Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Parasite control in organic cattle farming: Management and farmers' perspectives from six European countries
Takeuchi-Storm, Nao ; Moakes, Simon ; Thüer, Susann ; Grovermann, Christian ; Verwer, Cynthia ; Verkaik, Jan ; Knubben-Schweizer, Gabriela ; Höglund, Johan ; Petkevičius, Saulius ; Thamsborg, Stig ; Werne, Steffen - \ 2019
Anthelmintic use - Cattle - Europe - Fasciola hepatica - Gastrointestinal nematodes - Organic farming

Organic ruminant production is expanding in the EU, but parasite management remains a constant challenge. Mandatory outdoor access for all age groups can increase exposure to pasture borne parasites, whilst restrictions in the prophylactic use of anthelmintics can limit parasite control. The scientific community has been working to deliver effective parasite control strategies and alternative approaches in order to slow down the development of anthelmintic resistance (AR). However, the current parasite control practices and overall awareness with regards to AR and alternative approaches on farms are largely unknown and may be causing a knowledge gap between the scientific and farming communities. Therefore, a structured survey was conducted in six European countries (Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Lithuania, Sweden) to provide basic data on practices, management and farmers' perspectives for grazing and parasite control (gastrointestinal worms and liver flukes) on organic cattle farms. Overall, 375 surveys were collected (282 dairy and 93 beef farms) in 2015–2016, and analysed descriptively. Additionally, surveys from the 228 dairy farms were assessed using a double-hurdle adoption model to identify the factors involved in the decision to drench against gastrointestinal parasites. Generally, there are prominent differences between countries, with monitoring methods differing especially, which has important implications in terms of knowledge transfer. For example, media warning was the most common method in DE, while antibody testing in bulk tank milk was the common method in NL. In other countries, clinical signs (diarrhoea, hair coat quality, and reduced weight or yield) and liver condemnation data were used frequently. In general, organic farmers from the six participating countries indicated that they would accept alternative approaches despite greater cost and labour. The likelihood of drenching were higher on farms with smaller farm areas, higher number of young stock and total livestock units and farms where faecal egg counts were used to monitor the parasites. In conclusion, it was evident that grazing and parasite management varied between the countries even though they operate under the same basic principles. Parasite management strategies must therefore be country specific and disseminated with appropriate methods.

Sex-Specific Differences in Fat Storage, Development of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Brain Structure in Juvenile HFD-Induced Obese Ldlr-/-.Leiden Mice
Jacobs, Sophie A.H. ; Gart, Eveline ; Vreeken, Debby ; Franx, Bart A.A. ; Wekking, Lotte ; Verweij, Vivienne G.M. ; Worms, Nicole ; Schoemaker, Marieke H. ; Gross, Gabriele ; Morrison, Martine C. ; Kleemann, Robert ; Arnoldussen, Ilse A.C. ; Kiliaan, Amanda J. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)8. - ISSN 2072-6643
juvenile - obesity - sex

BACKGROUND: Sex-specific differences play a role in metabolism, fat storage in adipose tissue, and brain structure. At juvenile age, brain function is susceptible to the effects of obesity; little is known about sex-specific differences in juvenile obesity. Therefore, this study examined sex-specific differences in adipose tissue and liver of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and putative alterations between male and female mice in brain structure in relation to behavioral changes during the development of juvenile obesity. METHODS: In six-week-old male and female Ldlr-/-.Leiden mice (n = 48), the impact of 18 weeks of HFD-feeding was examined. Fat distribution, liver pathology and brain structure and function were analyzed imunohisto- and biochemically, in cognitive tasks and with MRI. RESULTS: HFD-fed female mice were characterized by an increased perigonadal fat mass, pronounced macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation. Male mice on HFD displayed an increased mesenteric fat mass, pronounced adipose tissue inflammation and microvesicular hepatic steatosis. Only male HFD-fed mice showed decreased cerebral blood flow and reduced white matter integrity. CONCLUSIONS: At young age, male mice are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFD than female mice. This study emphasizes the importance of sex-specific differences in obesity, liver pathology, and brain function.

