leip, Adrian ; Ledgard, Stewart ; Uwizeye, Aimable ; Palhares, Julio C.P. ; Aller, M.F. ; Amon, Barbara ; Binder, Michael ; Cordovil, Claudia M.D.S. ; Camillis, Camillo De; Dong, Hongming ; Fusi, Alessandra ; Helin, Janne ; Hörtenhuber, Stefan ; Hristov, Alexander N. ; Koelsch, Richard ; Liu, Chunjiang ; Masso, Cargele ; Nkongolo, Nsalambi V. ; Patra, Amlan K. ; Redding, Matthew R. ; Rufino, Mariana C. ; Sakrabani, Ruben ; Thoma, Greg ; Vertès, Françoise ; Wang, Ying - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Management 241 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 293 - 304.
Livestock production is important for food security, nutrition, and landscape maintenance, but it is associated with several environmental impacts. To assess the risk and benefits arising from livestock production, transparent and robust indicators are required, such as those offered by life cycle assessment. A central question in such approaches is how environmental burden is allocated to livestock products and to manure that is re-used for agricultural production. To incentivize sustainable use of manure, it should be considered as a co-product as long as it is not disposed of, or wasted, or applied in excess of crop nutrient needs, in which case it should be treated as a waste. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to define nutrient requirements based on nutrient response curves to economic and physical optima and a pragmatic approach based on crop nutrient yield adjusted for nutrient losses to atmosphere and water. Allocation of environmental burden to manure and other livestock products is then based on the nutrient value from manure for crop production using the price of fertilizer nutrients. We illustrate and discuss the proposed method with two case studies.
Enzyme promiscuity shapes adaptation to novel growth substrates
Guzmán, Gabriela I. ; Sandberg, Troy E. ; LaCroix, Ryan A. ; Nyerges, Ákos ; Papp, Henrietta ; Raad, Markus de; King, Zachary A. ; Hefner, Ying ; Northen, Trent R. ; Notebaart, Richard A. ; Pál, Csaba ; Palsson, Bernhard O. ; Papp, Balázs ; Feist, Adam M. - \ 2019
Molecular Systems Biology 15 (2019)4. - ISSN 1744-4292 - p. e8462 - e8462.
adaptive evolution - enzyme promiscuity - genome‐scale modeling - systems biology

Evidence suggests that novel enzyme functions evolved from low-level promiscuous activities in ancestral enzymes. Yet, the evolutionary dynamics and physiological mechanisms of how such side activities contribute to systems-level adaptations are not well characterized. Furthermore, it remains untested whether knowledge of an organism's promiscuous reaction set, or underground metabolism, can aid in forecasting the genetic basis of metabolic adaptations. Here, we employ a computational model of underground metabolism and laboratory evolution experiments to examine the role of enzyme promiscuity in the acquisition and optimization of growth on predicted non-native substrates in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. After as few as approximately 20 generations, evolved populations repeatedly acquired the capacity to grow on five predicted non-native substrates-D-lyxose, D-2-deoxyribose, D-arabinose, m-tartrate, and monomethyl succinate. Altered promiscuous activities were shown to be directly involved in establishing high-efficiency pathways. Structural mutations shifted enzyme substrate turnover rates toward the new substrate while retaining a preference for the primary substrate. Finally, genes underlying the phenotypic innovations were accurately predicted by genome-scale model simulations of metabolism with enzyme promiscuity.

