Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Rarity of monodominance in hyperdiverse Amazonian forests
Steege, Hans Ter; Henkel, Terry W. ; Helal, Nora ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Huth, Andreas ; Groeneveld, Jürgen ; Sabatier, Daniel ; Souza Coelho, Luiz de; Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes de; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Amaral, Iêda Leão ; Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia de; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Guevara, Juan Ernesto ; Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo de; Cárdenas López, Dairon ; Magnusson, William E. ; Wittmann, Florian ; Irume, Mariana Victória ; Martins, Maria Pires ; Silva Guimarães, José Renan da; Molino, Jean François ; Bánki, Olaf S. ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo ; Ramos, José Ferreira ; Luize, Bruno Garcia ; Moraes de Leão Novo, Evlyn Márcia ; Núñez Vargas, Percy ; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire ; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins ; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto ; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa ; Terborgh, John ; Casula, Katia Regina ; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N. ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño ; Schöngart, Jochen ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Demarchi, Layon O. ; Assis, Rafael L. ; Baraloto, Chris ; Engel, Julien ; Petronelli, Pascal ; Castellanos, Hernán ; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Quaresma, Adriano ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Andrade, Ana ; Camargo, José Luís ; Laurance, Susan G.W. ; Laurance, William F. ; Rincón, Lorena M. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sousa, Thaiane R. ; Sousa Farias, Emanuelle de; Lopes, Maria Aparecida ; Magalhães, José Leonardo Lima ; Mendonça Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo ; Lima de Queiroz, Helder ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Brienen, Roel ; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat ; Stevenson, Pablo R. ; Feitosa, Yuri Oliveira ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Mogollón, Hugo F. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Lozada, José Rafael ; Comiskey, James A. ; Toledo, José Julio de; Damasco, Gabriel ; Dávila, Nállarett ; Draper, Freddie ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Lopes, Aline ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Gomes, Vitor H.F. ; Lloyd, Jon ; Neill, David ; Aguiar, Daniel Praia Portela de; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Amaral, Dário Dantas do; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Gribel, Rogerio ; Pansonato, Marcelo Petratti ; Barlow, Jos ; Berenguer, Erika ; Ferreira, Joice ; Fine, Paul V.A. ; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro ; Jimenez, Eliana M. ; Licona, Juan Carlos ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Villa, Boris ; Cerón, Carlos ; Maas, Paul ; Silveira, Marcos ; Stropp, Juliana ; Thomas, Raquel ; Baker, Tim R. ; Daly, Doug ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Milliken, William ; Pennington, Toby ; Ríos Paredes, Marcos ; Fuentes, Alfredo ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Pena, José Luis Marcelo ; Peres, Carlos A. ; Silman, Miles R. ; Tello, J.S. ; Chave, Jerome ; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Hilário, Renato Richard ; Phillips, Juan Fernando ; Rivas-Torres, Gonzalo ; Andel, Tinde R. van; Hildebrand, Patricio von; Noronha, Janaína Costa ; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques ; Barbosa, Flávia Rodrigues ; Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos de; Sá Carpanedo, Rainiellen de; Dávila Doza, Hilda Paulette ; Fonty, Émile ; GómeZárate Z, Ricardo ; Gonzales, Therany ; Gallardo Gonzales, George Pepe ; Hoffman, Bruce ; Junqueira, André Braga ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula de; Pinto, Linder Felipe Mozombite ; Prieto, Adriana ; Jesus Rodrigues, Domingos de; Rudas, Agustín ; Ruschel, Ademir R. ; Silva, Natalino ; Vela, César I.A. ; Vos, Vincent Antoine ; Zent, Egleé L. ; Zent, Stanford ; Weiss Albuquerque, Bianca ; Cano, Angela ; Carrero Márquez, Yrma Andreina ; Correa, Diego F. ; Costa, Janaina Barbosa Pedrosa ; Flores, Bernardo Monteiro ; Galbraith, David ; Holmgren, Milena ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade ; Oliveira, Alexandre A. ; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma ; Rocha, Maira ; Scudeller, Veridiana Vizoni ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Tirado, Milton ; Umaña Medina, Maria Natalia ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Vilanova Torre, Emilio ; Vriesendorp, Corine ; Wang, Ophelia ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Ahuite Reategui, Manuel Augusto ; Baider, Cláudia ; Balslev, Henrik ; Cárdenas, Sasha ; Casas, Luisa Fernanda ; Farfan-Rios, William ; Ferreira, Cid ; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Mesones, Italo ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego ; Villarroel, Daniel ; Zagt, Roderick ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina ; Hernandez, Lionel ; Palacios Cuenca, Walter ; Pansini, Susamar ; Pauletto, Daniela ; Ramirez Arevalo, Freddy ; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe ; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H. ; Valenzuela Gamarra, Luis ; Levesley, Aurora ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Melgaço, Karina - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019). - ISSN 2045-2322

Tropical forests are known for their high diversity. Yet, forest patches do occur in the tropics where a single tree species is dominant. Such "monodominant" forests are known from all of the main tropical regions. For Amazonia, we sampled the occurrence of monodominance in a massive, basin-wide database of forest-inventory plots from the Amazon Tree Diversity Network (ATDN). Utilizing a simple defining metric of at least half of the trees ≥ 10 cm diameter belonging to one species, we found only a few occurrences of monodominance in Amazonia, and the phenomenon was not significantly linked to previously hypothesized life history traits such wood density, seed mass, ectomycorrhizal associations, or Rhizobium nodulation. In our analysis, coppicing (the formation of sprouts at the base of the tree or on roots) was the only trait significantly linked to monodominance. While at specific locales coppicing or ectomycorrhizal associations may confer a considerable advantage to a tree species and lead to its monodominance, very few species have these traits. Mining of the ATDN dataset suggests that monodominance is quite rare in Amazonia, and may be linked primarily to edaphic factors.

Leaf metabolic signatures induced by real and simulated herbivory in black mustard (Brassica nigra)
Papazian, Stefano ; Girdwood, Tristan ; Wessels, Bernard A. ; Poelman, Erik H. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Moritz, Thomas ; Albrectsen, Benedicte R. - \ 2019
Metabolomics 15 (2019)10. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 16 - 16.
Brassica nigra - Glucosinolates - Growth-defence allocation - Herbivore-induced responses - Leaf ontogeny - Metabolomics - Methyl jasmonate - Priming

INTRODUCTION: The oxylipin methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant hormone active in response signalling and defence against herbivores. Although MeJA is applied experimentally to mimic herbivory and induce plant defences, its downstream effects on the plant metabolome are largely uncharacterized, especially in the context of primary growth and tissue-specificity of the response. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of MeJA-simulated and real caterpillar herbivory on the foliar metabolome of the wild plant Brassica nigra and monitored the herbivore-induced responses in relation to leaf ontogeny. METHODS: As single or multiple herbivory treatments, MeJA- and mock-sprayed plants were consecutively exposed to caterpillars or left untreated. Gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (TOF-MS) were combined to analyse foliar compounds, including central primary and specialized defensive plant metabolites. RESULTS: Plant responses were stronger in young leaves, which simultaneously induced higher chlorophyll levels. Both MeJA and caterpillar herbivory induced similar, but not identical, accumulation of tricarboxylic acids (TCAs), glucosinolates (GSLs) and phenylpropanoids (PPs), but only caterpillar feeding led to depletion of amino acids. MeJA followed by caterpillars caused higher induction of defence compounds, including a three-fold increase in the major defence compound allyl-GSL (sinigrin). When feeding on MeJA-treated plants, caterpillars gained less weight indicative of the reduced host-plant quality and enhanced resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolomics approach showed that plant responses induced by herbivory extend beyond the regulation of defence metabolism and are tightly modulated throughout leaf development. This leads to a new understanding of the plant metabolic potential that can be exploited for future plant protection strategies.

Exploring variability in detection thresholds of microparticles through participant characteristics
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Marigómez, Inés Sampedro ; Broers, Layla ; Hayes, John E. ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Scholten, Elke ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food & Function 10 (2019)9. - ISSN 2042-6496 - p. 5386 - 5397.

This study explored how product familiarity and physiological characteristics of participants affect detectability of microparticles in viscous and semi-solid foods. Cellulose particles differing in size (50-780 μm) were added (1.5% w/w) to two dairy products, quark (viscous curd cheese) and processed cheese. Discrimination thresholds for added microparticles were determined by 47 Dutch, Caucasian and 45 Chinese, Asian women using the Method of Constant Stimuli. Particle size detection thresholds did not significantly differ between the two groups, but differed significantly between the two products. Detection threshold estimates for particle size were lower in viscous, low-fat quark than in semi-solid, high-fat processed cheese (52 μm versus 86 μm). This suggests that particle detection depends on product properties such as product consistency and composition, but not on factors linked to ethnicity and/or nationality of participants. We found no evidence to support a relationship between product familiarity and particle size detection thresholds in either product. A positive but weak correlation was found between stimulated saliva flow and particle size detection threshold in processed cheese (r = 0.21, p = 0.041), suggesting active salivation might enhance sensitivity for microparticle detection in semi-solid foods. PROP status and fungiform papillae density did not correlate with particle size detection threshold for either food. We conclude that matrix properties were the main contributors to particle size detection thresholds in young, healthy participants who differed in nationality and ethnicity. These data suggest that product characteristics are the central factor that should be considered for modifications when dealing with foods in which particles lead to negative sensations such as grittiness.