Baby's first bites: a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of vegetable-exposure and sensitive feeding on vegetable acceptance, eating behavior and weight gain in infants and toddlers
Veek, S.M.C. van der; Graaf, C. de; Vries, J.H.M. de; Jager, G. ; Vereijken, C.M.J.L. ; Weenen, H. ; Winden, N. van; Vliet, M.S. van; Schultink, J.M. ; Wild, V.W.T. de; Janssen, S. ; Mesman, J. - \ 2019
BMC Pediatrics 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2431 - 1 p.
Complementary feeding - Infant - Responsive feeding - Self-regulation of energy intake - Toddler - Vegetable exposure - Vegetables

BACKGROUND: The start of complementary feeding in infancy plays an essential role in promoting healthy eating habits. Evidence shows that it is important what infants are offered during this first introduction of solid foods: e.g. starting exclusively with vegetables is more successful for vegetable acceptance than starting with fruits. How infants are introduced to solid foods also matters: if parents are sensitive and responsive to infant cues during feeding, this may promote self-regulation of energy intake and a healthy weight. However, the effectiveness of the what and the how of complementary feeding has never been experimentally tested in the same study. In the current project the what and how (and their combination) are tested in one study to determine their relative importance for fostering vegetable acceptance and self-regulation of energy intake in infants. METHODS: A four-arm randomized controlled trial (Baby's First Bites (BFB)) was designed for 240 first-time Dutch mothers and their infants, 60 per arm. In this trial, we compare the effectiveness of (a) a vegetable-exposure intervention focusing on the what in complementary feeding; (b) a sensitive feeding intervention focusing on the how in complementary feeding, (c) a combined intervention focusing on the what and how in complementary feeding; (d) an attention-control group. All mothers participate in five sessions spread over the first year of eating solid foods (child age 4-16 months). Primary outcomes are vegetable consumption, vegetable liking and self-regulation of energy intake. Secondary outcomes are child eating behaviors, child anthropometrics and maternal feeding behavior. Outcomes are assessed before, during and directly after the interventions (child age 18 months), and when children are 24 and 36 months old. DISCUSSION: The outcomes are expected to assess the impact of the interventions and provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the development of vegetable acceptance, self-regulation and healthy eating patterns in infants and toddlers, as well as the prevention of overweight. The results may be used to improve current dietary advice given to parents of their young children on complementary feeding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered during inclusion of participants at the Netherlands National Trial Register (identifier NTR6572 ) and at ( NCT03348176 ). Protocol issue date: 1 April 2018; version number 1.

Protein supplementation elicits greater gains in maximal oxygen uptake capacity and stimulates lean mass accretion during prolonged endurance training: a double-blind randomized controlled trial
Knuiman, Pim ; Loon, Luc J.C. van; Wouters, Jeroen ; Hopman, Maria ; Mensink, Marco - \ 2019
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 110 (2019)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 508 - 518.
body composition - endurance training - maximal oxygen uptake capacity - protein supplementation - skeletal muscle oxidative capacity

