Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Natural deep eutectic solvents in plants and plant cells : In vitro evidence for their possible functions
    Dai, Yuntao ; Varypataki, Eleni Maria ; Golovina, Elena A. ; Jiskoot, Wim ; Witkamp, Geert Jan ; Choi, Young Hae ; Verpoorte, Robert - \ 2020
    In: Advances in Botanical Research Academic Press Inc. (Advances in Botanical Research )
    Biological roles - Diffusion - Hygroscopicity - Liposome - Membrane stabilizing effect - Metabolites - Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) - Physicochemical properties - Water adjusting effect

    The components of natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are abundant in plants. This led to our hypothesis that NADES may play an important role in solubilizing, storing, and transporting poorly water-soluble metabolites in living cells, adjusting the water content of plants, and protecting cells when in harsh conditions. In order to test these hypothetical roles, diverse plant materials were analyzed, including leaves, petals, plant secretions and seeds. Comparatively high amounts of ingredients of NADES are observed in those organs. In particular, resurrection plants in dry state contain a higher amount of NADES components than fresh ones, and the level of NADES components is specifically higher in the outside layer (aleurone and seed cover) of barley, than in the inside (endosperm and embryo) layer. A high accumulation of sugars, sugar alcohols, amines, amino acids, and organic acids dominate plant secretions such as sap and nectar, often in typical molar ratios of NADES. This strongly supports the hypothesis of the existence of NADES in plants. For the roles, experimentally, NADES and water were mixed resulting in liquids with different compositions and properties. In the case of plants, NADES and water co-exist in the cells and may form ideal solvents for metabolites of diverse polarities and macromolecules. Some NADES are hygroscopic, providing evidence for possible water level controlling effects of NADES in plants. Most importantly, NADES may accumulate around the lipid bilayers, form intermolecular bonds with the polar heads of lipids, and stabilize the membrane, as revealed in experiments with liposomes. This study gives in vitro evidence for the different roles NADES may play in living organisms, and opens perspectives for further exploring the existence and functions of NADES in plants cells. The omics allows now to identify all molecules in an organism or even in a cell. The challenge for future research will be to understand how there molecules interact in the dynamic cellular processes and their compartmentation on a nanoscale. In other words the challenge is to unravel the molecular interactions in the three dimensions of space and the one of time, which will require a true multidisciplinary collaboration.

    Effects of pretransport diet, transport duration, and type of vehicle on physiological status of young veal calves
    Marcato, F. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. ; Engel, B. ; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M. ; Reenen, K. van - \ 2020
    Journal of Dairy Science 103 (2020)4. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3505 - 3520.
    diet - physiology - transport - transport duration - veal calf

    This study aimed to investigate effects of pretransport diet (rearing milk vs. electrolytes), type of vehicle (open vs. conditioned truck), and transport duration (6 vs. 18 h) on physiological status of young calves upon arrival at the veal farm. A total of 368 calves were transported in 2 consecutive batches from a collection center to a veal farm. Blood samples were collected from calves before transport; immediately posttransport (T0); and 4, 24, and 48 h, and 1, 3, and 5 wk posttransport. Blood was analyzed for glucose, urea, lactate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), creatine kinase, albumin, total protein, osmolality, calcium, sodium, magnesium, and hematological variables. Body weight, rectal temperature, and skin elasticity were determined before and immediately posttransport. Blood glucose, NEFA, and urea concentrations at T0 showed an interaction between pretransport diet and transport duration. Milk-fed and electrolyte-fed calves transported for 18 h did not significantly differ in plasma glucose concentration or serum NEFA concentrations. However, after 6 h of transport, milk-fed calves had higher plasma glucose and lower serum NEFA concentrations (4.71 mmol/L and 586.5 µmol/L, respectively) than electrolyte-fed calves (3.56 mmol/L and 916 µmol/L, respectively). After 18 h of transport, milk-fed calves had lower urea concentrations (5.40 mmol/L) than electrolyte-fed calves (7.38 mmol/L). In addition, at T0, after 6 h of transport, milk-fed calves gained weight (Δ = 0.41 kg), whereas electrolyte-fed calves lost weight (Δ = −0.16 kg). After 18 h of transport, both milk-fed and electrolyte-fed calves showed body weight losses (Δ = −0.67 and −0.74 kg, respectively). Type of vehicle had a limited influence on blood parameters. Concentrations of NEFA and BHB reached the maximum values at T0 and then decreased until wk 5 posttransport. The increase in NEFA and BHB concentrations between prior to and just posttransport (T0) was less pronounced in calves transported for 6 h (746.1 µmol/L and 0.38 mmol/L, respectively) than in calves transported for 18 h (850.6 µmol/L and 0.50 mmol/L). Overall, the recovery rate of calves at the veal farm seemed rapid; all blood parameters returned to (below) pretransport values within 48 h posttransport. We concluded that feeding milk before short-term transport helps young veal calves cope with transport, whereas this is not the case during long-term transport.