Sugar Beet Pectin Supplementation Did Not Alter Profiles of Fecal Microbiota and Exhaled Breath in Healthy Young Adults and Healthy Elderly
An, Ran ; Wilms, Ellen ; Smolinska, Agnieszka ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Masclee, Ad A.M. ; Vos, Paul de; Schols, Henk A. ; Schooten, Frederik J. van; Smidt, Hauke ; Jonkers, Daisy M.A.E. ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Troost, Freddy J. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2072-6643
aging - dietary fiber - elderly - exhaled air - microbiota - pectin - young adults

Aging is accompanied with increased frailty and comorbidities, which is potentially associated with microbiome perturbations. Dietary fibers could contribute to healthy aging by beneficially impacting gut microbiota and metabolite profiles. We aimed to compare young adults with elderly and investigate the effect of pectin supplementation on fecal microbiota composition, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) while using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. Fifty-two young adults and 48 elderly consumed 15 g/day sugar beet pectin or maltodextrin for four weeks. Fecal and exhaled breath samples were collected before and after the intervention period. Fecal samples were used for microbiota profiling by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and for analysis of SCFAs by gas chromatography (GC). Breath was used for VOC analysis by GC-tof-MS. Young adults and elderly showed similar fecal SCFA and exhaled VOC profiles. Additionally, fecal microbiota profiles were similar, with five genera significantly different in relative abundance. Pectin supplementation did not significantly alter fecal microbiota, SCFA or exhaled VOC profiles in elderly or young adults. In conclusion, aside from some minor differences in microbial composition, healthy elderly and young adults showed comparable fecal microbiota composition and activity, which were not altered by pectin supplementation.

Livestock-Associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a young harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) with endocarditis
Rubio-Garcia, Ana ; Rossen, John W.A. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Friedrich, Alex W. ; Zeijl, Jan H. Van - \ 2019
Veterinary Record Case Reports 7 (2019)3. - ISSN 2052-6121
Bacterial diseases - Endocarditis - Infection - Marine mammals - MRSA - Phoca vitulina

A five-month-old male harbour seal was admitted for rehabilitation to the Sealcentre Pieterburen on November 16, 2015. During initial veterinary examination parasitic pneumonia and secondary bacterial pneumonia were suspected. Therefore, the seal received antiparasitic and antimicrobial treatment and appeared to recover but died unexpectedly after several weeks. Postmortem examination revealed a perforation in the aortic wall and histopathological examination of the aorta revealed mural necrosis with haemorrhage and suppurative to mixed inflammation. Bacterial culture resulted in isolation of a meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from the pericardial effusion. Subsequent culture of rectal swabs collected at arrival and during rehabilitation showed that the animal was already colonised with MRSA when admitted to the Sealcentre. MRSA has been isolated from marine mammals before, however, to our knowledge this is the first report of MRSA-Associated endocarditis in seals and the first time that livestock-Associated MRSA is reported in seals.

Legitimate and reliable determination of the age-related intestinal microbiome in young piglets; rectal swabs and fecal samples provide comparable insights
Choudhury, R. ; Middelkoop, A. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Kleerebezem, M. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019)AUG. - ISSN 1664-302X
Early life - Feces - Gut microbiota - Pig - Rectal swab

A prerequisite for reliable microbiota analysis is having an effective and consistent sampling method. Fecal sampling, commonly used to study the intestinal microbiome, might not be suitable in all situations, especially considering the potential difficulties in obtaining fresh feces from young animals. Indeed, this study shows that the success rate of collecting fecal samples from young piglets (<2 weeks of age) was very low. Therefore, we evaluated rectal swabs as an alternative sample type (to feces) for studying porcine microbiome development and performed a comparative analysis of microbiome composition obtained from fresh fecal samples and rectal swabs in 15 healthy piglets at seven (6 piglets) and 20 (9 piglets) days of age. Three samples (fresh feces, rectal swab before and after defecation) were collected from individual piglets and microbiome composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results demonstrated that rectal swabs and fecal samples provide similar microbiome composition profiles, with samples clustering predominantly by individual animal rather than sample type. Furthermore, regardless of the sample type, the biological interpretation with respect to microbiota colonization patterns associated with different ages (7 and 20 days) was found to be comparable. Independent of sample type, we observed age-related changes like increasing microbiota diversity and alterations in relative abundances of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Fusobacteria, which was also reflected in consistent family-and genus-level microbiota changes. This study establishes that rectal swabs are a suitable alternative sample type to study the porcine microbiome development in early life, when fecal sampling is challenging.

Parasite control in organic cattle farming: Management and farmers' perspectives from six European countries
Takeuchi-Storm, Nao ; Moakes, Simon ; Thüer, Susann ; Grovermann, Christian ; Verwer, Cynthia ; Verkaik, Jan ; Knubben-Schweizer, Gabriela ; Höglund, Johan ; Petkevičius, Saulius ; Thamsborg, Stig ; Werne, Steffen - \ 2019
Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports 18 (2019). - ISSN 2405-9390
Anthelmintic use - Cattle - Europe - Fasciola hepatica - Gastrointestinal nematodes - Organic farming

Organic ruminant production is expanding in the EU, but parasite management remains a constant challenge. Mandatory outdoor access for all age groups can increase exposure to pasture borne parasites, whilst restrictions in the prophylactic use of anthelmintics can limit parasite control. The scientific community has been working to deliver effective parasite control strategies and alternative approaches in order to slow down the development of anthelmintic resistance (AR). However, the current parasite control practices and overall awareness with regards to AR and alternative approaches on farms are largely unknown and may be causing a knowledge gap between the scientific and farming communities. Therefore, a structured survey was conducted in six European countries (Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Lithuania, Sweden) to provide basic data on practices, management and farmers' perspectives for grazing and parasite control (gastrointestinal worms and liver flukes) on organic cattle farms. Overall, 375 surveys were collected (282 dairy and 93 beef farms) in 2015–2016, and analysed descriptively. Additionally, surveys from the 228 dairy farms were assessed using a double-hurdle adoption model to identify the factors involved in the decision to drench against gastrointestinal parasites. Generally, there are prominent differences between countries, with monitoring methods differing especially, which has important implications in terms of knowledge transfer. For example, media warning was the most common method in DE, while antibody testing in bulk tank milk was the common method in NL. In other countries, clinical signs (diarrhoea, hair coat quality, and reduced weight or yield) and liver condemnation data were used frequently. In general, organic farmers from the six participating countries indicated that they would accept alternative approaches despite greater cost and labour. The likelihood of drenching were higher on farms with smaller farm areas, higher number of young stock and total livestock units and farms where faecal egg counts were used to monitor the parasites. In conclusion, it was evident that grazing and parasite management varied between the countries even though they operate under the same basic principles. Parasite management strategies must therefore be country specific and disseminated with appropriate methods.

Sex-Specific Differences in Fat Storage, Development of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Brain Structure in Juvenile HFD-Induced Obese Ldlr-/-.Leiden Mice
Jacobs, Sophie A.H. ; Gart, Eveline ; Vreeken, Debby ; Franx, Bart A.A. ; Wekking, Lotte ; Verweij, Vivienne G.M. ; Worms, Nicole ; Schoemaker, Marieke H. ; Gross, Gabriele ; Morrison, Martine C. ; Kleemann, Robert ; Arnoldussen, Ilse A.C. ; Kiliaan, Amanda J. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)8. - ISSN 2072-6643
juvenile - obesity - sex

BACKGROUND: Sex-specific differences play a role in metabolism, fat storage in adipose tissue, and brain structure. At juvenile age, brain function is susceptible to the effects of obesity; little is known about sex-specific differences in juvenile obesity. Therefore, this study examined sex-specific differences in adipose tissue and liver of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and putative alterations between male and female mice in brain structure in relation to behavioral changes during the development of juvenile obesity. METHODS: In six-week-old male and female Ldlr-/-.Leiden mice (n = 48), the impact of 18 weeks of HFD-feeding was examined. Fat distribution, liver pathology and brain structure and function were analyzed imunohisto- and biochemically, in cognitive tasks and with MRI. RESULTS: HFD-fed female mice were characterized by an increased perigonadal fat mass, pronounced macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation. Male mice on HFD displayed an increased mesenteric fat mass, pronounced adipose tissue inflammation and microvesicular hepatic steatosis. Only male HFD-fed mice showed decreased cerebral blood flow and reduced white matter integrity. CONCLUSIONS: At young age, male mice are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFD than female mice. This study emphasizes the importance of sex-specific differences in obesity, liver pathology, and brain function.

Baby's first bites: a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of vegetable-exposure and sensitive feeding on vegetable acceptance, eating behavior and weight gain in infants and toddlers
Veek, S.M.C. van der; Graaf, C. de; Vries, J.H.M. de; Jager, G. ; Vereijken, C.M.J.L. ; Weenen, H. ; Winden, N. van; Vliet, M.S. van; Schultink, J.M. ; Wild, V.W.T. de; Janssen, S. ; Mesman, J. - \ 2019
BMC Pediatrics 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2431 - 1 p.
Complementary feeding - Infant - Responsive feeding - Self-regulation of energy intake - Toddler - Vegetable exposure - Vegetables

BACKGROUND: The start of complementary feeding in infancy plays an essential role in promoting healthy eating habits. Evidence shows that it is important what infants are offered during this first introduction of solid foods: e.g. starting exclusively with vegetables is more successful for vegetable acceptance than starting with fruits. How infants are introduced to solid foods also matters: if parents are sensitive and responsive to infant cues during feeding, this may promote self-regulation of energy intake and a healthy weight. However, the effectiveness of the what and the how of complementary feeding has never been experimentally tested in the same study. In the current project the what and how (and their combination) are tested in one study to determine their relative importance for fostering vegetable acceptance and self-regulation of energy intake in infants. METHODS: A four-arm randomized controlled trial (Baby's First Bites (BFB)) was designed for 240 first-time Dutch mothers and their infants, 60 per arm. In this trial, we compare the effectiveness of (a) a vegetable-exposure intervention focusing on the what in complementary feeding; (b) a sensitive feeding intervention focusing on the how in complementary feeding, (c) a combined intervention focusing on the what and how in complementary feeding; (d) an attention-control group. All mothers participate in five sessions spread over the first year of eating solid foods (child age 4-16 months). Primary outcomes are vegetable consumption, vegetable liking and self-regulation of energy intake. Secondary outcomes are child eating behaviors, child anthropometrics and maternal feeding behavior. Outcomes are assessed before, during and directly after the interventions (child age 18 months), and when children are 24 and 36 months old. DISCUSSION: The outcomes are expected to assess the impact of the interventions and provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the development of vegetable acceptance, self-regulation and healthy eating patterns in infants and toddlers, as well as the prevention of overweight. The results may be used to improve current dietary advice given to parents of their young children on complementary feeding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered during inclusion of participants at the Netherlands National Trial Register (identifier NTR6572 ) and at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03348176 ). Protocol issue date: 1 April 2018; version number 1.