BACKGROUND: Endurance training induces numerous cardiovascular and skeletal muscle adaptations, thereby increasing maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO2max). Whether protein supplementation enhances these adaptations remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to determine the impact of protein supplementation on changes in VO2max during prolonged endurance training. METHODS: We used a double-blind randomized controlled trial with repeated measures among 44 recreationally active, young males. Subjects performed 3 endurance training sessions per week for 10 wk. Supplements were provided immediately after each exercise session and daily before sleep, providing either protein (PRO group; n = 19; 21.5 ± 0.4 y) or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate as control (CON group; n = 21; 22.5 ± 0.5 y). The VO2max, simulated 10-km time trial performance, and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after 5 and 10 wk of endurance training. Fasting skeletal muscle tissue samples were taken before and after 5 and 10 wk to measure skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, and fasting blood samples were taken every 2 wk to measure hematological factors. RESULTS: VO2max increased to a greater extent in the PRO group than in the CON group after 5 wk (from 49.9 ± 0.8 to 54.9 ± 1.1 vs 50.8 ± 0.9 to 53.0 ± 1.1 mL · kg-1 · min-1; P < 0.05) and 10 wk (from 49.9 ± 0.8 to 55.4 ± 0.9 vs 50.8 ± 0.9 to 53.9 ± 1.2 mL · kg-1 · min-1; P < 0.05). Lean body mass increased in the PRO group whereas lean body mass in the CON group remained stable during the first 5 wk (1.5 ± 0.2 vs 0.1 ± 0.3 kg; P < 0.05) and after 10 wk (1.5 ± 0.3 vs 0.4 ± 0.3 kg; P < 0.05). Throughout the intervention, fat mass reduced significantly in the PRO group and there were no changes in the CON group after 5 wk (-0.6 ± 0.2 vs -0.1 ± 0.2 kg; P > 0.05) and 10 wk (-1.2 ± 0.4 vs -0.2 ± 0.2 kg; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Protein supplementation elicited greater gains in VO2max and stimulated lean mass accretion but did not improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and endurance performance during 10 wk of endurance training in healthy, young males. This trial was registered at as NCT03462381.

Non-destructive tree volume estimation through quantitative structure modelling: Comparing UAV laser scanning with terrestrial LIDAR
Brede, Benjamin ; Calders, Kim ; Lau, Alvaro ; Raumonen, Pasi ; Bartholomeus, Harm M. ; Herold, Martin ; Kooistra, Lammert - \ 2019
Remote Sensing of Environment 233 (2019). - ISSN 0034-4257
Above-Ground Biomass (AGB) product calibration and validation require ground reference plots at hectometric scales to match space-borne missions' resolution. Traditional forest inventory methods that use allometric equations for single tree AGB estimation suffer from biases and low accuracy, especially when dealing with large trees. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and explicit tree modelling show high potential for direct estimates of tree volume, but at the cost of time demanding fieldwork. This study aimed to assess if novel Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Laser Scanning (UAV-LS) could overcome this limitation, while delivering comparable results. For this purpose, the performance of UAV-LS in comparison with TLS for explicit tree modelling was tested in a Dutch temperate forest. In total, 200 trees with Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) ranging from 6 to 91 cm from 5 stands, including coniferous and deciduous species, have been scanned, segmented and subsequently modelled with TreeQSM. TreeQSM is a method that builds explicit tree models from laser scanner point clouds. Direct comparison with TLS derived models showed that UAV-LS reliably modelled the volume of trunks and branches with diameter ≥30 cm in the mature beech and oak stand with Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) of 0.85 and RMSE of1.12 m3. Including smaller branch volume led to a considerable overestimation and decrease in correspondence to CCC of 0.51 and increase in RMSE to 6.59 m3. Denser stands prevented sensing of trunks and further decreased CCC to 0.36 in the Norway spruce stand. Also small, young trees posed problems by preventing a proper depiction of the trunk circumference and decreased CCC to 0.01. This dependence on stand indicated a strong impact of canopy structure on the UAV-LS volume modelling capacity. Improved flight paths, repeated acquisition flights or alternative modelling strategies could improve UAV-LS modelling performance under these conditions. This study contributes to the use of UAV-LS for fast tree volume and AGB estimation on scales relevant for satellite AGB product calibration and validation.