    Determinants of adherence to micronutrient powder use among young children in Ethiopia
    Samuel, Aregash ; Brouwer, Inge D. ; Pamungkas, Nindya P. ; Terra, Tosca ; Lelisa, Azeb ; Kebede, Amha ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. - \ 2020
    Maternal and Child Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 1740-8695
    In Ethiopia, home fortification of complementary foods with micronutrient powders (MNPs) was introduced in 2015 as a new approach to improve micronutrient intakes. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with intake adherence and drivers for correct MNP use over time to inform scale‐up of MNP interventions. Mixed methods including questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions were used. Participants, 1,185 children (6–11 months), received bimonthly 30 MNP sachets for 8 months, with instruction to consume 15 sachets/month, that is, a sachet every other day and maximum of one sachet per day. Adherence to distribution (if child receives ≥14 sachets/month) and adherence to instruction (if child receives exactly 15[±1] sachets/month) were assessed monthly by counting used sachets. Factors associated with adherence were examined using generalized estimating equations. Adherence fluctuated over time, an average of 58% adherence to distribution and 28% for adherence to instruction. Average MNP consumption was 79% out of the total sachets provided. Factors positively associated with adherence included ease of use (instruction), child liking MNP and support from community (distribution and instruction) and mother's age >25 years (distribution). Distance to health post, knowledge of correct use (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.66–0.81), perceived negative effects (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54–0.99) and living in Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.52–0.67) were inversely associated with adherence to distribution. Free MNP provision, trust in the government and field staff played a role in successful implementation. MNP is promising to be scaled‐up, by taking into account factors that positively and negatively determine adherence.
    La cadena de valor de cacao en ecuador : Una propuesta de estrategias para coadyuvar a la sostenibilidad
    Moreno-Miranda, Carlos ; Molina, Isaac ; Miranda, Zoila ; Moreno, Raúl ; Moreno, Pablo - \ 2020
    Bioagro 32 (2020)3. - ISSN 1316-3361 - p. 205 - 214.
    Additional Extension programs - Principal component analysis - Rural development - Theobroma cacao

    The sustainable development of the agri-food sector is a priority in public-private agendas of Ecuador. A substantial amount of research has focused solely on agronomic and environmental factors. However, the research perspective must be more comprehensive. Aspects such as socio-economic performance and the level of coordination between actors require more considerable attention since they will encourage proposals for sustainable strategies. The objective of this study is to analyze the socio-economic and governance components to understand the sustainability performance of the cacao chain (Theobroma cacao) and to present potential strategies. The analysis applies a framework oriented to review of primary and support activities: the research clusters levels of pre-production, production, and post-production. Besides, it performs the mapping of the food chain, the identification of the actors, and the application of surveys to identify strengths and weaknesses. The results indicate several viable long-term strategies, such as the revision of national regulations to support small producers and the stimulation of the empowerment of young producers and associations. The main contribution of the research is the governance analysis to evaluate performance comprehensively.

    The Effect of Atopic Dermatitis and Diet on the Skin Transcriptome in Staffordshire Bull Terriers
    Anturaniemi, Johanna ; Zaldívar-López, Sara ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Elo, Kari ; Hielm-Björkman, Anna - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2297-1769
    atopic dermatitis - canine - diet - gene expression - kibble diet - raw meat-based diet - RNAseq - skin

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) has a hereditary basis that is modified by interactions with the environment, including diet. Differentially expressed genes in non-lesional skin, determined by RNA sequencing before and after a dietary intervention, were compared between dogs with naturally occurring CAD (n = 4) and healthy dogs (n = 4). The dogs were fed either a common commercial heat-processed high carbohydrate food (kibble diet) (n = 4), or a non-processed high fat food (raw meat-based diet) (n = 4). At the end of the diet intervention, 149 differentially expressed transcripts were found between the atopic and healthy dogs. The main canonical pathways altered by the dysregulation of these genes were angiopoietin signaling, epidermal growth factor signaling, activation of angiogenesis, and alterations in keratinocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism. On the other hand, 33 differently expressed transcripts were found between the two diet groups, of which 8 encode genes that are annotated in the current version of the dog genome: immunoglobulin heavy constant mu (IGHM), immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5), B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein beta chain (CD79B), polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1), secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), and mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor (MRRF). All genes were upregulated in the raw diet group. In conclusion the findings of this study suggest alterations in lipid and keratinocyte metabolism as well as angiogenesis in the skin of atopic dogs. Additionally, a possible enhancement of innate immunity and decrease in oxidative stress was seen in raw food fed dogs, which could have an important role in preventing hypersensitivities and disturbed immunity at young age.