Protein supplementation elicits greater gains in maximal oxygen uptake capacity and stimulates lean mass accretion during prolonged endurance training: a double-blind randomized controlled trial
Knuiman, Pim ; Loon, Luc J.C. van; Wouters, Jeroen ; Hopman, Maria ; Mensink, Marco - \ 2019
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 110 (2019)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 508 - 518.
body composition - endurance training - maximal oxygen uptake capacity - protein supplementation - skeletal muscle oxidative capacity

BACKGROUND: Endurance training induces numerous cardiovascular and skeletal muscle adaptations, thereby increasing maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO2max). Whether protein supplementation enhances these adaptations remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to determine the impact of protein supplementation on changes in VO2max during prolonged endurance training. METHODS: We used a double-blind randomized controlled trial with repeated measures among 44 recreationally active, young males. Subjects performed 3 endurance training sessions per week for 10 wk. Supplements were provided immediately after each exercise session and daily before sleep, providing either protein (PRO group; n = 19; 21.5 ± 0.4 y) or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate as control (CON group; n = 21; 22.5 ± 0.5 y). The VO2max, simulated 10-km time trial performance, and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after 5 and 10 wk of endurance training. Fasting skeletal muscle tissue samples were taken before and after 5 and 10 wk to measure skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, and fasting blood samples were taken every 2 wk to measure hematological factors. RESULTS: VO2max increased to a greater extent in the PRO group than in the CON group after 5 wk (from 49.9 ± 0.8 to 54.9 ± 1.1 vs 50.8 ± 0.9 to 53.0 ± 1.1 mL · kg-1 · min-1; P < 0.05) and 10 wk (from 49.9 ± 0.8 to 55.4 ± 0.9 vs 50.8 ± 0.9 to 53.9 ± 1.2 mL · kg-1 · min-1; P < 0.05). Lean body mass increased in the PRO group whereas lean body mass in the CON group remained stable during the first 5 wk (1.5 ± 0.2 vs 0.1 ± 0.3 kg; P < 0.05) and after 10 wk (1.5 ± 0.3 vs 0.4 ± 0.3 kg; P < 0.05). Throughout the intervention, fat mass reduced significantly in the PRO group and there were no changes in the CON group after 5 wk (-0.6 ± 0.2 vs -0.1 ± 0.2 kg; P > 0.05) and 10 wk (-1.2 ± 0.4 vs -0.2 ± 0.2 kg; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Protein supplementation elicited greater gains in VO2max and stimulated lean mass accretion but did not improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and endurance performance during 10 wk of endurance training in healthy, young males. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03462381.

Non-destructive tree volume estimation through quantitative structure modelling: Comparing UAV laser scanning with terrestrial LIDAR
Brede, Benjamin ; Calders, Kim ; Lau, Alvaro ; Raumonen, Pasi ; Bartholomeus, Harm M. ; Herold, Martin ; Kooistra, Lammert - \ 2019
Remote Sensing of Environment 233 (2019). - ISSN 0034-4257
Above-Ground Biomass (AGB) product calibration and validation require ground reference plots at hectometric scales to match space-borne missions' resolution. Traditional forest inventory methods that use allometric equations for single tree AGB estimation suffer from biases and low accuracy, especially when dealing with large trees. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and explicit tree modelling show high potential for direct estimates of tree volume, but at the cost of time demanding fieldwork. This study aimed to assess if novel Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Laser Scanning (UAV-LS) could overcome this limitation, while delivering comparable results. For this purpose, the performance of UAV-LS in comparison with TLS for explicit tree modelling was tested in a Dutch temperate forest. In total, 200 trees with Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) ranging from 6 to 91 cm from 5 stands, including coniferous and deciduous species, have been scanned, segmented and subsequently modelled with TreeQSM. TreeQSM is a method that builds explicit tree models from laser scanner point clouds. Direct comparison with TLS derived models showed that UAV-LS reliably modelled the volume of trunks and branches with diameter ≥30 cm in the mature beech and oak stand with Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) of 0.85 and RMSE of1.12 m3. Including smaller branch volume led to a considerable overestimation and decrease in correspondence to CCC of 0.51 and increase in RMSE to 6.59 m3. Denser stands prevented sensing of trunks and further decreased CCC to 0.36 in the Norway spruce stand. Also small, young trees posed problems by preventing a proper depiction of the trunk circumference and decreased CCC to 0.01. This dependence on stand indicated a strong impact of canopy structure on the UAV-LS volume modelling capacity. Improved flight paths, repeated acquisition flights or alternative modelling strategies could improve UAV-LS modelling performance under these conditions. This study contributes to the use of UAV-LS for fast tree volume and AGB estimation on scales relevant for satellite AGB product calibration and validation.

Optimizing young child nutrition in Ethiopia : the effectiveness, acceptance and risks of micronutrient powders
Hafebo, A.S. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.J.M. Feskens; I.D. Brouwer; S.J.M. Osendarp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439626 - 250 p.
Multiple vs Single Target Vegetable Exposure to Increase Young Children's Vegetable Intake
Poelman, Astrid A.M. ; Delahunty, Conor M. ; Broch, Maeva ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2019
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 51 (2019)8. - ISSN 1499-4046 - p. 985 - 992.
acceptance - repeated exposure - variety - vegetable intake - young children

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of repeated exposure to multiple vs single target vegetables in increasing young children's vegetable intake. Methods: A pilot randomized controlled trial (children aged 4–6 years, n = 32) was conducted, which exposed children at home 15 times over 5 weeks to either 1 (single target) or 3 (multiple target) vegetables. A comparison group did not change eating habits. Vegetable intake was measured by (1) a dinner meal consumed at research facilities, (2) 3-day weighed food records, and (3) usual vegetable intake (parent report). Measures were collected at baseline and either immediately after intervention (1), at 3-month follow-up (3) or both (2). Results: There were no differences between groups at baseline in vegetable intake. Usual vegetable intake increased in the multiple target group from.6 to 1.2 servings/d and did not change in other groups (P =.02). Food record data were not significant but underpowered. Vegetable intake from dinner meals was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions and Implications: Exposure to multiple vegetables simultaneously may be more effective than a single vegetable to increase young children's intake. Larger scale research is recommended to confirm the effectiveness of offering variety in exposure and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms involved.

Effects of age and environment on adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccination in dairy goats in relation to paratuberculosis control strategies
Koets, Ad ; Ravesloot, Lars ; Ruuls, Robin ; Dinkla, Annemieke ; Eisenberg, Susanne ; Lievaart-Peterson, Karianne - \ 2019
Veterinary Sciences 6 (2019)3. - ISSN 2306-7381
Diagnostics - Immunity - Mycobacterium - Paratuberculosis - Vaccination

Paratuberculosis infection is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In the Netherlands, 75% herd level prevalence of caprine paratuberculosis has been estimated, and vaccination is the principal control strategy applied. Most goat dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis systematically vaccinate goat kids in the first months of life with a commercially available whole cell MAP vaccine. We hypothesized that the development of adaptive immune responses in goats vaccinated at young age depends on the environment they are raised in, and this has implications for the application of immune diagnostic tests in vaccinated dairy goats. We evaluated the early immune response to vaccination in young goat kids sourced from a MAP unsuspected non-vaccinated herd and raised in a MAP-free environment. Subsequently we compared these with responses observed in birth year and vaccination matched adult goats raised on farms with endemic paratuberculosis. Results indicated that initial adaptive immune responses to vaccination are limited in a MAP-free environment. In addition, adult antibody positive vaccinated goats raised in a MAP endemic environment are less likely to be IS900 PCR-positive as compared to antibody negative herd mates. We conclude that test-and-cull strategies in a vaccinated herd are currently not feasible using available immune diagnostic tests.

Integrating morphological and physiological responses of tomato plants to light quality to the crop level by 3D modeling
Dieleman, J.A. ; Visser, Pieter H.B. de; Meinen, Esther ; Grit, Janneke G. ; Dueck, Tom A. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
Blue light - Functional-structural plant model - Green light - Photomorphogenesis - Red light - Spectral composition of light

Next to its intensity, the spectral composition of light is one of the most important factors affecting plant growth and morphology. The introduction of light emitting diodes (LEDs) offers perspectives to design optimal light spectra for plant production systems. However, knowledge on the effects of light quality on physiological plant processes is still limited. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of six light qualities on growth and plant architecture of young tomato plants, and to upscale these effects to the crop level using a multispectral, functional-structural plant model. Young tomato plants were grown under 210 μmol m-2 s-1 blue, green, amber, red, white or red/blue (92%/8%) LED light with a low intensity of sunlight as background. Plants grown under blue light were shorter and developed smaller leaves which were obliquely oriented upward. Leaves grown under blue light contained the highest levels of light harvesting pigments, but when exposed to blue light only, they had the lowest rate of leaf photosynthesis. However, when exposed to white light these leaves had the highest rate of photosynthesis. Under green light, tomato plants were taller and leaves were nearly horizontally oriented, with a high specific leaf area. The open plant structure combined with a high light transmission and reflection at the leaf level allowed green light to penetrate deeper into the canopy. Plants grown under red, amber and white light were comparable with respect to height, leaf area and biomass production. The 3D model simulations indicated that the observed changes in plant architecture had a significant impact on light absorbance at the leaf and crop level. The combination of plant architecture and spectrum dependent photosynthesis was found to result in the highest rate of crop photosynthesis under red light in plants initially grown under green light. These results suggest that dynamic light spectra may offer perspectives to increase growth and production in high value production systems such as greenhouse horticulture and vertical farming.

