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Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Kendrick, Ian ; Lyon, Christopher ; Page, Glenn ; Patterson, James ; Riedy, Chris ; Strasser, Tim ; Verveen, Stephan ; Adams, David ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Klaes, Matthias ; Leicester, Graham ; Linyard, Alison ; McCurdy, Adrienne ; Ryan, Paul ; Sharpe, Bill ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Abdurrahim, Ali Yansyah ; Abson, David ; Adetunji, Olufemi Samson ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Alvarez-Pereira, Carlos ; Amparo, Jennifer Marie ; Amundsen, Helene ; Anderson, Lakin ; Andersson, Lotta ; Asquith, Michael ; Augenstein, Karoline ; Barrie, Jack ; Bent, David ; Bentz, Julia ; Bergsten, Arvid ; Berzonsky, Carol ; Bina, Olivia ; Blackstock, Kirsty ; Boehnert, Joanna ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Brand, Christine ; Böhme (born Sangmeister), Jessica ; Bøjer, Marianne Mille ; Carmen, Esther ; Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi ; Choudhury, Sarah ; Chunhachoti-ananta, Supot ; Cockburn, Jessica ; Colvin, John ; Connon, Irena L.C. ; Cornforth, Rosalind ; Cox, Robin S. ; Cradock-Henry, Nicholas ; Cramer, Laura ; Cremaschi, Almendra ; Dannevig, Halvor ; Day, Catherine T. ; Lima Hutchison, Cathel de; Vrieze, Anke de; Desai, Vikas ; Dolley, Jonathan ; Duckett, Dominic ; Durrant, Rachael Amy ; Egermann, Markus ; Elsner (Adams), Emily ; Fremantle, Chris ; Fullwood-Thomas, Jessica ; Galafassi, Diego ; Gobby, Jen ; Golland, Ami ; González-Padrón, Shiara Kirana ; Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin ; Grandin, Jakob ; Grenni, Sara ; Lauren Gunnell, Jade ; Gusmao, Felipe ; Hamann, Maike ; Harding, Brian ; Harper, Gavin ; Hesselgren, Mia ; Hestad, Dina ; Heykoop, Cheryl Anne ; Holmén, Johan ; Holstead, Kirsty ; Hoolohan, Claire ; Horcea-Milcu, Andra Ioana ; Horlings, Lummina Geertruida ; Howden, Stuart Mark ; Howell, Rachel Angharad ; Huque, Sarah Insia ; Inturias Canedo, Mirna Liz ; Iro, Chidinma Yvonne ; Ives, Christopher D. ; John, Beatrice ; Joshi, Rajiv ; Juarez-Bourke, Sadhbh ; Juma, Dauglas Wafula ; Karlsen, Bea Cecilie ; Kliem, Lea ; Kläy, Andreas ; Kuenkel, Petra ; Kunze, Iris ; Lam, David Patrick Michael ; Lang, Daniel J. ; Larkin, Alice ; Light, Ann ; Luederitz, Christopher ; Luthe, Tobias ; Maguire, Cathy ; Mahecha-Groot, Ana Maria ; Malcolm, Jackie ; Marshall, Fiona ; Maru, Yiheyis ; McLachlan, Carly ; Mmbando, Peter ; Mohapatra, Subhakanta ; Moore, Michele Lee ; Moriggi, Angela ; Morley-Fletcher, Mark ; Moser, Susanne ; Mueller, Konstanze Marion ; Mukute, Mutizwa ; Mühlemeier, Susan ; Naess, Lars Otto ; Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Novo, Paula ; ÓBrien, Karen ; O'Connell, Deborah Anne ; O'Donnell, Kathleen ; Olsson, Per ; Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Pereira, Laura ; Petridis, Panos ; Peukert, Daniela ; Phear, Nicky ; Pisters, Siri Renée ; Polsky, Matt ; Pound, Diana ; Preiser, Rika ; Rahman, Md Sajidur ; Reed, Mark S. ; Revell, Philip ; Rodriguez, Iokiñe ; Rogers, Briony Cathryn ; Rohr, Jascha ; Nordbø Rosenberg, Milda ; Ross, Helen ; Russell, Shona ; Ryan, Melanie ; Saha, Probal ; Schleicher, Katharina ; Schneider, Flurina ; Scoville-Simonds, Morgan ; Searle, Beverley ; Sebhatu, Samuel Petros ; Sesana, Elena ; Silverman, Howard ; Singh, Chandni ; Sterling, Eleanor ; Stewart, Sarah Jane ; Tàbara, J.D. ; Taylor, Douglas ; Thornton, Philip ; Tribaldos, Theresa Margarete ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Waddock, Sandra ; Merwe, Liza van der; Mierlo, Barbara van; Zwanenberg, Patrick van; Velarde, Sandra Judith ; Washbourne, Carla Leanne ; Waylen, Kerry ; Weiser, Annika ; Wight, Ian ; Williams, Stephen ; Woods, Mel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Wright, Ness ; Wunder, Stefanie ; Wyllie, Alastair ; Young, Hannah R. - \ 2020
Energy Research & Social Science 70 (2020). - ISSN 2214-6296
Climate and energy research - Epistemology - Knowledge - Social-technical transitions - Sustainability science - Transformation
Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.