    Protected-Denomination-of-Origin Cocoa Bean : Chain governance and Sustainability Performance
    Miranda, Carlos Moreno ; Moreno, Raul ; Moreno, Pablo - \ 2020
    Economia Agro-Alimentare 22 (2020)1. - ISSN 1126-1668 - p. 1 - 24.
    Socio-economic agricultural regulation rural farming governance structure

    The Protected Denominations of Origin in agricultural goods through recognized chains, have a fundamental economic role. In Ecuador, the pdo cocoa bean certification becomes a protagonist since it presents an opportunity to boost the social performance of smallholders. A substantial amount of research focused only on examining the crop performance of pdo products. However, there is a shift in the agricultural chain perspective towards more sustainable models. In this respect, social, economic, and institutional aspects are consequential and tribute to the agricultural sector development. Also, the current rise of market opportunities at the local and international levels is a driver to support them. This study aimed to analyze socio-economic and governance components to understand the pdo Cocoa Arriba (Theobroma cacao) chain sustainability performance and bring forward potential strategies. Principal Components Analysis was introduced to contribute with relevant insights. The framework applied accounts with a revision of primary and support activities. The investigation clustered pre-production, production, and post-production tiers. Also, it executed the food chain mapping and identification of chain actors. Results stated several viable long-term strategies. Examples of those strategies are the enhancement of national regulation to assist chain actors and the stimulus of young producers and associations empowerment. The main research contribution is the application of governance mechanisms to assess the chain performance comprehensively. Based on the results, our recommendation is to incorporate new indicators to analyze the environmental and institutional components profoundly.

    Acylsemicarbazide Moieties with Dynamic Reversibility and Multiple Hydrogen Bonding for Transparent, High Modulus, and Malleable Polymers
    Fu, Daihua ; Pu, Wuli ; Escorihuela, Jorge ; Wang, Xiaorong ; Wang, Zhanhua ; Chen, Siyao ; Sun, Shaojie ; Wang, Shuo ; Zuilhof, Han ; Xia, Hesheng - \ 2020
    Macromolecules 53 (2020)18. - ISSN 0024-9297 - p. 7914 - 7924.

    The realization of covalent adaptable networks with excellent mechanical and dynamic properties remains a major challenge. Herein, the acylsemicarbazide (ASC) moieties with dynamic reversibility and multiple hydrogen bonding were disclosed and used to prepare transparent, high modulus, and malleable polymer networks. It was found that the ASC moiety can reversibly generate isocyanate and hydrazide at elevated temperatures, that is, exhibiting dynamic reversibility. ASC can also produce the disordered multiple hydrogen bonds that contribute to superior mechanical strength for dynamic polymers. The hydrogen bonding in ASC moieties can diminish the energy barrier for the cleavage of dynamic covalent bonds, and the dissociation of ASC moieties further promotes the disruption of hydrogen bonds, showing the synergistic dynamic effects. ASC moieties provide a valuable molecular engineering opportunity toward high-performance dynamic polymer materials. The polymer containing ASC moieties possesses excellent optical transparency, superb mechanical performance (Young's modulus up to 1.7 GPa), together with malleable and healing properties.