Moving towards a healthier assortment in secondary and vocational school food environments: Perspectives of Dutch students and school food policy professionals
Kleef, Ellen van; Meeuwsen, Tanja ; Rigterink, Jetteke ; Trijp, Hans Van - \ 2019
British Food Journal 121 (2019)9. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 2052 - 2066.
Adolescents - Consumer Attitudes - Government policy - Healthy food environment - Intervention acceptability - School canteen

Purpose: In many countries, schools move toward healthier canteen assortments by limiting the supply of unhealthy foods. The question arises whether this gives any undesirable side effects with students (e.g. compensation in purchases from school to outside retailers, reactance) and how to handle these so that operating school canteens remains financially viable. The purpose of this paper is to identify perspectives toward healthy school food assortments held by vocational education students and professionals within secondary and vocational schools with responsibility for school food policy (e.g. school canteen workers, teachers, school directors) in the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus groups were conducted with students at a vocational school (n=25 in total). A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct discussions. The interview guide also included three school canteen scenario’s (A: 100 percent healthy food, B: 50 percent healthy/50 percent unhealthy foods and C: 100 percent unhealthy food) and a set of nine intervention strategies. A brief survey included questions on the same three scenario’s and nine intervention strategies. A web-based survey was conducted among 68 professionals responsible for school food policy and included their evaluation of the same canteen scenarios and interventions. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Content analysis was done on the qualitative data. Findings: School food professionals were highly supportive of Scenario A (100 percent healthy food), as this formed a better fit with their policies and was believed to stronger encourage healthy eating. They did worry about financial feasibility given lower affordability and student reluctance to accept the assortment. Students were less in favor of Scenario A. Students discussed getting value for money and remaining freedom to make unhealthy choices. The authors discuss implications for policy makers who aim to implement measures to improve young people’s eating habits. Originality/value: This study contributes to the literature on creating healthier school food environments. This study uniquely examines a healthier school canteen from a viability perspective, including the views of students as primary customers. Given the need to progressively increase the number of foods complying to dietary guidelines in canteen assortments, this study provides insights into how and why assortment changes best can be implemented.

Grab to eat! Eating motivation dynamics measured by effort exertion depend on hunger state
Pirc, Matjaž ; Čad, E.M. ; Jager, G. ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 78 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293
Desire to eat - Eating motivation - Effort - Hand-grip force exertion - Liking - Wanting

A crucial challenge in investigating motivated human eating behaviour is to go beyond subjective measures, by developing reliable methods capable of objectively quantifying the dynamic aspects of appetitive motivation. We developed and tested a novel effort-based task (Grab-to-Eat Task (GET)), utilising handgrip force as a motivational measure, to capture eating motivation dynamics throughout consumption. Sixty normal-weight young adults were allocated to one of two hunger state conditions (hungry or satiated) and performed a continuous reinforcement-based task, during which sips of chocolate milk were self-administered with a handgrip force transducer. Motivation was covertly assessed by the magnitude of effort exertion towards each sip. Cumulatively, hungry subjects exerted more effort and consequently consumed more chocolate milk than satiated ones. Effort exertion declined throughout consumption in both groups, with the rate of decline being two-fold greater in hungry subjects. Furthermore, effort exerted in the initial stages of consumption predicted subsequent intake. Present results fit in the theoretical framework of reward-related motivation and suggest that the developed paradigm is sensitive to eating motivation dynamics throughout consumption and to differences in eating motivation related to hunger state. Further validation, ideally involving functional neuroimaging, would be imperative. In the future, this paradigm could be used to investigate eating motivation dynamics in various populations, conditions and food products.

Assessing specialized metabolite diversity in the cosmopolitan plant genus Euphorbia l.
Ernst, Madeleine ; Nothias, Louis Félix ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Silva, Ricardo R. ; Saslis-Lagoudakis, Haris C. ; Grace, Olwen M. ; Martinez-Swatson, Karen ; Hassemer, Gustavo ; Funez, Luís A. ; Simonsen, Henrik T. ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Staerk, Dan ; Nilsson, Niclas ; Lovato, Paola ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Rønsted, Nina - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
Coevolution - Computational metabolomics - Euphorbia - Immunomodulatory testing - Specialized metabolites

Coevolutionary theory suggests that an arms race between plants and herbivores yields increased plant specialized metabolite diversity and the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution predicts that coevolutionary interactions vary across geographic scales. Consequently, plant specialized metabolite diversity is expected to be highest in coevolutionary hotspots, geographic regions, which exhibit strong reciprocal selection on the interacting species. Despite being well-established theoretical frameworks, technical limitations have precluded rigorous hypothesis testing. Here we aim at understanding how geographic separation over evolutionary time may have impacted chemical differentiation in the cosmopolitan plant genus Euphorbia. We use a combination of state-of-the-art computational mass spectral metabolomics tools together with cell-based high-throughput immunomodulatory testing. Our results show significant differences in specialized metabolite diversity across geographically separated phylogenetic clades. Chemical structural diversity of the highly toxic Euphorbia diterpenoids is significantly reduced in species native to the Americas, compared to Afro-Eurasia. The localization of these compounds to young stems and roots suggest a possible ecological relevance in herbivory defense. This is further supported by reduced immunomodulatory activity in the American subclade as well as herbivore distribution patterns. We conclude that computational mass spectrometric metabolomics coupled with relevant ecological data provide a strong tool for exploring plant specialized metabolite diversity in a chemo-evolutionary framework.

Identifying Dietary Strategies to Improve Nutrient Adequacy among Ethiopian Infants and Young Children Using Linear Modelling
Samuel, Aregash ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. ; Ferguson, Elaine ; Borgonjen, Karin ; Alvarado, Brenda M. ; Neufeld, Lynnette M. ; Adish, Abdulaziz ; Kebede, Amha ; Brouwer, Inge D. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 2072-6643
complementary food - Ethiopia - food-based dietary recommendations - nutrient adequacy - Optifood analysis

Nutrient adequacy of young children's diet and best possible strategies to improve nutrient adequacy were assessed. Data from the Ethiopian National Food Consumption Survey were analysed using Optifood (software for linear programming) to identify nutrient gaps in diets for children (6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months), and to formulate feasible Food-Based Dietary Recommendations (FBDRs) in four regions which differ in culture and food practices. Alternative interventions including a local complementary food, micronutrient powders (MNPs), Small quantity Lipid-based Nutrient Supplement (Sq-LNS) and combinations of these were modelled in combination with the formulated FBDRs to compare their relative contributions. Risk of inadequate and excess nutrient intakes was simulated using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method and the full probability approach. Optimized local diets did not provide adequate zinc in all regions and age groups, iron for infants <12 months of age in all regions, and calcium, niacin, thiamine, folate, vitamin B12 and B6 in some regions and age-groups. The set of regional FBDRs, considerably different for four regions, increased nutrient adequacy but some nutrients remained sub-optimal. Combination of regional FBDRs with daily MNP supplementation for 6-12 months of age and every other day for 12-23 months of age, closed the identified nutrient gaps without leading to a substantial increase in the risk of excess intakes.

Value conflicts in mothers' snack choice for their 2- to 7-year-old children
Damen, Femke W.M. ; Luning, Pieternel A. ; Hofstede, Gert Jan ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Steenbekkers, Bea L.P.A. - \ 2019
Maternal and Child Nutrition (2019). - ISSN 1740-8695
children's dietary behaviour - diary research - food choice - healthy snack - interview - value conflict

Value conflicts appear when people experience struggles, doubts, and feelings of guilt when making food choices. This study aims to provide insight into value conflicts, which mothers may experience while providing snacks to their young children. Mothers are mainly responsible for providing the snacks their young children eat, making it a big responsibility for them as children's dietary behaviour tracks into adulthood. Possible value conflicts Dutch mothers (n = 136) experience while providing snacks to their 2- to 7-year-old children were investigated using food and motivation diaries and semi-structured interviews. Differences between mothers' educational level, first versus not-first child, and the differences in age of the children were taken into account. Results showed that the younger the children, the more value conflicts the mothers experienced. Mothers experienced most value conflicts when they provided snacks perceived as unhealthy. Six main value conflicts are elicited by this study, namely, conflicts between healthy and unhealthy snacks; conflicts between healthy and convenient snacks; conflicts related to providing snacks just before dinner; conflicts related to influence of others; conflicts when the child asks but the mother says “no”; and conflicts related to many unhealthy snacks at parties or visits. The insights gained in this study can be used for interventions to promote a healthier lifestyle, support the design of new snack products, and can give guidance for marketing challenges in global snack markets.

Effects of pre-transport diet, transport duration and type of vehicle on metabolism and immunity of young veal calves
Marcato, F. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. ; Engel, B. ; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M. ; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2019
In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Production Diseases in Farm Animals. - Bern, Switserland : University of Bern - ISBN 9783906813936 - p. 97 - 97.
Transport is one of the largest challenges faced by veal calves. The first transport occurs when calves are transported from the dairy farms to a collection center at 14-20 days of age. Then, with a second transport, calves are brought to the veal farms. During transport and at the collection center, calves are mixed and exposed to new environmental conditions and microorganisms. Consequently, transport is associated with a high level of stress and an increase in infectious disease incidence. As a consequence of stress, the metabolism, immunity and health of calves might be compromised. Previous studies explored effects of transport on hematological, metabolic and immunological variables of calves. However, these studies focused just on one single factor (e.g. transport duration or pre-transport nutrition) and not on a combination of multiple factors associated with transport. The current research aimed to investigate effects of a pre-transport diet, transport duration and type of vehicle on metabolic and immunological variables of young calves upon arrival at the veal farm.
Effects of pre-transport diet, transport duration and type of vehicle on metabolism and immunity of young veal calves
Marcato, Francesca - \ 2019
Human respiratory syncytial virus infection in the pre-clinical calf model
Cortjens, B. ; Jong, R. de; Bonsing, J.G. ; Woensel, J.B.M. van; Bem, R.A. ; Antonis, A.F.G. - \ 2019
Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 65 (2019). - ISSN 0147-9571 - p. 213 - 218.
Animal model - Bronchiolitis - Calves - Neutrophil - Respiratory syncytial virus - Upper and lower respiratory tract infections

Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most important respiratory pathogen in young children worldwide. Experimental modelling of hRSV disease by bovine RSV (bRSV) infection in calves provides an important tool for developing new strategies for prevention and treatment. Depending on the scientific hypothesis under investigation, this cognate host-virus model might have the disadvantage of using a highly related but not genetically identical virus. In this study, we aim to describe viral kinetics and (clinical) disease characteristics in calves inoculated with hRSV. Our results show that hRSV infects the upper and, to a lesser extent, the lower respiratory tract of calves. Infection causes upper airway clinical disease symptoms and neutrophilic infiltration of the lower airways. We conclude that a hRSV model in calves may aid future research involving distinct scientific questions related to hRSV disease in children.