Test grasgroeivoorspelling in de praktijk : resultaten modelmatige schatting drogestofopbrengst en ruw eiwitgehalte
Hoving, I.E. ; Holshof, G. ; Stienezen, M. ; Roerink, G.J. - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen Livestock Research 1251) - 47
Grassland management is an important part of farm management on a dairy farm.A web application is being developed for dairy farmers to predict the dry matter productionand fodderquality. In a practical pilot on five dairy farms, the model-based estimate of dry matter yield and crude protein content of grass has been compared with grass height and reflection measurements respectively fresh grass analyzes. Due to instabilitythe web application could not yet be used, the test was carried out after the growing season. The prediction of grass yields and crude protein contents gave a mixed picture, sometimes with a good approximation of reality, but sometimes also with clear deviations. For yield, it mainly concerned an underestimation for the first cut and an overestimate for cuts after grazing.For protein, the content was especially overestimated in relatively young grass. Model improvements and combining growth prediction with measurement data make it possible to improve the reliability of estimates.
Bending the curve of terrestrial biodiversity needs an integrated strategy
Leclère, David ; Obersteiner, Michael ; Barrett, Mike ; Butchart, Stuart H.M. ; Chaudhary, Abhishek ; Palma, Adriana De; DeClerck, Fabrice A.J. ; Marco, Moreno Di; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Dürauer, Martina ; Freeman, Robin ; Harfoot, Michael ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Hellweg, Stefanie ; Hilbers, Jelle P. ; Hill, Samantha L.L. ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Jennings, Nancy ; Krisztin, Tamás ; Mace, Georgina M. ; Ohashi, Haruka ; Popp, Alexander ; Purvis, Andy ; Schipper, Aafke M. ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Valin, Hugo ; Meijl, Hans van; Zeist, Willem Jan van; Visconti, Piero ; Alkemade, Rob ; Almond, Rosamunde ; Bunting, Gill ; Burgess, Neil D. ; Cornell, Sarah E. ; Fulvio, Fulvio Di; Ferrier, Simon ; Fritz, Steffen ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Grooten, Monique ; Harwood, Thomas ; Havlík, Petr ; Herrero, Mario ; Hoskins, Andrew J. ; Jung, Martin ; Kram, Tom ; Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Matsui, Tetsuya ; Meyer, Carsten ; Nel, Deon ; Newbold, Tim ; Schmidt-Traub, Guido ; Stehfest, Elke ; Strassburg, Bernardo B.N. ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Ware, Chris ; Watson, James E.M. ; Wu, Wenchao ; Young, Lucy - \ 2020
Nature 585 (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 551 - 556.
Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity3; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge4. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and biodiversity models to assess whether—and how—humanity can reverse the declines in terrestrial biodiversity caused by habitat conversion, which is a major threat to biodiversity5. We show that immediate efforts, consistent with the broader sustainability agenda but of unprecedented ambition and coordination, could enable the provision of food for the growing human population while reversing the global terrestrial biodiversity trends caused by habitat conversion. If we decide to increase the extent of land under conservation management, restore degraded land and generalize landscape-level conservation planning, biodiversity trends from habitat conversion could become positive by the mid-twenty-first century on average across models (confidence interval, 2042–2061), but this was not the case for all models. Food prices could increase and, on average across models, almost half (confidence interval, 34–50%) of the future biodiversity losses could not be avoided. However, additionally tackling the drivers of land-use change could avoid conflict with affordable food provision and reduces the environmental effects of the food-provision system. Through further sustainable intensification and trade, reduced food waste and more plant-based human diets, more than two thirds of future biodiversity losses are avoided and the biodiversity trends from habitat conversion are reversed by 2050 for almost all of the models. Although limiting further loss will remain challenging in several biodiversity-rich regions, and other threats—such as climate change—must be addressed to truly reverse the declines in biodiversity, our results show that ambitious conservation efforts and food system transformation are central to an effective post-2020 biodiversity strategy.