    Vroege sterfte van biggen, kalveren en melkgeitenlammeren : Percentages, oorzaken en mogelijkheden tot reductie
    Ouweltjes, Wijbrand ; Verkaik, Jan ; Hopster, Hans - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen Livestock Research 1182) - 76
    This report contains an overview of recent literature regarding the mortality of piglets, calves on dairy farms and dairy goat kids during their first weeks of life. On the basis of literature data, early mortality in the Netherlands was compared with that in other countries. The main causes of early mortality have been identified as well as possible measures that can reduce early mortality of young animals. Finally, a number of conditions have been mentioned in order to be able to successfully reduce early mortality in piglets, dairy calves and dairy goat kids through benchmarking.
    If you leave young cheese to ripen, will it turn into mature cheese?: A little wiser
    Hettinga, Kasper - \ 2020
    Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
    Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Kendrick, Ian ; Lyon, Christopher ; Page, Glenn ; Patterson, James ; Riedy, Chris ; Strasser, Tim ; Verveen, Stephan ; Adams, David ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Klaes, Matthias ; Leicester, Graham ; Linyard, Alison ; McCurdy, Adrienne ; Ryan, Paul ; Sharpe, Bill ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Abdurrahim, Ali Yansyah ; Abson, David ; Adetunji, Olufemi Samson ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Alvarez-Pereira, Carlos ; Amparo, Jennifer Marie ; Amundsen, Helene ; Anderson, Lakin ; Andersson, Lotta ; Asquith, Michael ; Augenstein, Karoline ; Barrie, Jack ; Bent, David ; Bentz, Julia ; Bergsten, Arvid ; Berzonsky, Carol ; Bina, Olivia ; Blackstock, Kirsty ; Boehnert, Joanna ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Brand, Christine ; Böhme (born Sangmeister), Jessica ; Bøjer, Marianne Mille ; Carmen, Esther ; Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi ; Choudhury, Sarah ; Chunhachoti-ananta, Supot ; Cockburn, Jessica ; Colvin, John ; Connon, Irena L.C. ; Cornforth, Rosalind ; Cox, Robin S. ; Cradock-Henry, Nicholas ; Cramer, Laura ; Cremaschi, Almendra ; Dannevig, Halvor ; Day, Catherine T. ; Lima Hutchison, Cathel de; Vrieze, Anke de; Desai, Vikas ; Dolley, Jonathan ; Duckett, Dominic ; Durrant, Rachael Amy ; Egermann, Markus ; Elsner (Adams), Emily ; Fremantle, Chris ; Fullwood-Thomas, Jessica ; Galafassi, Diego ; Gobby, Jen ; Golland, Ami ; González-Padrón, Shiara Kirana ; Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin ; Grandin, Jakob ; Grenni, Sara ; Lauren Gunnell, Jade ; Gusmao, Felipe ; Hamann, Maike ; Harding, Brian ; Harper, Gavin ; Hesselgren, Mia ; Hestad, Dina ; Heykoop, Cheryl Anne ; Holmén, Johan ; Holstead, Kirsty ; Hoolohan, Claire ; Horcea-Milcu, Andra Ioana ; Horlings, Lummina Geertruida ; Howden, Stuart Mark ; Howell, Rachel Angharad ; Huque, Sarah Insia ; Inturias Canedo, Mirna Liz ; Iro, Chidinma Yvonne ; Ives, Christopher D. ; John, Beatrice ; Joshi, Rajiv ; Juarez-Bourke, Sadhbh ; Juma, Dauglas Wafula ; Karlsen, Bea Cecilie ; Kliem, Lea ; Kläy, Andreas ; Kuenkel, Petra ; Kunze, Iris ; Lam, David Patrick Michael ; Lang, Daniel J. ; Larkin, Alice ; Light, Ann ; Luederitz, Christopher ; Luthe, Tobias ; Maguire, Cathy ; Mahecha-Groot, Ana Maria ; Malcolm, Jackie ; Marshall, Fiona ; Maru, Yiheyis ; McLachlan, Carly ; Mmbando, Peter ; Mohapatra, Subhakanta ; Moore, Michele Lee ; Moriggi, Angela ; Morley-Fletcher, Mark ; Moser, Susanne ; Mueller, Konstanze Marion ; Mukute, Mutizwa ; Mühlemeier, Susan ; Naess, Lars Otto ; Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Novo, Paula ; ÓBrien, Karen ; O'Connell, Deborah Anne ; O'Donnell, Kathleen ; Olsson, Per ; Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Pereira, Laura ; Petridis, Panos ; Peukert, Daniela ; Phear, Nicky ; Pisters, Siri Renée ; Polsky, Matt ; Pound, Diana ; Preiser, Rika ; Rahman, Md Sajidur ; Reed, Mark S. ; Revell, Philip ; Rodriguez, Iokiñe ; Rogers, Briony Cathryn ; Rohr, Jascha ; Nordbø Rosenberg, Milda ; Ross, Helen ; Russell, Shona ; Ryan, Melanie ; Saha, Probal ; Schleicher, Katharina ; Schneider, Flurina ; Scoville-Simonds, Morgan ; Searle, Beverley ; Sebhatu, Samuel Petros ; Sesana, Elena ; Silverman, Howard ; Singh, Chandni ; Sterling, Eleanor ; Stewart, Sarah Jane ; Tàbara, J.D. ; Taylor, Douglas ; Thornton, Philip ; Tribaldos, Theresa Margarete ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Waddock, Sandra ; Merwe, Liza van der; Mierlo, Barbara van; Zwanenberg, Patrick van; Velarde, Sandra Judith ; Washbourne, Carla Leanne ; Waylen, Kerry ; Weiser, Annika ; Wight, Ian ; Williams, Stephen ; Woods, Mel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Wright, Ness ; Wunder, Stefanie ; Wyllie, Alastair ; Young, Hannah R. - \ 2020
    Energy Research & Social Science 70 (2020). - ISSN 2214-6296
    Climate and energy research - Epistemology - Knowledge - Social-technical transitions - Sustainability science - Transformation

    Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.