Optimizing young child nutrition in Ethiopia : the effectiveness, acceptance and risks of micronutrient powders
Hafebo, A.S. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Edith Feskens; Inge Brouwer; Saskia Osendarp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439626 - 250 p.
Multiple vs Single Target Vegetable Exposure to Increase Young Children's Vegetable Intake
Poelman, Astrid A.M. ; Delahunty, Conor M. ; Broch, Maeva ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2019
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 51 (2019)8. - ISSN 1499-4046 - p. 985 - 992.
acceptance - repeated exposure - variety - vegetable intake - young children

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of repeated exposure to multiple vs single target vegetables in increasing young children's vegetable intake. Methods: A pilot randomized controlled trial (children aged 4–6 years, n = 32) was conducted, which exposed children at home 15 times over 5 weeks to either 1 (single target) or 3 (multiple target) vegetables. A comparison group did not change eating habits. Vegetable intake was measured by (1) a dinner meal consumed at research facilities, (2) 3-day weighed food records, and (3) usual vegetable intake (parent report). Measures were collected at baseline and either immediately after intervention (1), at 3-month follow-up (3) or both (2). Results: There were no differences between groups at baseline in vegetable intake. Usual vegetable intake increased in the multiple target group from.6 to 1.2 servings/d and did not change in other groups (P =.02). Food record data were not significant but underpowered. Vegetable intake from dinner meals was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions and Implications: Exposure to multiple vegetables simultaneously may be more effective than a single vegetable to increase young children's intake. Larger scale research is recommended to confirm the effectiveness of offering variety in exposure and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms involved.

Effects of age and environment on adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccination in dairy goats in relation to paratuberculosis control strategies
Koets, Ad ; Ravesloot, Lars ; Ruuls, Robin ; Dinkla, Annemieke ; Eisenberg, Susanne ; Lievaart-Peterson, Karianne - \ 2019
Veterinary Sciences 6 (2019)3. - ISSN 2306-7381
Diagnostics - Immunity - Mycobacterium - Paratuberculosis - Vaccination

Paratuberculosis infection is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In the Netherlands, 75% herd level prevalence of caprine paratuberculosis has been estimated, and vaccination is the principal control strategy applied. Most goat dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis systematically vaccinate goat kids in the first months of life with a commercially available whole cell MAP vaccine. We hypothesized that the development of adaptive immune responses in goats vaccinated at young age depends on the environment they are raised in, and this has implications for the application of immune diagnostic tests in vaccinated dairy goats. We evaluated the early immune response to vaccination in young goat kids sourced from a MAP unsuspected non-vaccinated herd and raised in a MAP-free environment. Subsequently we compared these with responses observed in birth year and vaccination matched adult goats raised on farms with endemic paratuberculosis. Results indicated that initial adaptive immune responses to vaccination are limited in a MAP-free environment. In addition, adult antibody positive vaccinated goats raised in a MAP endemic environment are less likely to be IS900 PCR-positive as compared to antibody negative herd mates. We conclude that test-and-cull strategies in a vaccinated herd are currently not feasible using available immune diagnostic tests.

Integrating morphological and physiological responses of tomato plants to light quality to the crop level by 3D modeling
Dieleman, J.A. ; Visser, Pieter H.B. de; Meinen, Esther ; Grit, Janneke G. ; Dueck, Tom A. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
Blue light - Functional-structural plant model - Green light - Photomorphogenesis - Red light - Spectral composition of light

Next to its intensity, the spectral composition of light is one of the most important factors affecting plant growth and morphology. The introduction of light emitting diodes (LEDs) offers perspectives to design optimal light spectra for plant production systems. However, knowledge on the effects of light quality on physiological plant processes is still limited. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of six light qualities on growth and plant architecture of young tomato plants, and to upscale these effects to the crop level using a multispectral, functional-structural plant model. Young tomato plants were grown under 210 μmol m-2 s-1 blue, green, amber, red, white or red/blue (92%/8%) LED light with a low intensity of sunlight as background. Plants grown under blue light were shorter and developed smaller leaves which were obliquely oriented upward. Leaves grown under blue light contained the highest levels of light harvesting pigments, but when exposed to blue light only, they had the lowest rate of leaf photosynthesis. However, when exposed to white light these leaves had the highest rate of photosynthesis. Under green light, tomato plants were taller and leaves were nearly horizontally oriented, with a high specific leaf area. The open plant structure combined with a high light transmission and reflection at the leaf level allowed green light to penetrate deeper into the canopy. Plants grown under red, amber and white light were comparable with respect to height, leaf area and biomass production. The 3D model simulations indicated that the observed changes in plant architecture had a significant impact on light absorbance at the leaf and crop level. The combination of plant architecture and spectrum dependent photosynthesis was found to result in the highest rate of crop photosynthesis under red light in plants initially grown under green light. These results suggest that dynamic light spectra may offer perspectives to increase growth and production in high value production systems such as greenhouse horticulture and vertical farming.