Herders and livestock professionals' experiences and perceptions on developments and challenges in yak farming in Bhutan
Dorji, Nedup ; Derks, Marjolein ; Dorji, Phub ; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G. ; Bokkers, Eddie A.M. - \ 2020
Animal Production Science (2020). - ISSN 1836-0939
policy - welfare
Context: The yak-based transhumant system is influenced by socioeconomic developments, regulations and environmental changes. Little is known about the impact of this on yak farming practices among different regions in Bhutan. Aim and methods: The experienced changes in yak farming practices over the years and perceptions on developments were assessed through interviews with yak herders in three regions (west, n = 22; central, n = 20; east, n = 25) and with livestock extensionists (n = 28). Key results: At present, forage shortage in the rangeland, yak mortality mainly due to (endangered) wild predators and, to a lesser extent, labour availability are the main concerns in all yak farming regions. These concerns have increased due to socioeconomic developments (e.g. education and other sources of income) and strong conservation policy, which affects the living environment of the yaks. Overall, the market to sell yak products and livestock extension services has improved, but forage shortage and yak mortality has increased over the years. However, some factors causing forage shortage are more specific to certain regions, e.g. competition with the horse population (west), cattle and cattle-yak hybrids (east), cordyceps collection (west and central) and prohibited burning of rangelands (central and east). Family labour available to herd yaks has slightly decreased, and the number of young family members (successors) to take over yak farming has decreased over the years. Conclusions: On the basis of the experiences and perceptions of yak herders and extensionists, we conclude that increasing forage shortage in the rangelands, decreasing numbers of successors, and increasing yak predation by wild animals are the major threats to yak farming. Implications: This study demonstrates that yak farming in Bhutan experiences an increasing pressure to sustain. Differences between regions make clear that a one blanket-policy will not be effective to preserve yak farming for the future.
A decision support framework assessing management impacts on crop yield, soil carbon changes and nitrogen losses to the environment
Young, Madaline D. ; Ros, Gerard H. ; Vries, Wim de - \ 2020
European Journal of Soil Science (2020). - ISSN 1351-0754
crop yield - decision support tools - environmental performance - management - nutrient surplus - soil organic carbon
Agricultural management practices have multiple impacts on farming systems, including crop yield, soil fertility parameters such as soil organic carbon (SOC), and environmental quality. Agricultural decision support tools (DSTs) are key in sustainable farm strategies to optimize yield and minimize environmental losses because both the current agroecosystem properties as well as the effectiveness of management practices are highly variable in time and space. Here, we introduce a highly data-driven framework focusing on the evaluation of agronomic measures to reach agronomic and environmental targets. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by a proof of principle for 81 selected farm types across Europe, focusing on measures with respect to crop rotation, fertilization and soil tillage. Synthesizing data from long-term experiments and meta-analytical models, we estimated the impact of these measures on crop yield, SOC and N surpluses, while accounting for site-specific properties for the current and desired situation. The impacts of these measures on all farm types have been quantified, and optimum sets of agronomic measures have been selected in order to maximize crop yield and SOC levels and minimize N surpluses to reach the critical values for NO3− concentrations in groundwater. Our results, quantifying trade-offs among sustainability indicators that have traditionally been analyzed separately, illustrate that the suitability of measures varies by soil, climate and crop types within Europe. Our approach is promising for mapping region-specific management recommendations and evaluating the effectiveness of agronomic measures over multiple environmental goals and targets. Highlights: We find a lack of empirical-based DSTs holistically assessing agronomic practices and indicators. Meta-analytical models were used to assess impacts of best fertilizer, tillage and crop measures. Our multi-criteria analysis shows impacts vary with crop, soil and climate in European regions. We demonstrate our developed framework focusing on crop yield, soil carbon and nitrogen losses.