    Test grasgroeivoorspelling in de praktijk : resultaten modelmatige schatting drogestofopbrengst en ruw eiwitgehalte
    Hoving, I.E. ; Holshof, G. ; Stienezen, M. ; Roerink, G.J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen Livestock Research 1251) - 47
    Grassland management is an important part of farm management on a dairy farm.A web application is being developed for dairy farmers to predict the dry matter productionand fodderquality. In a practical pilot on five dairy farms, the model-based estimate of dry matter yield and crude protein content of grass has been compared with grass height and reflection measurements respectively fresh grass analyzes. Due to instabilitythe web application could not yet be used, the test was carried out after the growing season. The prediction of grass yields and crude protein contents gave a mixed picture, sometimes with a good approximation of reality, but sometimes also with clear deviations. For yield, it mainly concerned an underestimation for the first cut and an overestimate for cuts after grazing.For protein, the content was especially overestimated in relatively young grass. Model improvements and combining growth prediction with measurement data make it possible to improve the reliability of estimates.
    Bending the curve of terrestrial biodiversity needs an integrated strategy
    Leclère, David ; Obersteiner, Michael ; Barrett, Mike ; Butchart, Stuart H.M. ; Chaudhary, Abhishek ; Palma, Adriana De; DeClerck, Fabrice A.J. ; Marco, Moreno Di; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Dürauer, Martina ; Freeman, Robin ; Harfoot, Michael ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Hellweg, Stefanie ; Hilbers, Jelle P. ; Hill, Samantha L.L. ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Jennings, Nancy ; Krisztin, Tamás ; Mace, Georgina M. ; Ohashi, Haruka ; Popp, Alexander ; Purvis, Andy ; Schipper, Aafke M. ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Valin, Hugo ; Meijl, Hans van; Zeist, Willem Jan van; Visconti, Piero ; Alkemade, Rob ; Almond, Rosamunde ; Bunting, Gill ; Burgess, Neil D. ; Cornell, Sarah E. ; Fulvio, Fulvio Di; Ferrier, Simon ; Fritz, Steffen ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Grooten, Monique ; Harwood, Thomas ; Havlík, Petr ; Herrero, Mario ; Hoskins, Andrew J. ; Jung, Martin ; Kram, Tom ; Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Matsui, Tetsuya ; Meyer, Carsten ; Nel, Deon ; Newbold, Tim ; Schmidt-Traub, Guido ; Stehfest, Elke ; Strassburg, Bernardo B.N. ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Ware, Chris ; Watson, James E.M. ; Wu, Wenchao ; Young, Lucy - \ 2020
    Nature 585 (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 551 - 556.

    Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity3; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge4. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and biodiversity models to assess whether—and how—humanity can reverse the declines in terrestrial biodiversity caused by habitat conversion, which is a major threat to biodiversity5. We show that immediate efforts, consistent with the broader sustainability agenda but of unprecedented ambition and coordination, could enable the provision of food for the growing human population while reversing the global terrestrial biodiversity trends caused by habitat conversion. If we decide to increase the extent of land under conservation management, restore degraded land and generalize landscape-level conservation planning, biodiversity trends from habitat conversion could become positive by the mid-twenty-first century on average across models (confidence interval, 2042–2061), but this was not the case for all models. Food prices could increase and, on average across models, almost half (confidence interval, 34–50%) of the future biodiversity losses could not be avoided. However, additionally tackling the drivers of land-use change could avoid conflict with affordable food provision and reduces the environmental effects of the food-provision system. Through further sustainable intensification and trade, reduced food waste and more plant-based human diets, more than two thirds of future biodiversity losses are avoided and the biodiversity trends from habitat conversion are reversed by 2050 for almost all of the models. Although limiting further loss will remain challenging in several biodiversity-rich regions, and other threats—such as climate change—must be addressed to truly reverse the declines in biodiversity, our results show that ambitious conservation efforts and food system transformation are central to an effective post-2020 biodiversity strategy.

    Herders and livestock professionals' experiences and perceptions on developments and challenges in yak farming in Bhutan
    Dorji, Nedup ; Derks, Marjolein ; Dorji, Phub ; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G. ; Bokkers, Eddie A.M. - \ 2020
    Animal Production Science (2020). - ISSN 1836-0939
    policy - welfare