Fate and effects of triclosan in subtropical river biofilms
Zhang, Naisheng S. ; Peng, Feng-Jiao ; Ying, G.G. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2019
Aquatic Toxicology 212 (2019). - ISSN 0166-445X - p. 11 - 19.
Triclosan (TCS, 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound. Owing to its wide use, TCS has been frequently detected in river systems, especially in the (sub-)tropics. However, little information on its interaction with river biofilm in the (sub)tropics is currently available. In the present study, subtropical river biofilms were chronically exposed to TCS for 14 d at concentrations of 0.1–100 μg/L in artificial river water, which was followed by a 7 d recovery period. The results show that 100 μg/L TCS inhibited the growth of river biofilms and the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of TCS on river biofilms was 10 μg/L. The affected biofilms did not completely recover within the 7 d of recovery period due to the adsorbed TCS which was not removed together with dissolved TCS. Exposure to TCS caused significant changes in prokaryotic species composition of river biofilms but no significant effects on eukaryotic species composition. In particular, the relative abundance of several TCS-tolerant bacterial species (e.g., Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana, Sphingopyxis alaskensis and Sphingomonas wittichii) in river biofilms increased following exposure to 10 and 100 μg/L TCS. River biofilm efficiently removed TCS from the liquid phase and the pH values of the aquatic system significantly affected the removal efficiency of TCS (from 36% at pH 6.5 to 60% at pH 8.5). No degradation products were detected in the liquid phase after 5 days of exposure, possibly due to strong adsorption of the hydrophobic degradation products to river biofilms and through biodegradation by bacteria utilizing TCS and its degradation products as source of carbon and energy for growth, such as Methyloversalitis universalis and Methylobacterium aquaticum.
Response of sediment bacterial community to triclosan in subtropical freshwater benthic microcosms
Peng, Feng Jiao ; Diepens, Noël J. ; Pan, Chang Gui ; Ying, Guang Guo ; Salvito, Daniel ; Selck, Henriette ; Brink, Paul J. Van den - \ 2019
Environmental Pollution 248 (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 676 - 683.
Benthic macroinvertebrates - Microcosm - Sediment bacterial community - Toxicity - Triclosan

The response of sediment bacterial communities in subtropical freshwater benthic microcosms to sediment-associated triclosan (TCS; 28 d exposure) was analysed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. This study highlights the interactive effects of TCS and the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates (Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Viviparidae bellamya) on sediment bacterial communities. Our results show that TCS alone significantly altered the taxonomic composition and decreased alpha diversity of sediment bacterial communities at concentrations ≥80 μg TCS/g dry weight (dw) sediment (sed). Regarding dominant phyla, TCS significantly reduced the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes at these concentrations, whereas the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria increased. In the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates, the sediment bacterial community was affected by 8 μg TCS/g dw sed as well. However, the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates did not cause measurable changes to bacterial community in unspiked (i.e., control) sediment. These results indicate that TCS alone would not alter the sediment bacterial community at environmentally relevant concentrations (up till 8 μg/g dw sed), but may have an effect in combination with the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, we recommend to include benthic macroinvertebrates when assessing the response of sediment bacterial communities during exposure to environmental stress such as organic contaminants.

Hydrophobicity and aggregation, but not glycation, are key determinants for uptake of thermally processed β-lactoglobulin by THP-1 macrophages
Deng, Ying ; Govers, Coen ; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna ; Hulst, Nina van der; Hettinga, Kasper ; Wichers, Harry J. - \ 2019
Food Research International 120 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 102 - 113.
Aggregation - Glycation - Hydrophobicity - Thermal processing - THP-1 macrophage - Uptake - β-Lactoglobulin

The aim of this study is to investigate the immunological relevance of modifications of food protein structure due to thermal processing. We investigated the uptake of β-lactoglobulin, treated with 3 different processing methods, by THP-1 macrophages: wet heating (60 °C in solution) and high- or low-temperature (130 °C or 50 °C, respectively) dry heating, combined with either of 8 types of saccharides or without saccharide. The processing method that was applied significantly affected the uptake of BLG by THP-1 macrophages, while the type of saccharide only had an influence in high-temperature dry heated samples. A set of physicochemical parameters of processed samples was determined, to determine the samples' molecular weight, hydrophobicity, amyloid-like structure, surface charge and secondary structure. Analysis of protein structure alterations indicated the uptake to be linked to the wet heating processing method and percentage of α-helix structure, amyloid-like structures, polymers, and hydrophobicity. We hypothesize that both amyloid-like structures and molecular weight were related to the increased hydrophobicity and therefore postulate that the exposure of hydrophobic regions is the leading physicochemical characteristic for the observed uptake of wet heated BLG samples by THP-1 macrophages. This work demonstrates how differential thermal processing of foods, through protein modification, can have an impact on its interaction with the immune system.