The potential of green rehabilitation for young employees with burnout: a salutogenic approach
Pijpker, Roald ; Vaandrager, L. ; Veen, E.J. ; Koelen, M.A. - \ 2019
In vivo assessment of muscle mitochondrial function in healthy, young males in relation to parameters of aerobic fitness
Lagerwaard, Bart ; Keijer, Jaap ; McCully, Kevin K. ; Boer, Vincent C.J. de; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G. - \ 2019
European Journal of Applied Physiology 119 (2019)8. - ISSN 1439-6319 - p. 1799 - 1808.
EPOC - Mitochondrial capacity - Muscle mitochondria - NIRS - Oxidative metabolism

Purpose: The recovery of muscle oxygen consumption (mV˙ O2) after exercise provides a measure of skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity, as more and better-functioning mitochondria will be able to restore mV˙ O2 faster to the pre-exercise state. The aim was to measure muscle mitochondrial capacity using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) within a healthy, normally active population and relate this to parameters of aerobic fitness, investigating the applicability and relevance of using NIRS to assess muscle mitochondrial capacity non-invasively. Methods: Mitochondrial capacity was analysed in the gastrocnemius and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscles of eight relatively high-aerobic fitness (V˙ O2peak ≥ 57 mL/kg/min) and eight relatively low-aerobic fitness male subjects (V˙ O2peak ≤ 47 mL/kg/min). Recovery of whole body V˙ O2, i.e. excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was analysed after a cycling protocol. Results: Mitochondrial capacity, as analysed using NIRS, was significantly higher in high-fitness individuals compared to low-fitness individuals in the gastrocnemius, but not in the FDS (p = 0.0036 and p = 0.20, respectively). Mitochondrial capacity in the gastrocnemius was significantly correlated with V˙ O2peak (R2 = 0.57, p = 0.0019). Whole body V˙ O2 recovery was significantly faster in the high-fitness individuals (p = 0.0048), and correlated significantly with mitochondrial capacity in the gastrocnemius (R2 = 0.34, p = 0.028). Conclusion: NIRS measurements can be used to assess differences in mitochondrial muscle oxygen consumption within a relatively normal, healthy population. Furthermore, mitochondrial capacity correlated with parameters of aerobic fitness (V˙ O2peak and EPOC), emphasising the physiological relevance of the NIRS measurements.

Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: identification and partial characterization of montanine production in Rhodophiala bifida plant
Reis, Andressa ; Magne, Kevin ; Massot, Sophie ; Tallini, Luciana R. ; Scopel, Marina ; Bastida, Jaume ; Ratet, Pascal ; Zuanazzi, José A.S. - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Rhodophiala bifida (R. bifida) is a representative of the Amaryllidaceae plant family and is rich in montanine, an alkaloid with high pharmaceutical potential. Despite the interest in these compounds, many steps of the biosynthetic pathway have not been elucidated. In this study, we identified the alkaloids produced in different organs of R. bifida under different growth conditions, set up the conditions for in vitro R. bifida regeneration and initiated the molecular characterization of two R. bifida genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis: the Norbelladine 4′-O-Methyltransferase (RbN4OMT) and the Cytochrome P450 (RbCYP96T). We show that montanine is the main alkaloid produced in the different R. bifida organs and developed a direct organogenesis regeneration protocol, using twin-scale explants cultivated on media enriched with naphthalene acetic acid and benzyladenine. Finally, we analyzed the RbN4OMT and RbCYP96T gene expressions in different organs and culture conditions and compared them to alkaloid production. In different organs of R. bifida young, adult and regenerated plants, as well as under various growing conditions, the transcripts accumulation was correlated with the production of alkaloids. This work provides new tools to improve the production of this important pharmaceutical compound and for future biotechnological studies.

Glucosinolate variability between turnip organs during development
Bonnema, Guusje ; Lee, Jun Gu ; Shuhang, Wang ; Lagarrigue, David ; Bucher, Johan ; Wehrens, Ron ; Vos, Ric De; Beekwilder, Jules - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)6. - ISSN 1932-6203

Turnip (Brassica rapa spp. rapa) is an important vegetable species, with a unique physiology. Several plant parts, including both the turnip tubers and leaves, are important for human consumption. During the development of turnip plants, the leaves function as metabolic source tissues, while the tuber first functions as a sink, while later the tuber turns into a source for development of flowers and seeds. In the present study, chemical changes were determined for two genotypes with different genetic background, and included seedling, young leaves, mature leaves, tuber surface, tuber core, stalk, flower and seed tissues, at seven different time points during plant development. As a basis for understanding changes in glucosinolates during plant development, the profile of glucosinolates was analysed using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). This analysis was complemented by a gene expression analysis, focussed on GLS biosynthesis, which could explain part of the observed variation, pointing to important roles of specific gene orthologues for defining the chemical differences. Substantial differences in glucosinolate profiles were observed between above-ground tissues and turnip tuber, reflecting the differences in physiological role. In addition, differences between the two genotypes and between tissues that were harvested early or late during the plant lifecycle. The importance of the observed differences in glucosinolate profile for the ecophysiology of the turnip and for breeding turnips with optimal chemical profiles is discussed.

Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
Bixby, Honor ; Bentham, James ; Zhou, Bin ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Bennett, James E. ; Taddei, Cristina ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Rodriguez-Martinez, Andrea ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Khang, Young Ho ; Sorić, Maroje ; Gregg, Edward W. ; Miranda, J.J. ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. ; Savin, Stefan ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Iurilli, Maria L.C. ; Solomon, Bethlehem D. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Bovet, Pascal ; Chirita-Emandi, Adela ; Hambleton, Ian R. ; Hayes, Alison J. ; Ikeda, Nayu ; Kengne, Andre P. ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Li, Yanping ; McGarvey, Stephen T. ; Mostafa, Aya ; Neovius, Martin ; Starc, Gregor ; Zainuddin, Ahmad A. ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Abdrakhmanova, Shynar ; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila ; Abdul Hamid, Zargar ; Abubakar Garba, Jamila ; Ferrieres, Jean ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Visser, Marjolein ; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2019
Nature 569 (2019)7755. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 260 - 264.

Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities 1,2 . This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity 3–6 . Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017—and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions—was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing—and in some countries reversal—of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.

Defense of pyrethrum flowers: repelling herbivore and recruiting carnivore by producing aphid alarm pheromone
Ruijter, N.C.A. de; Dicke, M. ; Jongsma, M.A. - \ 2019
New Phytologist 223 (2019)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1607 - 1620.
E)‐β‐farnesene (EβF) is the predominant constituent of the alarm pheromone of most aphid pest species. Moreover, natural enemies of aphids use EβF to locate their aphid prey. Some plant species emit EβF, potentially as a defense against aphids, but field demonstrations are lacking.Here, we present field and laboratory studies of flower defense showing that ladybird beetles are predominantly attracted to young stage‐2 pyrethrum flowers that emitted the highest and purest levels of EβF. By contrast, aphids were repelled by EβF emitted by S2 pyrethrum flowers. Although peach aphids can adapt to pyrethrum plants in the laboratory, aphids were not recorded in the field. Pyrethrum's (E)‐β‐farnesene synthase (EbFS) gene is strongly expressed in inner cortex tissue surrounding the vascular system of the aphid‐preferred flower receptacle and peduncle, leading to elongated cells filled with EβF. Aphids that probe these tissues during settlement encounter and ingest plant EβF as evidenced by the release in honeydew. These EβF concentrations in honeydew induce aphid alarm responses, suggesting an extra layer of this defense.Collectively, our data elucidate a defensive mimicry in pyrethrum flowers: the developmentally regulated and tissue‐specific EβF accumulation and emission both prevents attack by aphids and recruits aphid predators as bodyguards.
Hygienic behaviour in honeybees: a comparison of two recording methods and estimation of genetic parameters
Facchini, Elena ; Bijma, Piter ; Pagnacco, Giulio ; Rizzi, Rita ; Brascamp, Evert Willem - \ 2019
Apidologie 50 (2019)2. - ISSN 0044-8435 - p. 163 - 172.
freeze-killed brood test - heritability - honeybee - hygienic behaviour - repeatability

Hygienic behaviour (HB) in honeybees reflects social immunity against diseases and parasites. Young bees showing HB detect, uncap, and remove infested brood from a colony. We developed a new variant of freeze-killed brood (FKB*) test to optimise the duration of the HB test, the costs, and safety for the operator. In 2016, we performed a comparison between traditional FKB and FKB* on 25 unselected and unrelated colonies in the apiary of the University of Milano. To estimate repeatability and heritability, in 2017 and 2018, FKB* was used to phenotype, respectively, 56 and 95 colonies twice, in the context of a breeding programme. FKB* took less time and required a smaller amount of liquid nitrogen. The two methods showed a correlation between colony effects of 0.93, indicating that they measure the same trait. For single records, the phenotypic correlation between both methods was 0.64. Estimated heritability and repeatability for single records HB were 0.23 and 0.24, respectively, whilst heritability for the average HB value of two records was 0.37.

Genomic analysis on pygmy hog reveals extensive interbreeding during wild boar expansion
Liu, Langqing ; Bosse, Mirte ; Megens, Hendrik-Jan ; Frantz, Laurent A.F. ; Lee, Young Lim ; Irving-Pease, Evan K. ; Narayan, Goutam ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Madsen, Ole - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723

Wild boar (Sus scrofa) drastically colonized mainland Eurasia and North Africa, most likely from East Asia during the Plio-Pleistocene (2–1Mya). In recent studies, based on genome-wide information, it was hypothesized that wild boar did not replace the species it encountered, but instead exchanged genetic materials with them through admixture. The highly endangered pygmy hog (Porcula salvania) is the only suid species in mainland Eurasia known to have outlived this expansion, and therefore provides a unique opportunity to test this hybridization hypothesis. Analyses of pygmy hog genomes indicate that despite large phylogenetic divergence (~2 My), wild boar and pygmy hog did indeed interbreed as the former expanded across Eurasia. In addition, we also assess the taxonomic placement of the donor of another introgression, pertaining to a now-extinct species with a deep phylogenetic placement in the Suidae tree. Altogether, our analyses indicate that the rapid spread of wild boar was facilitated by inter-specific/inter-generic admixtures.