    Context: The yak-based transhumant system is influenced by socioeconomic developments, regulations and environmental changes. Little is known about the impact of this on yak farming practices among different regions in Bhutan. Aim and methods: The experienced changes in yak farming practices over the years and perceptions on developments were assessed through interviews with yak herders in three regions (west, n = 22; central, n = 20; east, n = 25) and with livestock extensionists (n = 28). Key results: At present, forage shortage in the rangeland, yak mortality mainly due to (endangered) wild predators and, to a lesser extent, labour availability are the main concerns in all yak farming regions. These concerns have increased due to socioeconomic developments (e.g. education and other sources of income) and strong conservation policy, which affects the living environment of the yaks. Overall, the market to sell yak products and livestock extension services has improved, but forage shortage and yak mortality has increased over the years. However, some factors causing forage shortage are more specific to certain regions, e.g. competition with the horse population (west), cattle and cattle-yak hybrids (east), cordyceps collection (west and central) and prohibited burning of rangelands (central and east). Family labour available to herd yaks has slightly decreased, and the number of young family members (successors) to take over yak farming has decreased over the years. Conclusions: On the basis of the experiences and perceptions of yak herders and extensionists, we conclude that increasing forage shortage in the rangelands, decreasing numbers of successors, and increasing yak predation by wild animals are the major threats to yak farming. Implications: This study demonstrates that yak farming in Bhutan experiences an increasing pressure to sustain. Differences between regions make clear that a one blanket-policy will not be effective to preserve yak farming for the future.

    A decision support framework assessing management impacts on crop yield, soil carbon changes and nitrogen losses to the environment
    Young, Madaline D. ; Ros, Gerard H. ; Vries, Wim de - \ 2020
    European Journal of Soil Science (2020). - ISSN 1351-0754
    crop yield - decision support tools - environmental performance - management - nutrient surplus - soil organic carbon

    Agricultural management practices have multiple impacts on farming systems, including crop yield, soil fertility parameters such as soil organic carbon (SOC), and environmental quality. Agricultural decision support tools (DSTs) are key in sustainable farm strategies to optimize yield and minimize environmental losses because both the current agroecosystem properties as well as the effectiveness of management practices are highly variable in time and space. Here, we introduce a highly data-driven framework focusing on the evaluation of agronomic measures to reach agronomic and environmental targets. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by a proof of principle for 81 selected farm types across Europe, focusing on measures with respect to crop rotation, fertilization and soil tillage. Synthesizing data from long-term experiments and meta-analytical models, we estimated the impact of these measures on crop yield, SOC and N surpluses, while accounting for site-specific properties for the current and desired situation. The impacts of these measures on all farm types have been quantified, and optimum sets of agronomic measures have been selected in order to maximize crop yield and SOC levels and minimize N surpluses to reach the critical values for NO3 concentrations in groundwater. Our results, quantifying trade-offs among sustainability indicators that have traditionally been analyzed separately, illustrate that the suitability of measures varies by soil, climate and crop types within Europe. Our approach is promising for mapping region-specific management recommendations and evaluating the effectiveness of agronomic measures over multiple environmental goals and targets. Highlights: We find a lack of empirical-based DSTs holistically assessing agronomic practices and indicators. Meta-analytical models were used to assess impacts of best fertilizer, tillage and crop measures. Our multi-criteria analysis shows impacts vary with crop, soil and climate in European regions. We demonstrate our developed framework focusing on crop yield, soil carbon and nitrogen losses.

    Why (not) participate in citizen science? Motivational factors and barriers to participate in a citizen science program for malaria control in Rwanda
    Asingizwe, Domina ; Poortvliet, P.M. ; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Ingabire, Chantal Marie ; Mutesa, Leon ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2020
    PLoS ONE 15 (2020)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
    This study explores the motivational factors and barriers to participate in a citizen science program for malaria control in Rwanda. It assesses the changes in motivational factors over time and compares these factors among age and gender groups. Using a qualitative approach, this study involved 44 participants. At the initial stage, people participated in the program because of curiosity, desire to learn new things, helping others, and willingness to contribute to malaria control. As the engagement continued, other factors including ease of use of materials to report observations, the usefulness of the program, and recognition also played a crucial role in the retention of volunteers. Lack of time and information about the recruitment process, perceived low efficacy of the mosquito trap, and difficulties in collecting observations were reported as barriers to get and stay involved. Some variations in the motivational factors were observed among age and gender groups. At the initial phase, young adults and adults, as well as men and women were almost equally motivated to contribute to malaria control. For the ongoing phase, for age, the two groups were almost equally motivated by recognition of their effort. Also, the opportunity for learning was an important factor among young adults while ease of use of the materials was central for adults. For gender, the usefulness of the project, ease of use of materials, and learning opportunities were important motivational factors among women, while men were more motivated by recognition of their efforts. A framework including motivational factors and barriers at each stage of participation is presented. This framework may be used to explore motivations and barriers in future citizen science projects and might help coordinators of citizen science programs to determine whom to target, by which message, and at what stage of participation to retain volunteers in citizen science projects
    Understanding the psychological and social environmental determinants driving infant and young child feeding practices among Rwandan households: a salutogenic approach
    Ahishakiye, Jeanine - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.A. Koelen; H.W. Vaandrager, co-promotor(en): I.D. Brouwer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463954563 - 166