Insights into the sediment toxicity of personal care products to freshwater oligochaete worms using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Peng, Feng Jiao ; Hu, Li Xin ; Pan, Chang Gui ; Ying, Guang Guo ; Brink, Paul J. van den - \ 2019
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 172 (2019). - ISSN 0147-6513 - p. 296 - 302.
Biochemical fingerprint - Deposit-feeder - FTIR spectroscopy - Microcosm - Musk - Triclosan

Personal care products (PCPs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to their wide use in daily life. However, there are insufficient sediment toxicity data of PCPs under ecologically relevant conditions. Here we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to investigate the sediment toxicity of triclosan (TCS) and galaxolide (HHCB) to two freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Branchiura sowerbyi, in microcosms containing a diverse biological community. Exposure to 8 µg TCS/g and 100 µg HHCB/g dry weight (dw) sediment induced significant biochemical alterations in the L. hoffmeisteri tissue. 8 µg TCS/g primarily affected proteins and nucleic acid while 100 µg HHCB/g mainly affected proteins and lipids of L. hoffmeisteri. However, 0.8 µg TCS/g and 30 µg HHCB/g did not cause significant subcellular toxicity to L. hoffmeisteri. In contrast, exposure of B. sowerbyi to 30 µg HHCB/g led to significant biochemical changes, including proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. Therefore, B. sowerbyi was more sensitive to sediment-associated HHCB than L. hoffmeisteri. Such effects were significantly enhanced when the HHCB concentration increased to 100 µg/g dw where death of B. sowerbyi occurred. These results demonstrate the application of FTIR spectroscopy to sediment toxicity testing of chemicals to benthic invertebrates with biochemical alterations as endpoints that are more sensitive than standard toxic endpoints (e.g., survival and growth).

Fate and effects of sediment-associated polycyclic musk HHCB in subtropical freshwater microcosms
Peng, Feng Jiao ; Kiggen, Fionne ; Pan, Chang Gui ; Bracewell, Sally A. ; Ying, Guang Guo ; Salvito, Daniel ; Selck, Henriette ; Brink, Paul J. Van den - \ 2019
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 169 (2019). - ISSN 0147-6513 - p. 902 - 910.
Bacterial community - Benthic macroinvertebrates - Bioaccumulation - Dissipation - HHCB - Toxicity

Galaxolide (HHCB) is used as a fragrance ingredient in household and personal care products, and has been ubiquitously detected in the environment. Here we investigated the fate of HHCB in subtropical freshwater microcosms, and evaluated effects of sediment-associated HHCB on a biological community consisting of algae, Daphnia, benthic macroinvertebrates and bacteria. The concentrations of sediment-associated HHCB did not change significantly during a 28 days exposure period, but HHCB accumulated in worms with biota-sediment accumulation-factor (BSAF) values in the range of 0.29–0.66 for Branchiura sowerbyi and 0.94–2.11 for Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. There was no significant effects of HHCB (30 μg/g dry weight (dw) sediment) on chlorophyll-a content, sediment bacterial community composition, and survival and growth of benthic macroinvertebrates. However, the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates altered the sediment bacterial community structure relative to microcosms without introduced organisms. The findings of this study suggest that a single high-dose of HHCB, over 28 days, at environmentally relevant concentrations would not impose direct toxicological risks to aquatic organisms such as benthic macroinvertebrates.