Variation in foraging strategies over a large spatial scale reduces parent–offspring conflict in Manx shearwaters
Wischnewski, Saskia ; Arneill, Gavin E. ; Bennison, Ashley W. ; Dillane, Eileen ; Poupart, Timothée A. ; Hinde, Camilla A. ; Jessopp, Mark J. ; Quinn, John L. - \ 2019
Animal Behaviour 151 (2019). - ISSN 0003-3472 - p. 165 - 176.
dual foraging - Mid-Altlantic Ridge - parental care - parent–offspring conflict - Procellariiformes - spatial ecology - trade-off - tubenoses

Parental care can lead to a conflict of interest between parents and offspring. For central place foragers, conflict is expected to be particularly intensive in species that feed on relatively inaccessible, distant food resources. Some pelagic seabirds use distinct foraging strategies when provisioning young versus self-feeding: short trips near the colony versus long trips far away. Limited empirical evidence suggests that the strategy used by parents depends on their own state and that of their young, suggesting that dynamic optimization may help reduce conflict. Tests of this hypothesis, however, are scarce. Using a combination of GPS tracking and nest monitoring, we examined whether foraging strategy choice by Manx shearwaters, Puffinus puffinus, is explained by the body condition of parents and offspring before trip departure, and whether choice affects condition upon return. When chick body condition was poor prior to departure, subsequent foraging trips by adults were significantly shorter and faster, and chick condition upon return improved. When chick condition was good prior to departure, the reverse happened. There was no evidence that adult condition affected subsequent trip choice, but adults returning from slow, long-duration trips were in comparatively better condition. Thus, although the trips that were good for offspring were different to those that were favourable for adults, trip choice was only dependent on chick condition, which may explain why there was no evidence for a trade-off between adult and chick condition during individual trips. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variation in foraging strategies is driven by the conflicting needs of parents and offspring, but that the parents can reduce the conflict, resulting in no detectable trade-off under these conditions. This link between parental care and space use is likely to be widespread in central place foragers but remains largely unexplored in most systems.

Vegetation classification as a mirror of evolution? Thoughts on the syntaxonomy and management of bramble scrubs of the Prunetalia (Rhamno-Prunetea)
Haveman, Rense ; Ronde, Iris de - \ 2019
Biologia 74 (2019)4. - ISSN 0006-3088 - p. 395 - 404.
Apomicts - Inherited ecology - Pruno-Rubion radulae - Pruno-Rubion sprengelii - Rubus - Vegetation geography - Vegetation history

In Germany and the Netherlands, many bramble scrub associations are distinguished on the basis of the occurrence of Rubus species. The associations belonging to the Prunetalia spinosae Tüxen 1952 are usually assigned to the Pruno-Rubion radulae Weber Osnabr Naturwiss Mitt 3:143–150, 1974, but published tables show inconsistencies in the occurrence of alliance character species. In this paper, we compare synoptic tables from different sources from the Netherlands and Germany. From this comparison, it is concluded that the associations can be divided over two alliances, the Pruno-Rubion radulae in central Europe, and the Pruno-Rubion sprengelii Weber Osnabr Naturwiss Mitt 3:143–150, 1974 in northwest Europe (excluding the UK). The differential species of both these alliances coincide to a considerable degree with the indicator species of the phytogeographical Rubus territories as defined by Haveman et al. (J Biogeogr 43:1360-1371, 2016). As can be deduced from recent molecular studies (Sochor et al. Mol Phylogenet Evol 89:13-27, 2015), these territories have an evolutionary background. This is an effect of the unsaturated distribution areas of a large portion of the very young Rubus agamospecies. The same holds true for the two alliances: although they have a different ecology, we argue that their current distribution areas are not a reflection of this ecology, but both their ecology and distribution area are caused by different evolutionary developments.

Energieke Denktank Young Green Caribbeans
Chin-On, Rocca ; Dominguez Teles, Iago - \ 2019
Think Tank Young Green Caribbeans
Chin-On, Rocca ; Dominguez Teles, Iago - \ 2019
Current and potential role of grain legumes on protein and micronutrient adequacy of the diet of rural Ghanaian infants and young children : using linear programming
Jager, Ilse de; Borgonjen-van den Berg, Karin J. ; Giller, Ken E. ; Brouwer, Inge D. - \ 2019
Nutrition Journal 18 (2019)1. - ISSN 1475-2891 - 1 p.
essential amino acids - Grain legumes - infants and young children - micronutrients - nutrient adequacy - optimised diets - protein

BACKGROUND: Grain legumes are appreciated for their contribution to dietary protein and micronutrient intake in addition to their benefits in providing income and replenishing soil fertility. They offer potential benefits in developing countries where future food demand is increasing and both undernutrition and overweight co-exist. We studied the current and potential role of grain legumes on protein, both quantity and quality, and micronutrient adequacy in the diet of rural Ghanaian infants and young children. METHODS: Energy and nutrient (including amino acids) intakes of breastfed children of 6-8 months (n=97), 9-11 months (n=97), 12-23 months (n=114), and non-breastfed children of 12-23 months (n=29) from Karaga district in Northern Ghana were assessed using a repeated quantitative multi-pass 24-hour recall method. Food-based dietary guidelines that cover nutrient adequacy within the constraints of local current dietary patterns were designed using the linear programming software Optifood (version 4.0.9, Optifood

Mobile apps for green food practices and the role for consumers: a case study on dining out practices with Chinese and Dutch young consumers
Mu, W. ; Spaargaren, G. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)5. - ISSN 2071-1050
food practices; practice theory; sustainability; mobile applications; transitions; consumption
Mobile applications (apps) have become popular among consumers to facilitate their
existing food practices like cooking, shopping, and dining out. However, the feasibility of using
mobile apps to facilitate sustainability transitions in food consumption is not well researched. In this
study, we, therefore, propose a conceptual framework to illustrate how mobile apps can be developed
in linking everyday food practices with sustainability transitions. Through the case study of dining
out and with the help of focus group discussions, we seek to illustrate that practice theory might
serve as a useful starting point for understanding the dynamics of food practices, their relevant
sustainability dimensions, and the ways in which mobile apps can be used for changing current
food practices into more sustainable ones. Among our main results are the findings that consumers
prefer the sustainability food app to be integrated with dominant or mainstream apps, which are
already used by consumers in the context of dining out. Besides being simple, functional, flexible,
and rewarding, the information provided by the app should be reliable and trustworthy. Moreover,
both science-based and practice-based information is necessary to provide sufficient guidance to
consumers on how changes in food practice can be operationalized and implemented.
A probabilistic approach for risk-benefit assessment of food substitutions : A case study on substituting meat by fish
Thomsen, Sofie Theresa ; Boer, Waldo de; Pires, Sara M. ; Devleesschauwer, Brecht ; Fagt, Sisse ; Andersen, Rikke ; Poulsen, Morten ; Voet, Hilko van der - \ 2019
Food and Chemical Toxicology 126 (2019). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 79 - 96.
Disability-Adjusted Life Year(DALY) - Food-based dietary guidelines - Health impact - Risk-benefit assessment (RBA) - Substitution - Usual intake difference model

Accounting for substitution of foods is inevitable when evaluating health impact of dietary changes. But substitution behavior and the associated health impact may vary between individuals. We therefore propose the use of probabilistic methods to model substitution and assess health impact distributions in risk-benefit assessment (RBA) of foods. We investigated the health impact of substituting red and processed meat with fish in the Danish adult population and the variability in health impact. We applied probabilistic approaches in modeling the substitution to reflect variability between individual substitution behaviors. Furthermore, when multiple intake scenarios are compared, we propose a method for adjusting intake differences for individual day-to-day variability. We estimated that 134 (95% UI: 102; 169) Disability-Adjusted Life Years/100,000 were averted per year by the substitution. The health impact varied considerably by age and sex, with the largest health benefit of the substitution observed for young women in the child-bearing age and for the older generation, mainly men. This study provides further insight in how the health impact of substituting meat by fish varies between individuals and suggests a framework to be applied in RBAs of other food substitutions. Our results are relevant for policy makers in defining targeted public health strategies.

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of antimicrobial usage patterns in 180 selected farrow-to-finish pig farms from nine European countries based on single batch and purchase data
Sarrazin, Steven ; Joosten, Philip ; Gompel, Liese Van; Luiken, Roosmarijn E.C. ; Mevius, Dik J. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Heederik, Dick J.J. ; Dewulf, Jeroen - \ 2019
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 74 (2019)3. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 807 - 816.

OBJECTIVES: Farm-level quantification of antimicrobial usage (AMU) in pig farms. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, AMU data on group treatments administered to a single batch of fattening pigs from birth to slaughter (group treatment data) and antimicrobials purchased during 1 year (purchase data) were collected at 180 pig farms in nine European countries. AMU was quantified using treatment incidence (TI) based on defined (DDDvet) and used (UDDvet) daily doses and defined (DCDvet) and used (UCDvet) course doses. RESULTS: The majority of antimicrobial group treatments were administered to weaners (69.5% of total TIDDDvet) followed by sucklers (22.5% of total TIDDDvet). AMU varied considerably between farms with a median TIDDDvet of 9.2 and 7.1 for a standardized rearing period of 200 days based on group treatment and purchase data, respectively. In general, UDDvet and UCDvet were higher than DDDvet and DCDvet, respectively, suggesting that either the defined doses were set too low or that group treatments were often dosed too high and/or administered for too long. Extended-spectrum penicillins (31.2%) and polymyxins (24.7%) were the active substances most often used in group treatments, with the majority administered through feed or water (82%). Higher AMU at a young age was associated with higher use in older pigs. CONCLUSIONS: Collecting farm-level AMU data of good quality is challenging and results differ based on how data are collected (group treatment data versus purchase data) and reported (defined versus used daily and course doses).