Moving towards a healthier assortment in secondary and vocational school food environments: Perspectives of Dutch students and school food policy professionals
Kleef, Ellen van; Meeuwsen, Tanja ; Rigterink, Jetteke ; Trijp, Hans Van - \ 2019
British Food Journal 121 (2019)9. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 2052 - 2066.
Adolescents - Consumer Attitudes - Government policy - Healthy food environment - Intervention acceptability - School canteen

Purpose: In many countries, schools move toward healthier canteen assortments by limiting the supply of unhealthy foods. The question arises whether this gives any undesirable side effects with students (e.g. compensation in purchases from school to outside retailers, reactance) and how to handle these so that operating school canteens remains financially viable. The purpose of this paper is to identify perspectives toward healthy school food assortments held by vocational education students and professionals within secondary and vocational schools with responsibility for school food policy (e.g. school canteen workers, teachers, school directors) in the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus groups were conducted with students at a vocational school (n=25 in total). A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct discussions. The interview guide also included three school canteen scenario’s (A: 100 percent healthy food, B: 50 percent healthy/50 percent unhealthy foods and C: 100 percent unhealthy food) and a set of nine intervention strategies. A brief survey included questions on the same three scenario’s and nine intervention strategies. A web-based survey was conducted among 68 professionals responsible for school food policy and included their evaluation of the same canteen scenarios and interventions. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Content analysis was done on the qualitative data. Findings: School food professionals were highly supportive of Scenario A (100 percent healthy food), as this formed a better fit with their policies and was believed to stronger encourage healthy eating. They did worry about financial feasibility given lower affordability and student reluctance to accept the assortment. Students were less in favor of Scenario A. Students discussed getting value for money and remaining freedom to make unhealthy choices. The authors discuss implications for policy makers who aim to implement measures to improve young people’s eating habits. Originality/value: This study contributes to the literature on creating healthier school food environments. This study uniquely examines a healthier school canteen from a viability perspective, including the views of students as primary customers. Given the need to progressively increase the number of foods complying to dietary guidelines in canteen assortments, this study provides insights into how and why assortment changes best can be implemented.

Grab to eat! Eating motivation dynamics measured by effort exertion depend on hunger state
Pirc, Matjaž ; Čad, E.M. ; Jager, G. ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 78 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293
Desire to eat - Eating motivation - Effort - Hand-grip force exertion - Liking - Wanting

A crucial challenge in investigating motivated human eating behaviour is to go beyond subjective measures, by developing reliable methods capable of objectively quantifying the dynamic aspects of appetitive motivation. We developed and tested a novel effort-based task (Grab-to-Eat Task (GET)), utilising handgrip force as a motivational measure, to capture eating motivation dynamics throughout consumption. Sixty normal-weight young adults were allocated to one of two hunger state conditions (hungry or satiated) and performed a continuous reinforcement-based task, during which sips of chocolate milk were self-administered with a handgrip force transducer. Motivation was covertly assessed by the magnitude of effort exertion towards each sip. Cumulatively, hungry subjects exerted more effort and consequently consumed more chocolate milk than satiated ones. Effort exertion declined throughout consumption in both groups, with the rate of decline being two-fold greater in hungry subjects. Furthermore, effort exerted in the initial stages of consumption predicted subsequent intake. Present results fit in the theoretical framework of reward-related motivation and suggest that the developed paradigm is sensitive to eating motivation dynamics throughout consumption and to differences in eating motivation related to hunger state. Further validation, ideally involving functional neuroimaging, would be imperative. In the future, this paradigm could be used to investigate eating motivation dynamics in various populations, conditions and food products.