Water resource potential for large-scale sweet sorghum production as bioenergy feedstock in Northern China
Fu, Hai Mei ; Chen, Yan Hua ; Yang, Xiao Mei ; Di, Jia Ying ; Xu, Ming Gang ; Zhang, Bao Gui - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 653 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 758 - 764.
Arid and semi-arid conditions - Bioenergy - Marginal lands - Sweet sorghum - Water resource potential

This study investigated the water resource potential for bioenergy production from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)) in Northern China according to the distribution of water resources, climate conditions and the total water consumption of bioenergy based on sweet sorghum, which consisted of blue water, green water and grey water. At a case study site in Inner Mongolia, simulation with a plant phenological model was used to determine whether sweet sorghum could reach the harvestable stage for sugar juice production. The blue water in the agricultural phase was estimated according to the potential crop evapotranspiration (ETc), the drought sensitivity of sweet sorghum in different stages and the precipitation during the growing season. The results showed that the irrigation water was significantly different among the districts, ranging from 730 to 5500 m3/ha and 2060 to 6680 m3/ha for early-maturing and late-maturing varieties, respectively. To avoid the water pressure level to be exacerbated and the severe reallocation of water resources resulting in negative effects on other sectors, the maximal annual water withdrawal was set to not surpass the upper threshold of water stress level of 40%. That makes the maximum area for the production of sweet sorghum cannot exceed 1.95 × 104 ha, representing only 0.24% of the total marginal land area in Inner Mongolia. However, the economic benefits of bioenergy production from sweet sorghum would be negative due to the high labour input. Therefore, not only the availability of marginal land, the climate conditions and local water resources but also the improvement of mechanisation and agricultural production techniques should be considered to attain the sustainable development of bioenergy production and address global energy and environmental crises.

Putative regulatory candidate genes for QTL linked to fruit traits in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)
Ting, Ngoot Chin ; Mayes, Sean ; Massawe, Festo ; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi ; Jansen, Johannes ; Syed Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah ; Seng, Tzer Ying ; Ithnin, Maizura ; Singh, Rajinder - \ 2018
Euphytica 214 (2018)11. - ISSN 0014-2336
Deli dura - Marker-assisted selection - Pseudo-chromosome - Yangambi pisifera - Yield components

Palm oil is among the most important vegetable oils, contributing to a quarter of the world’s oils and fats market. The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fruitlets, which are the source of palm oil, vary from 8 to 20 g in weight. Palm oil content in the fruitlets is approximately 45–50% by weight and an increase in the percentage of mesocarp-to-fruit is likely to have a positive effect on oil yield. In this study, we report a quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with two yield related components, namely fruit and mesocarp content in a commercial breeding population (Deli dura × Yangambi pisifera). The QTL confidence interval of about 12 cM (~ 6.7 Mbp) was fine-mapped with 31 markers (17 SNPs and 14 SSRs) consisting of 20 nuclear markers derived from the maternal parent, six paternal and five co-segregating markers. Interestingly, inheritance of the paternal alleles leads to a larger difference in both fruit and mesocarp weight, when comparing genotypes in the progeny palms. Candidate genes and transcription factors were mined from the QTL region by positioning markers on the oil palm EG5 genome build. Putative genes and transcription factors involved in various biological processes including flower organ development, flowering, photosynthesis, microtubule formation, nitrogen and lipid metabolism were identified within this QTL interval on pseudo-chromosome 3. This genome-based approach allowed us to identify a number of potential candidate gene markers associated with oil palm fruit and mesocarp weight which can be further evaluated for potential use in marker-assisted breeding.

Farmers’ satisfaction with compensations for farmland expropriation in China : Evidence from micro-level data
Qu, Song ; Heerink, Nico ; Xia, Ying ; Guo, Junping - \ 2018
China Agricultural Economic Review 10 (2018)4. - ISSN 1756-137X - p. 572 - 588.
Farmers’ compensation - Farmland expropriation - Rural China

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the compensation amount as well as the mode through which compensations are paid on farmers’ satisfaction with the compensation received for farmland expropriation in China. Design/methodology/approach: Using rural household survey data collected among 450 households in three provinces, located in eastern, central and western China, this paper estimates the impacts of compensation payments, compensation modes, household characteristics and other control variables on farmers’ satisfaction applying an ordinal probit model. Findings: The major findings are: farmers’ satisfaction with the compensation depends not only on the size of the compensation but also on the gap between the compensation and the market value of the expropriated land; and the compensation amount positively affects farmers’ satisfaction when the social security compensation mode is used, but does not significantly affect farmers’ satisfaction when other modes are used. Originality/value: First, it contributes to the literature on farmland expropriation by providing empirical evidence of the direct impact of the compensation amount and other factors on the degree of farmers’ satisfaction with farmland compensations. Second, potential interactions between compensation amount and compensation mode are taken into account in estimating factors affecting farmers’ satisfaction.