Why (not) participate in citizen science? Motivational factors and barriers to participate in a citizen science program for malaria control in Rwanda
Asingizwe, Domina ; Poortvliet, P.M. ; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Ingabire, Chantal Marie ; Mutesa, Leon ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2020
PLoS ONE 15 (2020)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
This study explores the motivational factors and barriers to participate in a citizen science program for malaria control in Rwanda. It assesses the changes in motivational factors over time and compares these factors among age and gender groups. Using a qualitative approach, this study involved 44 participants. At the initial stage, people participated in the program because of curiosity, desire to learn new things, helping others, and willingness to contribute to malaria control. As the engagement continued, other factors including ease of use of materials to report observations, the usefulness of the program, and recognition also played a crucial role in the retention of volunteers. Lack of time and information about the recruitment process, perceived low efficacy of the mosquito trap, and difficulties in collecting observations were reported as barriers to get and stay involved. Some variations in the motivational factors were observed among age and gender groups. At the initial phase, young adults and adults, as well as men and women were almost equally motivated to contribute to malaria control. For the ongoing phase, for age, the two groups were almost equally motivated by recognition of their effort. Also, the opportunity for learning was an important factor among young adults while ease of use of the materials was central for adults. For gender, the usefulness of the project, ease of use of materials, and learning opportunities were important motivational factors among women, while men were more motivated by recognition of their efforts. A framework including motivational factors and barriers at each stage of participation is presented. This framework may be used to explore motivations and barriers in future citizen science projects and might help coordinators of citizen science programs to determine whom to target, by which message, and at what stage of participation to retain volunteers in citizen science projects
Understanding the psychological and social environmental determinants driving infant and young child feeding practices among Rwandan households: a salutogenic approach
Ahishakiye, Jeanine - \ 2020
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.A. Koelen; H.W. Vaandrager, co-promotor(en): I.D. Brouwer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463954563 - 166
Although adequate nutrition and good health are children’s rights, they are often violated, especially in developing countries where undernutrition is one of the leading causes of mortality among children under the age of five. The problem is more pertinent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), that still suffers from the highest under-five mortality rates in the world. Rwanda does not escape from this sad trend because despite continuous policy efforts, chronic malnutrition (stunting) among under-five remains a key public health concern. The 2014/15 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS) shows that 38% of under-five years old children were stunted in 2015. Hence, the Government of Rwanda has implemented numerous strategies to tackle the problem of chronic malnutrition. However, to date, much of our understanding on child chronic (mal) nutrition has been primarily based on research conducted on the nutritional physiological determinants of stunting such as the timing, composition and frequency of infant and young child feeding (IYCF). This view, however, has lacked a holistic orientation, ignoring the contextual and social determinants of IYCF practices. Moreover, the approach to tackle child undernutrition has been predominantly disease and risk-oriented, looking at the factors underlying stunting (pathogenic orientation). From this perspective, IYCF practices have been researched in relation to their contribution to stunting and the determinants of inadequate IYCF practices. Very little is known on factors contributing to good nutritional status, with a particular focus on factors facilitating mothers’ appropriate IYCF in the context of their everyday lives. The overall aim of this thesis is to identify factors that enable healthy IYCF practices in Rwandan households in order to contribute to the development of solution-oriented strategies for reducing child malnutrition. This dissertation is guided by the the salutogenic model of health that, in contrary to pathogenesis (that searches for causes of diseases), focuses on the search for the origins of health.
The study was carried out in the catchment areas of Rutobwe and Buramba health centres located in a rural part of the district of Muhanga, in the southern province of Rwanda. The study adopted both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Four qualitative studies have been carried out. The first study was conducted among key informants ( mothers and fathers of infant aged 0–23 months, grandmothers and community health workers, n=144), focussed on a general understanding of IYCF practices, the challenges and the responses towards appropriate IYCF practices in the context in which mothers must live their lives (Chapter 2). Next, an in-depth study has been carried out on factors that impede or facilitate appropriate IYCF practices from the perspective of mothers themselves (n=39), specifically during the first 6 months of a child’s life (Chapter 3). The third study focused on coping strategies and facilitating factors among mothers who managed to follow the recommended IYCF practices during the first year of a child’s life (n=17; Chapter 4). Finally, the fourth study focused on unravelling how those mothers managed to do well by exploring the life course learning experiences that play a role in shaping healthy IYCF practices during the first year of a child’s life (n=14; Chapter 5).
Based on the studies carried out, this thesis concludes that appropriate IYCF practices reflect not only food related practices to support the physical health but also the social and emotional needs of the mother and the child. In everyday life, mothers face challenges when they try to pursue the recommended IYCF practices. The results from this thesis reveal that mothers experienced an interplay of barriers and facilitators for appropriate IYCF practices, ranging from individual to group and societal levels. The perceived challenges consisted mainly of poverty, food insecurity, heavy workload and the influence of significant others. The results of this thesis also show that in a sea of those challenges, mothers’ sense of agency which refers to the feeling of being in control of one’s own actions play an important role in combatting and overcoming food and non-food related IYCF challenges. This sense of agency results from the combination of intrapersonal factors and the capacity of mothers to develop diverse coping strategies. Intrapersonal factors that facilitated coping with IYCF challenges included mothers’ confidence in the ability to breastfeed, self-efficacy, a sense of responsibility over their children’s health, and religious belief. Coping strategies consisted of balancing work and child feeding, prioritizing childcare, preparing child’s food in advance, active uptake of the recommendations and persistence in overcoming barriers. Furthermore, the findings indicate that appropriate IYCF practices result from the interaction of mothers with their social environment (interpersonal factors) exposed to not only during motherhood but also during earlier life course stages, for instance during childhood. In view of these findings, policy makers and health professionals that aim to improve IYCF practices and thus reducing child malnutrition have to create optimal preconditions for appropriate IYCFpractices in which mothers’ sense of agency and capacities as well as optimal social conditions are highlighted, enabled and supported.