Assessing specialized metabolite diversity in the cosmopolitan plant genus Euphorbia l.
Ernst, Madeleine ; Nothias, Louis Félix ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Silva, Ricardo R. ; Saslis-Lagoudakis, Haris C. ; Grace, Olwen M. ; Martinez-Swatson, Karen ; Hassemer, Gustavo ; Funez, Luís A. ; Simonsen, Henrik T. ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Staerk, Dan ; Nilsson, Niclas ; Lovato, Paola ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Rønsted, Nina - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
Coevolution - Computational metabolomics - Euphorbia - Immunomodulatory testing - Specialized metabolites

Coevolutionary theory suggests that an arms race between plants and herbivores yields increased plant specialized metabolite diversity and the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution predicts that coevolutionary interactions vary across geographic scales. Consequently, plant specialized metabolite diversity is expected to be highest in coevolutionary hotspots, geographic regions, which exhibit strong reciprocal selection on the interacting species. Despite being well-established theoretical frameworks, technical limitations have precluded rigorous hypothesis testing. Here we aim at understanding how geographic separation over evolutionary time may have impacted chemical differentiation in the cosmopolitan plant genus Euphorbia. We use a combination of state-of-the-art computational mass spectral metabolomics tools together with cell-based high-throughput immunomodulatory testing. Our results show significant differences in specialized metabolite diversity across geographically separated phylogenetic clades. Chemical structural diversity of the highly toxic Euphorbia diterpenoids is significantly reduced in species native to the Americas, compared to Afro-Eurasia. The localization of these compounds to young stems and roots suggest a possible ecological relevance in herbivory defense. This is further supported by reduced immunomodulatory activity in the American subclade as well as herbivore distribution patterns. We conclude that computational mass spectrometric metabolomics coupled with relevant ecological data provide a strong tool for exploring plant specialized metabolite diversity in a chemo-evolutionary framework.

Identifying Dietary Strategies to Improve Nutrient Adequacy among Ethiopian Infants and Young Children Using Linear Modelling
Samuel, Aregash ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. ; Ferguson, Elaine ; Borgonjen, Karin ; Alvarado, Brenda M. ; Neufeld, Lynnette M. ; Adish, Abdulaziz ; Kebede, Amha ; Brouwer, Inge D. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 2072-6643
complementary food - Ethiopia - food-based dietary recommendations - nutrient adequacy - Optifood analysis

Nutrient adequacy of young children's diet and best possible strategies to improve nutrient adequacy were assessed. Data from the Ethiopian National Food Consumption Survey were analysed using Optifood (software for linear programming) to identify nutrient gaps in diets for children (6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months), and to formulate feasible Food-Based Dietary Recommendations (FBDRs) in four regions which differ in culture and food practices. Alternative interventions including a local complementary food, micronutrient powders (MNPs), Small quantity Lipid-based Nutrient Supplement (Sq-LNS) and combinations of these were modelled in combination with the formulated FBDRs to compare their relative contributions. Risk of inadequate and excess nutrient intakes was simulated using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method and the full probability approach. Optimized local diets did not provide adequate zinc in all regions and age groups, iron for infants <12 months of age in all regions, and calcium, niacin, thiamine, folate, vitamin B12 and B6 in some regions and age-groups. The set of regional FBDRs, considerably different for four regions, increased nutrient adequacy but some nutrients remained sub-optimal. Combination of regional FBDRs with daily MNP supplementation for 6-12 months of age and every other day for 12-23 months of age, closed the identified nutrient gaps without leading to a substantial increase in the risk of excess intakes.