    Although adequate nutrition and good health are children’s rights, they are often violated, especially in developing countries where undernutrition is one of the leading causes of mortality among children under the age of five. The problem is more pertinent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), that still suffers from the highest under-five mortality rates in the world. Rwanda does not escape from this sad trend because despite continuous policy efforts, chronic malnutrition (stunting) among under-five remains a key public health concern. The 2014/15 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS) shows that 38% of under-five years old children were stunted in 2015. Hence, the Government of Rwanda has implemented numerous strategies to tackle the problem of chronic malnutrition. However, to date, much of our understanding on child chronic (mal) nutrition has been primarily based on research conducted on the nutritional physiological determinants of stunting such as the timing, composition and frequency of infant and young child feeding (IYCF). This view, however, has lacked a holistic orientation, ignoring the contextual and social determinants of IYCF practices. Moreover, the approach to tackle child undernutrition has been predominantly disease and risk-oriented, looking at the factors underlying stunting (pathogenic orientation). From this perspective, IYCF practices have been researched in relation to their contribution to stunting and the determinants of inadequate IYCF practices. Very little is known on factors contributing to good nutritional status, with a particular focus on factors facilitating mothers’ appropriate IYCF in the context of their everyday lives. The overall aim of this thesis is to identify factors that enable healthy IYCF practices in Rwandan households in order to contribute to the development of solution-oriented strategies for reducing child malnutrition. This dissertation is guided by the the salutogenic model of health that, in contrary to pathogenesis (that searches for causes of diseases), focuses on the search for the origins of health.

    The study was carried out in the catchment areas of Rutobwe and Buramba health centres located in a rural part of the district of Muhanga, in the southern province of Rwanda. The study adopted both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Four qualitative studies have been carried out. The first study was conducted among key informants ( mothers and fathers of infant aged 0–23 months, grandmothers and community health workers, n=144), focussed on a general understanding of IYCF practices, the challenges and the responses towards appropriate IYCF practices in the context in which mothers must live their lives (Chapter 2). Next, an in-depth study has been carried out on factors that impede or facilitate appropriate IYCF practices from the perspective of mothers themselves (n=39), specifically during the first 6 months of a child’s life (Chapter 3). The third study focused on coping strategies and facilitating factors among mothers who managed to follow the recommended IYCF practices during the first year of a child’s life (n=17; Chapter 4). Finally, the fourth study focused on unravelling how those mothers managed to do well by exploring the life course learning experiences that play a role in shaping healthy IYCF practices during the first year of a child’s life (n=14; Chapter 5).

    Based on the studies carried out, this thesis concludes that appropriate IYCF practices reflect not only food related practices to support the physical health but also the social and emotional needs of the mother and the child. In everyday life, mothers face challenges when they try to pursue the recommended IYCF practices. The results from this thesis reveal that mothers experienced an interplay of barriers and facilitators for appropriate IYCF practices, ranging from individual to group and societal levels. The perceived challenges consisted mainly of poverty, food insecurity, heavy workload and the influence of significant others. The results of this thesis also show that in a sea of those challenges, mothers’ sense of agency which refers to the feeling of being in control of one’s own actions play an important role in combatting and overcoming food and non-food related IYCF challenges. This sense of agency results from the combination of intrapersonal factors and the capacity of mothers to develop diverse coping strategies. Intrapersonal factors that facilitated coping with IYCF challenges included mothers’ confidence in the ability to breastfeed, self-efficacy, a sense of responsibility over their children’s health, and religious belief. Coping strategies consisted of balancing work and child feeding, prioritizing childcare, preparing child’s food in advance, active uptake of the recommendations and persistence in overcoming barriers. Furthermore, the findings indicate that appropriate IYCF practices result from the interaction of mothers with their social environment (interpersonal factors) exposed to not only during motherhood but also during earlier life course stages, for instance during childhood.  In view of these findings, policy makers and health professionals that aim to improve IYCF practices and thus reducing child malnutrition have to create optimal preconditions for appropriate IYCFpractices in which mothers’ sense of agency and capacities as well as optimal social conditions are highlighted, enabled and supported.

    Injustice in Food-Related Public Health Problems: A Matter of Corporate Responsibility
    Tempels, Tjidde ; Blok, Vincent ; Verweij, Marcel - \ 2020
    Business Ethics Quarterly 30 (2020)3. - ISSN 1052-150X - p. 388 - 413.
    The responsibility of the food and beverage industry for noncommunicable diseases is a controversial topic. Public health scholars identify the food and beverage industry as one of the main contributors to the rise of these diseases. We argue that aside from moral duties like not doing harm and respecting consumer autonomy, the food industry also has a responsibility for addressing the structural injustices involved in food-related health problems. Drawing on the work of Iris Marion Young, this article first shows how food-related public health problems can be understood as structural injustices. Second, it makes clear how the industry is sustaining these health injustices, and that due to this connection, corporate actors share responsibility for addressing food-related health problems. Finally, three criteria (capacity, benefit, and vulnerability) are discussed as grounds for attributing responsibility, allowing for further specification on what taking responsibility for food-related health problems can entail in corporate practice.
    Lake trout growth is sensitive to spring temperature in southwest Alaska lakes
    Biela, Vanessa R. von; Black, Bryan A. ; Young, Daniel B. ; Sleen, Peter van der; Bartz, Krista K. ; Zimmerman, Christian E. - \ 2020
    Ecology of Freshwater Fish (2020). - ISSN 0906-6691
    biochronology - growth - lake trout - marine-derived nutrients - Pacific salmon - temperature