Injustice in Food-Related Public Health Problems: A Matter of Corporate Responsibility
Tempels, Tjidde ; Blok, Vincent ; Verweij, Marcel - \ 2020
Business Ethics Quarterly 30 (2020)3. - ISSN 1052-150X - p. 388 - 413.
The responsibility of the food and beverage industry for noncommunicable diseases is a controversial topic. Public health scholars identify the food and beverage industry as one of the main contributors to the rise of these diseases. We argue that aside from moral duties like not doing harm and respecting consumer autonomy, the food industry also has a responsibility for addressing the structural injustices involved in food-related health problems. Drawing on the work of Iris Marion Young, this article first shows how food-related public health problems can be understood as structural injustices. Second, it makes clear how the industry is sustaining these health injustices, and that due to this connection, corporate actors share responsibility for addressing food-related health problems. Finally, three criteria (capacity, benefit, and vulnerability) are discussed as grounds for attributing responsibility, allowing for further specification on what taking responsibility for food-related health problems can entail in corporate practice.
Lake trout growth is sensitive to spring temperature in southwest Alaska lakes
Biela, Vanessa R. von; Black, Bryan A. ; Young, Daniel B. ; Sleen, Peter van der; Bartz, Krista K. ; Zimmerman, Christian E. - \ 2020
Ecology of Freshwater Fish (2020). - ISSN 0906-6691
biochronology - growth - lake trout - marine-derived nutrients - Pacific salmon - temperature
In high-latitude lakes, air temperature is an important driver of ice cover thickness and duration, which in turn influence water temperature and primary production supporting lake consumers and predators. In lieu of multidecadal observational records necessary to assess the response of lakes to long-term warming, we used otolith-based growth records from a long-lived resident lake fish, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), as a proxy for production. Lake trout were collected from seven deep, oligotrophic lakes in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve on in southwest Alaska that varied in the presence of marine-derived nutrients (MDN) from anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Linear mixed-effects models were used to partition variation in lake trout growth by age and calendar-year and model comparisons tested for a mean increase in lake trout growth with sockeye salmon presence. Year effects from the best mixed-effects model were subsequently compared to indices of temperature, lake ice, and regional indices of sockeye salmon escapement. A strong positive correlation between annual lake trout growth and temperature suggested that warmer springs, earlier lake ice break-up, and a longer ice-free growing season increase lake trout growth via previously identified bottom-up increases in production with warming. Accounting for differences in the presence or annual escapement of sockeye salmon with available data did not improve model fit. Collectively with other studies, the results suggest that productivity of subarctic lakes has benefitted from warming spring temperatures and that temperature can synchronise otolith growth across lakes with and without sockeye salmon MDN.
Boundary Spanning in Sport for Development: Opening Transdisciplinary and Intersectoral Perspectives
Haudenhuyse, Reinhard ; Hayton, John ; Parnell, Dan ; Verkooijen, Kirsten ; Delheye, Pascal - \ 2020
Social Inclusion 8 (2020)3. - ISSN 2183-2803 - p. 123 - 128.
We can no longer claim that academic interest in the area of sport and social inclusion is lacking. Dedicated books, special issues, commissioned reports, and landmark articles on the topic of social inclusion and sport have been produced by devoted scholars. The same can be said for the burgeoning area of sport for development and peace. These relatively young academic fields seem to be struggling to create new fundamental theoretical insights about how organized sport can both act as an inclusive space and as a vehicle for broader developmental outcomes. Despite scholarly advancements, there remains a number of empirical and theoretical gaps. The aim of this special issue is to critically reflect on issues related to sport, development, and inclusion, and to do so via transdisciplinary and intersectoral perspectives. By making such a contribution, we aim to open up new research pathways.
Intramuscular short-chain acylcarnitines in elderly people are decreased in (pre-)frail females, but not in males
Hoek, Marjanne D. van der; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G. ; Kuda, Ondřej ; Bos, Paul ; Paluchová, Veronika ; Verschuren, Lars ; Hoek, Anita M. van den; Kleemann, Robert ; Veeger, Nic J.G.M. ; Leij, Feike R. van der; Keijer, Jaap - \ 2020
FASEB Journal 34 (2020)9. - ISSN 0892-6638 - p. 22658 - 11671.