Value conflicts in mothers' snack choice for their 2- to 7-year-old children
Damen, Femke W.M. ; Luning, Pieternel A. ; Hofstede, Gert Jan ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Steenbekkers, Bea L.P.A. - \ 2019
Maternal and Child Nutrition (2019). - ISSN 1740-8695
children's dietary behaviour - diary research - food choice - healthy snack - interview - value conflict

Value conflicts appear when people experience struggles, doubts, and feelings of guilt when making food choices. This study aims to provide insight into value conflicts, which mothers may experience while providing snacks to their young children. Mothers are mainly responsible for providing the snacks their young children eat, making it a big responsibility for them as children's dietary behaviour tracks into adulthood. Possible value conflicts Dutch mothers (n = 136) experience while providing snacks to their 2- to 7-year-old children were investigated using food and motivation diaries and semi-structured interviews. Differences between mothers' educational level, first versus not-first child, and the differences in age of the children were taken into account. Results showed that the younger the children, the more value conflicts the mothers experienced. Mothers experienced most value conflicts when they provided snacks perceived as unhealthy. Six main value conflicts are elicited by this study, namely, conflicts between healthy and unhealthy snacks; conflicts between healthy and convenient snacks; conflicts related to providing snacks just before dinner; conflicts related to influence of others; conflicts when the child asks but the mother says “no”; and conflicts related to many unhealthy snacks at parties or visits. The insights gained in this study can be used for interventions to promote a healthier lifestyle, support the design of new snack products, and can give guidance for marketing challenges in global snack markets.

Effects of pre-transport diet, transport duration and type of vehicle on metabolism and immunity of young veal calves
Marcato, F. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. ; Engel, B. ; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M. ; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2019
In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Production Diseases in Farm Animals. - Bern, Switserland : University of Bern - ISBN 9783906813936 - p. 97 - 97.
Transport is one of the largest challenges faced by veal calves. The first transport occurs when calves are transported from the dairy farms to a collection center at 14-20 days of age. Then, with a second transport, calves are brought to the veal farms. During transport and at the collection center, calves are mixed and exposed to new environmental conditions and microorganisms. Consequently, transport is associated with a high level of stress and an increase in infectious disease incidence. As a consequence of stress, the metabolism, immunity and health of calves might be compromised. Previous studies explored effects of transport on hematological, metabolic and immunological variables of calves. However, these studies focused just on one single factor (e.g. transport duration or pre-transport nutrition) and not on a combination of multiple factors associated with transport. The current research aimed to investigate effects of a pre-transport diet, transport duration and type of vehicle on metabolic and immunological variables of young calves upon arrival at the veal farm.
Effects of pre-transport diet, transport duration and type of vehicle on metabolism and immunity of young veal calves
Marcato, Francesca - \ 2019
Human respiratory syncytial virus infection in the pre-clinical calf model
Cortjens, B. ; Jong, R. de; Bonsing, J.G. ; Woensel, J.B.M. van; Bem, R.A. ; Antonis, A.F.G. - \ 2019
Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 65 (2019). - ISSN 0147-9571 - p. 213 - 218.
Animal model - Bronchiolitis - Calves - Neutrophil - Respiratory syncytial virus - Upper and lower respiratory tract infections

Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most important respiratory pathogen in young children worldwide. Experimental modelling of hRSV disease by bovine RSV (bRSV) infection in calves provides an important tool for developing new strategies for prevention and treatment. Depending on the scientific hypothesis under investigation, this cognate host-virus model might have the disadvantage of using a highly related but not genetically identical virus. In this study, we aim to describe viral kinetics and (clinical) disease characteristics in calves inoculated with hRSV. Our results show that hRSV infects the upper and, to a lesser extent, the lower respiratory tract of calves. Infection causes upper airway clinical disease symptoms and neutrophilic infiltration of the lower airways. We conclude that a hRSV model in calves may aid future research involving distinct scientific questions related to hRSV disease in children.