    In high-latitude lakes, air temperature is an important driver of ice cover thickness and duration, which in turn influence water temperature and primary production supporting lake consumers and predators. In lieu of multidecadal observational records necessary to assess the response of lakes to long-term warming, we used otolith-based growth records from a long-lived resident lake fish, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), as a proxy for production. Lake trout were collected from seven deep, oligotrophic lakes in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve on in southwest Alaska that varied in the presence of marine-derived nutrients (MDN) from anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Linear mixed-effects models were used to partition variation in lake trout growth by age and calendar-year and model comparisons tested for a mean increase in lake trout growth with sockeye salmon presence. Year effects from the best mixed-effects model were subsequently compared to indices of temperature, lake ice, and regional indices of sockeye salmon escapement. A strong positive correlation between annual lake trout growth and temperature suggested that warmer springs, earlier lake ice break-up, and a longer ice-free growing season increase lake trout growth via previously identified bottom-up increases in production with warming. Accounting for differences in the presence or annual escapement of sockeye salmon with available data did not improve model fit. Collectively with other studies, the results suggest that productivity of subarctic lakes has benefitted from warming spring temperatures and that temperature can synchronise otolith growth across lakes with and without sockeye salmon MDN.

    Boundary Spanning in Sport for Development: Opening Transdisciplinary and Intersectoral Perspectives
    Haudenhuyse, Reinhard ; Hayton, John ; Parnell, Dan ; Verkooijen, Kirsten ; Delheye, Pascal - \ 2020
    Social Inclusion 8 (2020)3. - ISSN 2183-2803 - p. 123 - 128.
    We can no longer claim that academic interest in the area of sport and social inclusion is lacking. Dedicated books, special issues, commissioned reports, and landmark articles on the topic of social inclusion and sport have been produced by devoted scholars. The same can be said for the burgeoning area of sport for development and peace. These relatively young academic fields seem to be struggling to create new fundamental theoretical insights about how organized sport can both act as an inclusive space and as a vehicle for broader developmental outcomes. Despite scholarly advancements, there remains a number of empirical and theoretical gaps. The aim of this special issue is to critically reflect on issues related to sport, development, and inclusion, and to do so via transdisciplinary and intersectoral perspectives. By making such a contribution, we aim to open up new research pathways.
    Intramuscular short-chain acylcarnitines in elderly people are decreased in (pre-)frail females, but not in males
    Hoek, Marjanne D. van der; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G. ; Kuda, Ondřej ; Bos, Paul ; Paluchová, Veronika ; Verschuren, Lars ; Hoek, Anita M. van den; Kleemann, Robert ; Veeger, Nic J.G.M. ; Leij, Feike R. van der; Keijer, Jaap - \ 2020
    FASEB Journal 34 (2020)9. - ISSN 0892-6638 - p. 22658 - 11671.
    acetylcarnitine - carnitine - frailty - mitochondrial dysfunction - mitochondrial energy production - physical function

    This study tested the hypothesis that in human aging, a decreased intramuscular acylcarnitine status is associated with (pre-)frailty, reduced physical performance, and altered mitochondrial function. We used a cross-sectional study design with well-matched fit and (pre-)frail old males and females, using young males and females as healthy controls. Frailty was assessed according to the Fried criteria and physical performance was determined by 400 m walk test, short physical performance battery and handgrip strength. Muscle and plasma acylcarnitine status, and muscle mitochondrial gene expression was analyzed. Results showed that intramuscular total carnitine levels and short-chain acylcarnitine levels were lower in (pre-)frail old females compared to fit old females and young females, whereas no differences were observed in males. The low intramuscular short-chain acylcarnitine levels in females correlated with low physical performance, even after correction for muscle mass (%), and were accompanied with lowered expression of genes involved in mitochondrial energy production and functionality. It is, therefore, concluded that in (pre-)frail old females, intramuscular total carnitine levels and short-chain acylcarnitine levels are decreased, and this decrease is associated with reduced physical performance and low expression of a wide range of genes critical for mitochondrial function. The results stress the importance of taking sex differences into account in aging research.

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