acetylcarnitine - carnitine - frailty - mitochondrial dysfunction - mitochondrial energy production - physical function
This study tested the hypothesis that in human aging, a decreased intramuscular acylcarnitine status is associated with (pre-)frailty, reduced physical performance, and altered mitochondrial function. We used a cross-sectional study design with well-matched fit and (pre-)frail old males and females, using young males and females as healthy controls. Frailty was assessed according to the Fried criteria and physical performance was determined by 400 m walk test, short physical performance battery and handgrip strength. Muscle and plasma acylcarnitine status, and muscle mitochondrial gene expression was analyzed. Results showed that intramuscular total carnitine levels and short-chain acylcarnitine levels were lower in (pre-)frail old females compared to fit old females and young females, whereas no differences were observed in males. The low intramuscular short-chain acylcarnitine levels in females correlated with low physical performance, even after correction for muscle mass (%), and were accompanied with lowered expression of genes involved in mitochondrial energy production and functionality. It is, therefore, concluded that in (pre-)frail old females, intramuscular total carnitine levels and short-chain acylcarnitine levels are decreased, and this decrease is associated with reduced physical performance and low expression of a wide range of genes critical for mitochondrial function. The results stress the importance of taking sex differences into account in aging research.
Honey bee colony winter loss rates for 35 countries participating in the COLOSS survey for winter 2018–2019, and the effects of a new queen on the risk of colony winter loss
Gray, Alison ; Adjlane, Noureddine ; Arab, Alieza ; Ballis, Alexis ; Brusbardis, Valters ; Charrière, Jean Daniel ; Chlebo, Robert ; F. Coffey, Mary ; Cornelissen, A.C.M. ; Amaro da Costa, Cristina ; Brodschneider, Robert - \ 2020
Journal of Apicultural Research (2020). - ISSN 0021-8839
apis mellifera - Mortality - colony winter losses - queens - queen replacement - monitoring - surveys - beekeeping - citizen science
This article presents managed honey bee colony loss rates over winter 2018/19 resulting from using the standardised COLOSS questionnaire in 35 countries (31 in Europe). In total, 28,629 beekeepers supplying valid loss data wintered 738,233 colonies, and reported 29,912 (4.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0–4.1%) colonies with unsolvable queen problems, 79,146 (10.7%, 95% CI 10.5–10.9%) dead colonies after winter and 13,895 colonies (1.9%, 95% CI 1.8–2.0%) lost through natural disaster. This gave an overall colony winter loss rate of 16.7% (95% CI 16.4–16.9%), varying greatly between countries, from 5.8% to 32.0%. We modelled the risk of loss as a dead/empty colony or from unresolvable queen problems, and found that, overall, larger beekeeping operations with more than 150 colonies experienced significantly lower losses (p < 0.001), consistent with earlier studies. Additionally, beekeepers included in this survey who did not migrate their colonies at least once in 2018 had significantly lower losses than those migrating (p < 0.001). The percentage of new queens from 2018 in wintered colonies was also examined as a potential risk factor. The percentage of colonies going into winter with a new queen was estimated as 55.0% over all countries. Higher percentages of young queens corresponded to lower overall losses (excluding losses from natural disaster), but also lower losses from unresolvable queen problems, and lower losses from winter mortality (p < 0.001). Detailed results for each country and overall are given in a table, and a map shows relative risks of winter loss at regional level.
Non-conventional sources of agricultural water management : Insights from young professionals in the irrigation and drainage sector
Amali, Amali A. ; Mersha, Adey N. ; Nofal, Eman R. ; Murray, Kathleen ; Norouzi, Sahar ; Saboory, Shoaib ; Salo, Heidi ; Chevuru, Sneha R. ; Sarai Tabrizi, Mahdi ; Reddy, Paavan K. ; Abdullahi, Abdulrahman O. ; Farahani, Hassan ; Kolhe, Pravin ; Dowlati Fard, Reza ; Salik, Abdul W. ; Hussein, Abdullahi H. ; Najafi, Husain ; Poormoghadam, Mojtaba ; Adiaha, Monday - \ 2020
Irrigation and Drainage (2020). - ISSN 1531-0353 - 17 p.
drainage - food security - irrigation - non-conventional - water security - Young Professionals
Distribution and availability of global resources is highly variable over time and heterogeneous in space. With the natural or conventional supply of these resources no longer meeting a growing demand, the need to promote resource efficiency is now being paralleled with innovative approaches to conserve resources within their use cycle. These ‘innovative approaches’ herewith referred to as non-conventional was the subject of a 10-weeks extensive discussion among Young Professionals (YPs) in the field of irrigation and drainage. The discussion aligns to a higher objective of breeding a generation of YPs with an open mindset and multi-disciplinary approach to the challenges in irrigation and drainage. Cutting across development corridors in the water sector, this review paper presents insights on non-conventional sources of agricultural water management (AWM) as viewed from the lenses of YPs. The discussions underscore the need for broad-based approaches to resource management, building on the premise that all forms of resources are linked to form a system that provides the most effective service when managed in an integrated fashion. Non-conventional requires divergent approaches and flexibility; underlining the invaluable capabilities YPs present in AWM. Besides highlighting these roles, insights provided by YPs suggests that feeding a growing population necessitates looking beyond system efficiency to multivariate approaches of resource optimisation and utilisation in the field of irrigation and drainage.