The potential of green rehabilitation for young employees with burnout: a salutogenic approach
Pijpker, Roald ; Vaandrager, L. ; Veen, E.J. ; Koelen, M.A. - \ 2019
In vivo assessment of muscle mitochondrial function in healthy, young males in relation to parameters of aerobic fitness
Lagerwaard, Bart ; Keijer, Jaap ; McCully, Kevin K. ; Boer, Vincent C.J. de; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G. - \ 2019
European Journal of Applied Physiology 119 (2019)8. - ISSN 1439-6319 - p. 1799 - 1808.
EPOC - Mitochondrial capacity - Muscle mitochondria - NIRS - Oxidative metabolism

Purpose: The recovery of muscle oxygen consumption (mV˙ O2) after exercise provides a measure of skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity, as more and better-functioning mitochondria will be able to restore mV˙ O2 faster to the pre-exercise state. The aim was to measure muscle mitochondrial capacity using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) within a healthy, normally active population and relate this to parameters of aerobic fitness, investigating the applicability and relevance of using NIRS to assess muscle mitochondrial capacity non-invasively. Methods: Mitochondrial capacity was analysed in the gastrocnemius and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscles of eight relatively high-aerobic fitness (V˙ O2peak ≥ 57 mL/kg/min) and eight relatively low-aerobic fitness male subjects (V˙ O2peak ≤ 47 mL/kg/min). Recovery of whole body V˙ O2, i.e. excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was analysed after a cycling protocol. Results: Mitochondrial capacity, as analysed using NIRS, was significantly higher in high-fitness individuals compared to low-fitness individuals in the gastrocnemius, but not in the FDS (p = 0.0036 and p = 0.20, respectively). Mitochondrial capacity in the gastrocnemius was significantly correlated with V˙ O2peak (R2 = 0.57, p = 0.0019). Whole body V˙ O2 recovery was significantly faster in the high-fitness individuals (p = 0.0048), and correlated significantly with mitochondrial capacity in the gastrocnemius (R2 = 0.34, p = 0.028). Conclusion: NIRS measurements can be used to assess differences in mitochondrial muscle oxygen consumption within a relatively normal, healthy population. Furthermore, mitochondrial capacity correlated with parameters of aerobic fitness (V˙ O2peak and EPOC), emphasising the physiological relevance of the NIRS measurements.

Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: identification and partial characterization of montanine production in Rhodophiala bifida plant
Reis, Andressa ; Magne, Kevin ; Massot, Sophie ; Tallini, Luciana R. ; Scopel, Marina ; Bastida, Jaume ; Ratet, Pascal ; Zuanazzi, José A.S. - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Rhodophiala bifida (R. bifida) is a representative of the Amaryllidaceae plant family and is rich in montanine, an alkaloid with high pharmaceutical potential. Despite the interest in these compounds, many steps of the biosynthetic pathway have not been elucidated. In this study, we identified the alkaloids produced in different organs of R. bifida under different growth conditions, set up the conditions for in vitro R. bifida regeneration and initiated the molecular characterization of two R. bifida genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis: the Norbelladine 4′-O-Methyltransferase (RbN4OMT) and the Cytochrome P450 (RbCYP96T). We show that montanine is the main alkaloid produced in the different R. bifida organs and developed a direct organogenesis regeneration protocol, using twin-scale explants cultivated on media enriched with naphthalene acetic acid and benzyladenine. Finally, we analyzed the RbN4OMT and RbCYP96T gene expressions in different organs and culture conditions and compared them to alkaloid production. In different organs of R. bifida young, adult and regenerated plants, as well as under various growing conditions, the transcripts accumulation was correlated with the production of alkaloids. This work provides new tools to improve the production of this important pharmaceutical compound and for future biotechnological studies.

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