Warmer and browner waters decrease fish biomass production
Dorst, Renee M. Van; Gårdmark, Anna ; Svanbäck, Richard ; Beier, Ulrika ; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A. ; Huss, Magnus - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)4. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1395 - 1408.
biomass production - browning - Climate change - Eurasian perch - fish - individual body grwoth - lakes - length distribution - ontogeny - warming
Climate change studies have long focused on effects of increasing temperatures,
often without considering other simultaneously occurring environmental changes, such as browning of waters. Resolving how the combination of warming and browning of aquatic ecosystems affects fish biomass production is essential for future ecosystem functioning, fisheries, and food security. In this study, we analyzed individual‐ and population‐level fish data from 52 temperate and boreal lakes in Northern Europe, covering large gradients in water temperature and color (absorbance, 420 nm). We show that fish (Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis) biomass production decreased with both high water temperatures and brown water color, being lowest in warm and brown lakes. However, while both high temperature and brown water decreased fish biomass production, the mechanisms behind the decrease differed: temperature affected the fish biomass production mainly through a decrease in population standing stock biomass, and through shifts in size‐ and age‐distributions toward a higher proportion of young and small individuals in warm lakes; brown water color, on the other hand, mainly influenced fish biomass production through negative effects on individual body growth and length‐at‐ age. In addition to these
findings, we observed that the effects of temperature and brown water color on
individual‐level processes varied over ontogeny. Body growth only responded positively to higher temperatures among young perch, and brown water color had a stronger negative effect on body growth of old than on young individuals. Thus, to better understand and predict future fish biomass production, it is necessary to integrate both individual‐ and population‐level responses and to acknowledge within species variation. Our results suggest that global climate change, leading to browner and warmer waters, may negatively affect fish biomass production, and this effect may be stronger than caused by increased temperature or water color alone
Dose, timing, and source of protein intake of young people with spastic cerebral palsy
Anker–van der Wel, Ieke ; Smorenburg, Ana R.P. ; Roos, Nicole M. de; Verschuren, Olaf - \ 2019
Disability & Rehabilitation (2019). - ISSN 0963-8288 - 6 p.
Cerebral palsy - children - disability - muscle - nutrition - protein intake

Purpose: Since the dose, timing and source of dietary protein intake are important for muscle growth and development, the aim of this study was to examine the dose, timing and source of protein intake of young people with cerebral palsy. Materials and methods: Dietary intake was assessed in 19 children with spastic cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I–V; Eating and Drinking Classification System levels I–V; 10 males, 9 females; mean [SD] age 11 years 2 months [3 years 3 months]) using a 3-day food diary. The data were analyzed for three age categories (4–8, 9–13, and 14–17 years). Results: Average 3-day protein intake (62.1 g [27.9 g]) was within the recommended boundaries with a minimum of 1.0 g/kg body weight/day and a maximum of 4.1 g/kg body weight/day. However, dinner was the only mealtime that provided at least 25 g of protein, which is needed for optimal muscle maintenance. The main food groups that contributed to protein intake were ‘milk and milk products’, ‘meat, meat products and poultry’, and ‘bread’. Conclusions: These observations suggest timing of protein intake can be improved with higher intakes during breakfast and lunch to better support skeletal muscle growth and development.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Recent studies have shown that smaller muscles and early atrophy are already present at young age in individuals with cerebral palsy. Besides physical training, adequate protein intake (with optimal dose, timing and source of protein) may be a key factor in the prevention and treatment of loss of muscle mass in children with cerebral palsy. In a relatively small sample this study shows that overall protein intake (dose) was in line with recommendations and also that the source of the protein seemed sufficient to contain all essential amino acids. Improvement of the timing of protein intake throughout the day, with higher intakes during breakfast and lunch, seems important to better support skeletal muscle growth and development.

Age-associated Impairment of the Mucus Barrier Function is Associated with Profound Changes in Microbiota and Immunity
Sovran, Bruno ; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Elderman, Marlies ; Beek, Adriaan A. Van; Graversen, Katrine ; Huijskes, Myrte ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Vos, Paul De; Dekker, Jan ; Wells, Jerry M. - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Aging significantly increases the vulnerability to gastrointestinal (GI) disorders but there are few studies investigating the key factors in aging that affect the GI tract. To address this knowledge gap, we used 10-week- and 19-month-old litter-mate mice to investigate microbiota and host gene expression changes in association with ageing. In aged mice the thickness of the colonic mucus layer was reduced about 6-fold relative to young mice, and more easily penetrable by luminal bacteria. This was linked to increased apoptosis of goblet cells in the upper part of the crypts. The barrier function of the small intestinal mucus was also compromised and the microbiota were frequently observed in contact with the villus epithelium. Antimicrobial Paneth cell factors Ang4 and lysozyme were expressed in significantly reduced amounts. These barrier defects were accompanied by major changes in the faecal microbiota and significantly decreased abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila which is strongly and negatively affected by old age in humans. Transcriptomics revealed age-associated decreases in the expression of immunity and other genes in intestinal mucosal tissue, including decreased T cell-specific transcripts and T cell signalling pathways. The physiological and immunological changes we observed in the intestine in old age, could have major consequences beyond the gut.

Wat we niet willen weten en ons toch moeten herinneren : toekomstperspectieven voor de Muur van Mussert in Lunteren
During, Roel ; Dam, Rosalie van - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research, Wetenschapswinkel (Wageningen University &amp; Research Wetenschapswinkel rapport 349) - ISBN 9789463434164 - 58
In Lunteren is eind jaren 30 door de Nationaal Socialistische Beweging (N.S.B.) een complex ingericht voor partijbijeenkomsten. Onderdeel van het complex is een muur waar Anton Mussert, leider van de N.S.B. de leden kon toespreken. Door de rol van de N.S.B. tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog belichaamt de Muur van Mussert een zwarte bladzijde in onze geschiedenis, namelijk die van de collaboratie met Nazi Duitsland. Nu staat het complex deels overwoekerd door natuur op een recreatieterrein waar tijdelijk buitenlandse arbeiders in zomerhuisjes wonen. Door de Stichting Erfgoed Ede is de vraag opgeworpen of de muur niet een dusdanig belangrijke symbolische waarde heeft, dat hij wellicht ter nagedachtenis of als waarschuwing behouden zou moeten blijven. In dit wetenschapsproject staat daarom de volgende vraag centraal: “Op welke wijze kan het complex rondom de Muur van Mussert worden bewaard, en welke betekenissen kunnen daarbij gevormd worden?” Het project richt zich uitdrukkelijk niet op een formele waardestelling, noch op geschiedkundige analyses, maar is vooral gericht op de toekomstgerichte mogelijkheden om het complex betekenis te geven. Dit project is geen klassiek wetenschappelijk onderzoek dat op basis van literatuur en of interviews tot conclusies komt. Kenmerkend voor een wetenschapswinkelproject is het werken met studenten. Na een voorverkenning en gesprekken met sleutelfiguren en stakeholders is daarom ingezet op het betrekken van studenten. Er is een 3-daags studentenatelier in Lunteren gehouden door studenten van de TU Delft. Hierin is een viertal ontwerpen gemaakt, waarin de studenten een vrije omgang lieten zien met het beladen erfgoed. Ook is er een challenge (prijsvraag) onder studenten uitgeschreven. De prijsuitreiking vond plaats in de Goudsberg. De inzendingen bevatten een breed spectrum aan ideeën om de muur een eigentijdse betekenis en invulling te geven. Ten derde hebben enkele studenten een internationale vergelijking gemaakt met als thema de omgang met beladen erfgoed. Gekeken is onder meer naar het huis van Hitler en het gebouw dat functioneerde als headquarters van de Operatie Rheinward (de Poolse Pogrom) in Lublin. De Muur van Mussert was lokaal en nationaal gedurende dit project onderwerp van debat. Daardoor was er ook grote media-aandacht voor dit project. Daarnaast is een media- en documentenanalyse gemaakt, en waren de onderzoekers actief op verschillende bijeenkomsten en in verschillende netwerken. Door het tonen van tussenresultaten van het studentenonderzoek kwam er in reactie weer bruikbare input ten aanzien van de verscheidenheid van toekomstperspectieven voor de Muur van Mussert. Gedurende dit project hebben zich lokaal en nationaal verschillende ontwikkelingen voltrokken met betrekking tot de Muur. Zo is de Muur in 2018 aangewezen als Rijksmonument. Het onderzoek kende verder beperkte mogelijkheden en had eerder het karakter van actieonderzoek, waarin de onderzoekers deel hebben uitgemaakt van de publieke arena waarin kennis en emoties zijn uitgewisseld en waarin naar een oplossing is toegewerkt, door een diversiteit aan ideeën en visies op de toekomst van de Muur van Mussert te genereren. Het rapport reflecteert deze open werkwijze door het proces van publiek debat in relatie tot onderzoek en ontwerp van alle betrokkenen in het wetenschapswinkelproject te beschrijven.---In the Dutch memory culture on WW2, the discussion on managing and memorializing difficult heritage has long been eluded. Recently in the Netherlands this discussion was ignited by an object, the so called Mussert’s Wall, which is related to the group of perpetrators called the National Socialist Movement (NSB). This wall is part of a rally ground for the NSB and it has been named after Anton Mussert, the leader of the NSB. Recently the Minister of Culture decided to enlist the Wall as a National Monument. This decision ended several years of heavy disputes in politics and in the media, but even more important, it seems to mark a new era in the memory culture. After memorialising hero’s and victims, now the attention becomes focused on the dark pages in history which should not be forgotten. An action research project paved the way to this decision by reviewing the disputes, putting them in an international perspective and by involving many young students in a challenge called “Ideas for the future of Mussert’s Wall”. The results of the project will be described in this report, against the background of a very complicated situation of legal, political and societal conflicts.
The Basophil Activation Test reduces the need for a food challenge test in children suspected of IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy
Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke ; Schmidt-Hieltjes, Yvonne ; Jansen, Ad ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Plaisier, Annejet ; Setten, Petra van - \ 2019
Clinical and Experimental Allergy 49 (2019)3. - ISSN 0954-7894 - p. 350 - 356.