The global abundance of tree palms
Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1495 - 1514.
above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density
Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.
Safety and efficacy of four-segmented Rift Valley fever virus in young sheep, goats and cattle
Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Oreshkova, Nadia ; Keulen, Lucien van; Kant, Jet ; Water, Sandra van de; Soós, Pál ; Dehon, Yves ; Kollár, Anna ; Pénzes, Zoltán ; Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
Vaccines 5 (2020)1. - ISSN 2076-393X
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus that causes severe and recurrent outbreaks on the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula and continues to expand its habitat. RVFV induces severe disease in newborns and abortion in pregnant ruminants. The viral genome consists of a small (S), medium (M) and large (L) RNA segment of negative polarity. The M segment encodes a glycoprotein precursor protein that is co-translationally cleaved into the two structural glycoproteins Gn and Gc, which are involved in receptor attachment and cell entry. We previously constructed a four-segmented RVFV (RVFV-4s) by splitting the M genome segment into two M-type segments encoding either Gn or Gc. RVFV-4s replicates efficiently in cell culture but was shown to be completely avirulent in mice, lambs and pregnant ewes. Here, we show that a RVFV-4s candidate vaccine for veterinary use (vRVFV-4s) does not disseminate in vaccinated animals, is not shed or spread to the environment and does not revert to virulence. Furthermore, a single vaccination of lambs, goat kids and calves was shown to induce protective immunity against a homologous challenge. Finally, the vaccine was shown to provide full protection against a genetically distinct RVFV strain. Altogether, we demonstrate that vRVFV-4s optimally combines efficacy with safety, holding great promise as a next-generation RVF vaccine.
Salt equilibria in nutritional formulae for infants and young children
Huppertz, Thom ; Timmer, Christel - \ 2020
International Dairy Journal 110 (2020). - ISSN 0958-6946
The distribution of Ca, Mg, K and Na between the sedimentable (200×g), protein-associated and soluble phase of infant formula (IF; n = 46), follow-on formula (FOF; n = 8), junior growing up milk (jGUM; n = 22) and senior GUM (sGUM; n = 16) were studied. For all product classes, virtually all Na and K was in the soluble phase and small amounts were found as protein-associated, i.e., as counterions. Most Mg was also found in the soluble phase, but a notable proportion (20–30%) was found to be protein-associated. Sedimentable Mg was only found in a few samples. Particularly in IF and FOF products, notable amounts of sedimentable Ca were observed; the proportion of protein-associated Ca increased with increasing casein content of samples, but even after correction for casein content, large differences (>2-fold) remained between products. These differences in casein mineralisation can affect physicochemical properties and colloidal stability.
The fungal collaboration gradient dominates the root economics space in plants
Bergmann, Joana ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Plas van der, Fons ; Mommer, L. ; Ruijven, J. van - \ 2020
Science Advances 6 (2020)27. - ISSN 2375-2548 - 9 p.
Plant economics run on carbon and nutrients instead of money. Leaf strategies aboveground span an economic spectrum from “live fast and die young” to “slow and steady,” but the economy defined by root strategies belowground remains unclear. Here, we take a holistic view of the belowground economy and show that root-mycorrhizal collaboration can short circuit a one-dimensional economic spectrum, providing an entire space of economic possibilities.Root trait data from 1810 species across the globe confirm a classical fast-slow “conservation” gradient but show that most variation is explained by an orthogonal “collaboration” gradient, ranging from “do-it-yourself”resource uptake to “outsourcing” of resource uptake to mycorrhizal fungi. This broadened “root economics space”provides a solid foundation for predictive understanding of belowground responses to changing environmental conditions.