The red bayberry genome and genetic basis of sex determination
Jia, Hui Min ; Jia, Hui Juan ; Cai, Qing Le ; Wang, Yan ; Zhao, Hai Bo ; Yang, Wei Fei ; Wang, Guo Yun ; Li, Ying Hui ; Zhan, Dong Liang ; Shen, Yu Tong ; Niu, Qing Feng ; Chang, Le ; Qiu, Jie ; Zhao, Lan ; Xie, Han Bing ; Fu, Wan Yi ; Jin, Jing ; Li, Xiong Wei ; Jiao, Yun ; Zhou, Chao Chao ; Tu, Ting ; Chai, Chun Yan ; Gao, Jin Long ; Fan, Long Jiang ; Weg, Eric van de; Wang, Jun Yi ; Gao, Zhong Shan - \ 2018
Plant Biotechnology Journal 17 (2018)2. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 397 - 409.
genome - Morella rubra - sex-determining region - sex-linked marker

Morella rubra, red bayberry, is an economically important fruit tree in south China. Here, we assembled the first high-quality genome for both a female and a male individual of red bayberry. The genome size was 313-Mb, and 90% sequences were assembled into eight pseudo chromosome molecules, with 32 493 predicted genes. By whole-genome comparison between the female and male and association analysis with sequences of bulked and individual DNA samples from female and male, a 59-Kb region determining female was identified and located on distal end of pseudochromosome 8, which contains abundant transposable element and seven putative genes, four of them are related to sex floral development. This 59-Kb female-specific region was likely to be derived from duplication and rearrangement of paralogous genes and retained non-recombinant in the female-specific region. Sex-specific molecular markers developed from candidate genes co-segregated with sex in a genetically diverse female and male germplasm. We propose sex determination follow the ZW model of female heterogamety. The genome sequence of red bayberry provides a valuable resource for plant sex chromosome evolution and also provides important insights for molecular biology, genetics and modern breeding in Myricaceae family.

Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Triclosan and Galaxolide in the Freshwater Oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri in a Water/Sediment Microcosm
Peng, Feng-Jiao ; Ying, Guang Guo ; Pan, Chang Gui ; Selck, Henriette ; Salvito, Daniel ; Brink, Paul J. van den - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Technology 52 (2018)15. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 8390 - 8398.

Personal care products are widely used in our daily life in considerable quantities and discharged via the down-the-drain route to aquatic environments, resulting in potential risks to aquatic organisms. We investigated bioaccumulation and biotransformation of two widely used personal care products, triclosan (TCS) and galaxolide (HHCB) spiked to sediment, in the oligochaete worm Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri in water/sediment microcosms. After 7 days of sediment exposure to 3.1 μg of TCS or HHCB/g of dry weight sediment, the accumulation of TCS and HHCB in L. hoffmeisteri reached equilibrium, at which point the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were 2.07 and 2.50 for TCS and HHCB, respectively. The presence of L. hoffmeisteri significantly accelerated the dissipation of the levels of TCS and HHCB in the microcosms, with approximately 9.03 and 2.90% of TCS and HHCB, respectively, eliminated from the water/sediment systems after exposure for 14 days in the presence of worms. Two biotransformation products, methyl triclosan and triclosan O-sulfate, were identified for TCS in worm tissue, whereas only methyl triclosan was identified in the sediment. Unlike TCS, no evidence of biotransformation products was found for HHCB in either worm tissue or sediment. These experiments demonstrate that L. hoffmeisteri biotransformed TCS through methylation and sulfation, whereas HHCB biotransformation was undetectable.

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