Background: The gold standard for the diagnosis of cow's milk allergy is the Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Food Challenge (DBPCFC) test. However, disadvantages of the DBPCFC are the potential risk of anaphylactic reactions, the time-consuming procedure and high costs. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the Basophil Activation Test (BAT) both for the initial diagnosis of cow's milk allergy in children and for the determination of tolerance in children with cow's milk allergy. Methods: Ninety-seven BATs and cow's milk-specific IgE (sIgE) tests were performed in 86 infants/young children, suspected of (persistent) cow's milk allergy, who were qualified for an in-hospital DBPCFC. The BAT was performed with cow's milk extract and the purified major allergens casein, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglubulin. Basophil activation was determined by CD63 upregulation measured by flow cytometry. The BAT results were compared to the DBPCFC outcomes. Results: Based on unequivocal DBPCFC and BAT result combinations (80%), the BAT had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% (CI: 86%-100% and 68%-100%, respectively) in IgE-sensitized children (41% of the tested children). All non-IgE-sensitized children (59%) had a negative DBPCFC and BAT, except for five patients. These latter showed delayed and relatively mild symptoms in the DBPCFC with a negative BAT, supporting a non-IgE-mediated allergy in these children. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: The BAT seems reliable and cost-effective to diagnose patients with an IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. In IgE-sensitized patients, a BAT might replace a DBPCFC. For non-IgE-sensitized patients presenting with mild symptoms, we propose to consider a (double-blind) extended (time) challenge test at home.

Age, gender, ethnicity and eating capability influence oral processing behaviour of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods differently
Ketel, Eva C. ; Aguayo-Mendoza, Monica G. ; Wijk, René A. de; Graaf, Cees de; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food Research International 119 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 143 - 151.
Age - Eating capability - Ethnicity - Gender - Inter-individual variation - Oral processing

Food oral processing depends on food properties and consumer characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender, ethnicity and eating capability on oral processing behaviour of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods. Oral processing behaviour of 18 commercially available foods, ranging from liquids, semi-solids to solids, was compared between Dutch, Caucasian adults (18-30 yrs), Chinese, Asian adults (18-30 yrs), Dutch, Caucasian elderly (60-80 yrs), and consumers with mild swallowing problems and/or low mastication efficiency (18-80 yrs). Participants were video recorded during food consumption and six oral processing parameters extracted. Elderly consumed all foods with lower eating rates (g/s) than young adults by increasing consumption time (s). Females consumed solid foods with lower eating rates (g/s) than males by reducing bite size (g). Chinese, Asian consumers consumed liquid and solid foods with lower eating rates (g/s) than Dutch, Caucasian consumers by reducing bites size (g). Chinese, Asian consumers consumed semi-solid foods with lower eating rates (g/s) than Dutch, Caucasian consumers by reducing bite size (g) and increasing consumption time (s). Consumers with decreased mastication efficiency or mild swallowing problems showed similar oral processing behaviour than healthy consumers, probably because reduction in eating capability was limited in the group. This demonstrates that different consumer groups adapt eating rate (g/s) in different ways by modifying bite size (g), consumption time (s) or both. To conclude, age, gender and ethnicity influence oral processing behaviour of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods differently. Understanding differences in oral processing behaviour of specific consumer groups can assist in steering sensory perception, food choice and energy intake of specific consumer groups such as the elderly.

Plant science : A regulatory circuit conferring varied flowering response to cold in annual and perennial plants
Hyun, Youbong ; Vincent, Coral ; Tilmes, Vicky ; Bergonzi, Sara ; Kiefer, Christiane ; Richter, René ; Martinez-Gallegos, Rafael ; Severing, Edouard ; Coupland, George - \ 2019
Science 363 (2019)6425. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 409 - 412.

The reproductive strategies of plants are highly variable. Short-lived annuals flower abundantly soon after germination, whereas longer-lived perennials postpone and spatially restrict flowering. We used CRISPR/Cas9 and interspecies gene transfer to understand divergence in reproductive patterns between annual and perennial crucifers. We show that in perennial Arabis alpina, flowering in response to winter cold depends on the floral integrator SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 15 (SPL15), whose activity is limited to older shoots and branches during cold exposure. In annuals, this regulatory system is conserved, but cold-induced flowering occurs in young shoots, without requirement for SPL15, through the photoperiodic pathway when plants return to warm. By reconstructing the annual response in perennials, we conclude that characteristic patterns of reproduction in annuals and perennials are conferred through variation in dependency on distinct flowering pathways acting in parallel.

Pull-off and friction forces of micropatterned elastomers on soft substrates : The effects of pattern length scale and stiffness
Assenbergh, Peter van; Fokker, Marike ; Langowski, Julian ; Esch, Jan van; Kamperman, Marleen ; Dodou, Dimitra - \ 2019
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2190-4286 - p. 79 - 94.
Adhesion - Biomimetic micropatterned adhesive - Colloidal lithography - Friction - Pull-off - Soft substrate

The adhesiveness of biological micropatterned adhesives primarily relies on their geometry (e.g., feature size, architecture) and material properties (e.g., stiffness). Over the last few decades, researchers have been mimicking the geometry and material properties of biological micropatterned adhesives. The performance of these biomimetic micropatterned adhesives is usually tested on hard substrates. Much less is known about the effect of geometry, feature size, and material properties on the performance of micropatterned adhesives when the substrate is deformable. Here, micropatterned adhesives of two stiffness degrees (Young's moduli of 280 and 580 kPa) were fabricated from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and tested on soft poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) substrates of two stiffness degrees (12 and 18 kPa), and on hard glass substrates as a reference. An out-of-the-cleanroom colloidal lithographic approach was successfully expanded to fabricate adhesives with two geometries, namely dimples with and without a terminal layer. Dimples without a terminal layer were fabricated on two length scales, namely with sub-microscale and microscale dimple diameters. The cross section of samples with a terminal layer showed voids with a spherical shape, separated by hourglass-shaped walls. These voids penetrate the terminal layer, resulting in an array of holes at the surface. We found that on soft substrates, generally, the size of the dimples did not affect pull-off forces. The positive effects of sub-microscale features on pull-off and friction forces, such as defect control and crack trapping, as reported in the literature for hard substrates, seem to disappear on soft substrates. The dimple geometry with a terminal layer generated significantly higher pull-off forces compared to other geometries, presumably due to interlocking of the soft substrate into the holes of the terminal layer. Pull-off from soft substrates increased with the substrate stiffness for all tested geometries. Friction forces on soft substrates were the highest for microscale dimples without a terminal layer, likely due to interlocking of the soft substrate between the dimples.

Youth-led Organisations: : The case of Young Professionals for Agricultural Development
Rizopulos, A.M. ; Plataroti, Lavinia - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation - 11 p.
Immunization of young heifers with staphylococcal immune evasion proteins before natural exposure to Staphylococcus aureus induces a humoral immune response in serum and milk
Benedictus, Lindert ; Ravesloot, Lars ; Poppe, Kim ; Daemen, Ineke ; Boerhout, Eveline ; Strijp, Jos Van; Broere, Femke ; Rutten, Victor ; Koets, Ad ; Eisenberg, Susanne - \ 2019
BMC Veterinary Research 15 (2019)1. - ISSN 1746-6148
Cattle - Efb - Experimental immunization - LukM - Mastitis - Milk antibodies - Natural exposure - Non-protective immunity - Staphylococcus aureus

Background: Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of mastitis in dairy cattle, causes severe mastitis and/or chronic persistent infections with detrimental effects on the cows' wellbeing, lifespan and milk production. Despite years of research there is no effective vaccine against S. aureus mastitis. Boosting of non-protective pre-existing immunity to S. aureus, induced by natural exposure to S. aureus, by vaccination may interfere with vaccine efficacy. The aim was to assess whether experimental immunization of S. aureus naïve animals results in an immune response that differs from immunity following natural exposure to S. aureus. Results: First, to define the period during which calves are immunologically naïve for S. aureus, Efb, LukM, and whole-cell S. aureus specific serum antibodies were measured in a cohort of newborn calves by ELISA. Rising S. aureus specific antibodies indicated that from week 12 onward calves mounted an immune response to S. aureus due to natural exposure. Next, an experimental immunization trial was set up using 8-week-old heifer calves (n = 16), half of which were immunized with the immune evasion molecules Efb and LukM. Immunization was repeated after one year and before parturition and humoral and cellular immunity specific for Efb and LukM was determined throughout the study. Post-partum, antibody levels against LukM and EfB were significantly higher in serum, colostrum and milk in the experimentally immunized animals compared to animals naturally exposed to S. aureus. LukM specific IL17a responses were also significantly higher in the immunized cows post-partum. Conclusions: Experimental immunization with staphylococcal immune evasion molecules starting before natural exposure resulted in significantly higher antibody levels against Efb and LukM around parturition in serum as well as the site of infection, i.e. in colostrum and milk, compared to natural exposure to S. aureus. This study showed that it is practically feasible to vaccinate S. aureus naïve cattle and that experimental immunization induced a humoral immune response that differed from that after natural exposure only.

Resignification practices of youth in zona da mata, Brazil in the transition toward agroecology
Goris, Margriet ; Berg, Leonardo van den; Silva Lopes, Ivonete da; Behagel, Jelle ; Verschoor, Gerard ; Turnhout, Esther - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 2071-1050
Agroecology - Framing strategies - Gender - Repeasantization - Resignification - Social movement - Transition - Youth

Youth play an important role in the transition toward agroecology through practices of resignification. This article discusses how young people resignify agroecology by taking part in education initiatives that originate from social movements, and that aim to strengthen young peoples' abilities to reflect on their practices and realities. We used action research to create films with young agroecologists in the region of Zona da Mata Mineira, Brazil. Our analysis draws on films, interviews and participatory observations made during thirteen workshops to visualize the agroecological practices and visions of youth. We explore how social frames-e.g., the specific ways in which people understand reality-shape practices and how these frames are actively changed by youth. The findings show how frames are changed during (1) frame amplification by building on existing local values; (2) frame bridging by linking with other social movements; (3) frame extension by inclusion of new frames; and (4) frame transformation by altering the meaning of agroecology. We find that young people who engage with agroecology contribute to processes of repeasantization that rework local culture to be more inclusive of different populations, generations and genders, and that they foster an appreciation of the interconnectedness of humans and nature.

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