Nest defence and offspring provisioning in a cooperative bird : individual subordinates vary in total contribution, but no division of tasks among breeders and subordinates
Teunissen, Niki ; Kingma, Sjouke A. ; Peters, Anne - \ 2020
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 74 (2020)7. - ISSN 0340-5443
Altruism - Cooperation - Parental care - Predation - Predator defence - Task division
Abstract: Research aimed at understanding the evolution of costly, seemingly altruistic helping behaviour in cooperative birds has strongly focused on a single aspect of helping—offspring provisioning. However, various other activities are also important for successful breeding, most notably nest defence, and emphasis on a single aspect of helping might hamper a full understanding of the evolutionary drivers of cooperation and seemingly altruistic helping behaviour. Nonetheless, the extent to which social classes (i.e. dominant breeders and subordinate helpers), as well as different individuals within social classes, divide tasks in cooperative groups remains largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual purple-crowned fairy-wrens, Malurus coronatus, show task division in the two forms of costly offspring care important for reproductive success: nestling provisioning and nest defence (to predator models presented at nests). Subordinates and breeders generally contributed to both tasks. Breeders defended marginally more than subordinates, and provisioned at a consistently high level, irrespective of their individual contribution to defence, whereas subordinates’ investment in both types of care was positively correlated. Thus, we found no evidence for division of tasks between or within social classes, highlighting it may be absent in facultatively cooperative birds even when activities are costly and important for reproduction. This suggests that in such species, cooperative improvement of overall investment may be more effective than enhanced individual efficiency at different tasks. Significance statement: In many social species, cooperation between individuals to achieve communal goals is important for successful reproduction. When multiple individuals are working together, division of tasks can occur, with tasks unevenly distributed among group members. Research on cooperative breeding, where subordinate helpers seemingly altruistically assist others in raising their young, has however mainly focused on offspring provisioning, while subordinates can often contribute to several breeding tasks. Thus, if task divisioning occurs, this would call into question conclusions about adaptive benefits of helping based on provisioning effort alone. Here we use nestling feeding watches and predator model presentations at nests to quantify nestling provisioning and nest defence effort by individuals in a classical cooperative breeder, the purple-crowned fairy-wren. We show a lack of task divisioning by breeders and subordinates, which is reassuring for our current understanding of the evolution of cooperative breeding.
An Acyl-CoA N-Acyltransferase Regulates Meristem Phase Change and Plant Architecture in Barley
Walla, Agatha ; Esse, G.W. van; Kirschner, Gwendolyn K. ; Guo, Ganggang ; Brünje, Annika ; Finkemeier, Iris ; Simon, Rüdiger ; Korff, Maria von - \ 2020
Plant Physiology 183 (2020)3. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1088 - 1109.
The modification of shoot architecture and increased investment into reproductive structures is key for crop improvement and is achieved through coordinated changes in the development and determinacy of different shoot meristems. A fundamental question is how the development of different shoot meristems is genetically coordinated to optimize the balance between vegetative and reproductive organs. Here we identify the MANY NODED DWARF1 (HvMND1) gene as a major regulator of plant architecture in barley (Hordeum vulgare). The mnd1.a mutant displayed an extended vegetative program with increased phytomer, leaf, and tiller production but a reduction in the number and size of grains. The induction of vegetative structures continued even after the transition to reproductive growth, resulting in a marked increase in longevity. Using mapping by RNA sequencing, we found that the HvMND1 gene encodes an acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase that is predominately expressed in developing axillary meristems and young inflorescences. Exploration of the expression network modulated by HvMND1 revealed differential expression of the developmental microRNAs miR156 and miR172 and several key cell cycle and developmental genes. Our data suggest that HvMND1 plays a significant role in the coordinated regulation of reproductive phase transitions, thereby promoting reproductive growth and whole plant senescence in barley.
Promoting self‐facilitating feedback processes in coastal ecosystem engineers to increase restoration success: testing engineering measures
Schotanus, Jildou ; Walles, Brenda ; Capelle, Jacob J. ; Belzen, Jim Van; De Koppel, Johan Van; Bouma, Tjeerd J. - \ 2020
Journal of Applied Ecology (2020). - ISSN 0021-8901
Coastal ecosystem engineers often depend on self‐facilitating feedbacks to ameliorate environmental stress. This makes the restoration of such coastal ecosystem engineers difficult. We question if we can increase transplantation success in highly dynamic coastal areas by engineering measures that promote the development of self‐facilitating feedback processes.
Intertidal blue mussels Mytilus edulis are a typical example of ecosystem engineers that are difficult to restore. A lack of self‐facilitating feedbacks at low densities limits establishment success when young mussels are transplanted on dynamic mudflats.
In a large field experiment, we investigated the possibility of increasing transplantation success by stimulating the formation of an aggregated spatial configuration in mussels, thereby reducing hydrologically induced dislodgment and the risks of predation. For this, we applied engineering measures in the form of fences that trapped wave dislodged mussels.
Mussel loss rates were significantly lower when mussels were placed between both artificial fences, and in high densities (4.2 kg/m2) compared with mussels placed in areas without fences and in low densities (2.1 kg/m2). The fences induced the formation of a banded pattern with high local mussel densities, which locally reduced predation.
Synthesis and applications. Our results underline the importance of actively promoting the development of self‐facilitating processes, such as aggregation into patterns, in restoration projects of ecosystem engineers. In particular, the current study shows that engineering measures can help to initiate these kinds of self‐facilitating interactions, especially in highly dynamic areas.