Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Natural deep eutectic solvents in plants and plant cells : In vitro evidence for their possible functions
    Dai, Yuntao ; Varypataki, Eleni Maria ; Golovina, Elena A. ; Jiskoot, Wim ; Witkamp, Geert Jan ; Choi, Young Hae ; Verpoorte, Robert - \ 2020
    In: Advances in Botanical Research Academic Press Inc. (Advances in Botanical Research )
    Biological roles - Diffusion - Hygroscopicity - Liposome - Membrane stabilizing effect - Metabolites - Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) - Physicochemical properties - Water adjusting effect

    The components of natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are abundant in plants. This led to our hypothesis that NADES may play an important role in solubilizing, storing, and transporting poorly water-soluble metabolites in living cells, adjusting the water content of plants, and protecting cells when in harsh conditions. In order to test these hypothetical roles, diverse plant materials were analyzed, including leaves, petals, plant secretions and seeds. Comparatively high amounts of ingredients of NADES are observed in those organs. In particular, resurrection plants in dry state contain a higher amount of NADES components than fresh ones, and the level of NADES components is specifically higher in the outside layer (aleurone and seed cover) of barley, than in the inside (endosperm and embryo) layer. A high accumulation of sugars, sugar alcohols, amines, amino acids, and organic acids dominate plant secretions such as sap and nectar, often in typical molar ratios of NADES. This strongly supports the hypothesis of the existence of NADES in plants. For the roles, experimentally, NADES and water were mixed resulting in liquids with different compositions and properties. In the case of plants, NADES and water co-exist in the cells and may form ideal solvents for metabolites of diverse polarities and macromolecules. Some NADES are hygroscopic, providing evidence for possible water level controlling effects of NADES in plants. Most importantly, NADES may accumulate around the lipid bilayers, form intermolecular bonds with the polar heads of lipids, and stabilize the membrane, as revealed in experiments with liposomes. This study gives in vitro evidence for the different roles NADES may play in living organisms, and opens perspectives for further exploring the existence and functions of NADES in plants cells. The omics allows now to identify all molecules in an organism or even in a cell. The challenge for future research will be to understand how there molecules interact in the dynamic cellular processes and their compartmentation on a nanoscale. In other words the challenge is to unravel the molecular interactions in the three dimensions of space and the one of time, which will require a true multidisciplinary collaboration.

    Effects of pretransport diet, transport duration, and type of vehicle on physiological status of young veal calves
    Marcato, F. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. ; Engel, B. ; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M. ; Reenen, K. van - \ 2020
    Journal of Dairy Science 103 (2020)4. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3505 - 3520.
    diet - physiology - transport - transport duration - veal calf

    This study aimed to investigate effects of pretransport diet (rearing milk vs. electrolytes), type of vehicle (open vs. conditioned truck), and transport duration (6 vs. 18 h) on physiological status of young calves upon arrival at the veal farm. A total of 368 calves were transported in 2 consecutive batches from a collection center to a veal farm. Blood samples were collected from calves before transport; immediately posttransport (T0); and 4, 24, and 48 h, and 1, 3, and 5 wk posttransport. Blood was analyzed for glucose, urea, lactate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), creatine kinase, albumin, total protein, osmolality, calcium, sodium, magnesium, and hematological variables. Body weight, rectal temperature, and skin elasticity were determined before and immediately posttransport. Blood glucose, NEFA, and urea concentrations at T0 showed an interaction between pretransport diet and transport duration. Milk-fed and electrolyte-fed calves transported for 18 h did not significantly differ in plasma glucose concentration or serum NEFA concentrations. However, after 6 h of transport, milk-fed calves had higher plasma glucose and lower serum NEFA concentrations (4.71 mmol/L and 586.5 µmol/L, respectively) than electrolyte-fed calves (3.56 mmol/L and 916 µmol/L, respectively). After 18 h of transport, milk-fed calves had lower urea concentrations (5.40 mmol/L) than electrolyte-fed calves (7.38 mmol/L). In addition, at T0, after 6 h of transport, milk-fed calves gained weight (Δ = 0.41 kg), whereas electrolyte-fed calves lost weight (Δ = −0.16 kg). After 18 h of transport, both milk-fed and electrolyte-fed calves showed body weight losses (Δ = −0.67 and −0.74 kg, respectively). Type of vehicle had a limited influence on blood parameters. Concentrations of NEFA and BHB reached the maximum values at T0 and then decreased until wk 5 posttransport. The increase in NEFA and BHB concentrations between prior to and just posttransport (T0) was less pronounced in calves transported for 6 h (746.1 µmol/L and 0.38 mmol/L, respectively) than in calves transported for 18 h (850.6 µmol/L and 0.50 mmol/L). Overall, the recovery rate of calves at the veal farm seemed rapid; all blood parameters returned to (below) pretransport values within 48 h posttransport. We concluded that feeding milk before short-term transport helps young veal calves cope with transport, whereas this is not the case during long-term transport.

    Determinants of adherence to micronutrient powder use among young children in Ethiopia
    Samuel, Aregash ; Brouwer, Inge D. ; Pamungkas, Nindya P. ; Terra, Tosca ; Lelisa, Azeb ; Kebede, Amha ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. - \ 2020
    Maternal and Child Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 1740-8695
    In Ethiopia, home fortification of complementary foods with micronutrient powders (MNPs) was introduced in 2015 as a new approach to improve micronutrient intakes. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with intake adherence and drivers for correct MNP use over time to inform scale‐up of MNP interventions. Mixed methods including questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions were used. Participants, 1,185 children (6–11 months), received bimonthly 30 MNP sachets for 8 months, with instruction to consume 15 sachets/month, that is, a sachet every other day and maximum of one sachet per day. Adherence to distribution (if child receives ≥14 sachets/month) and adherence to instruction (if child receives exactly 15[±1] sachets/month) were assessed monthly by counting used sachets. Factors associated with adherence were examined using generalized estimating equations. Adherence fluctuated over time, an average of 58% adherence to distribution and 28% for adherence to instruction. Average MNP consumption was 79% out of the total sachets provided. Factors positively associated with adherence included ease of use (instruction), child liking MNP and support from community (distribution and instruction) and mother's age >25 years (distribution). Distance to health post, knowledge of correct use (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.66–0.81), perceived negative effects (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54–0.99) and living in Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.52–0.67) were inversely associated with adherence to distribution. Free MNP provision, trust in the government and field staff played a role in successful implementation. MNP is promising to be scaled‐up, by taking into account factors that positively and negatively determine adherence.
    La cadena de valor de cacao en ecuador : Una propuesta de estrategias para coadyuvar a la sostenibilidad
    Moreno-Miranda, Carlos ; Molina, Isaac ; Miranda, Zoila ; Moreno, Raúl ; Moreno, Pablo - \ 2020
    Bioagro 32 (2020)3. - ISSN 1316-3361 - p. 205 - 214.
    Additional Extension programs - Principal component analysis - Rural development - Theobroma cacao

    The sustainable development of the agri-food sector is a priority in public-private agendas of Ecuador. A substantial amount of research has focused solely on agronomic and environmental factors. However, the research perspective must be more comprehensive. Aspects such as socio-economic performance and the level of coordination between actors require more considerable attention since they will encourage proposals for sustainable strategies. The objective of this study is to analyze the socio-economic and governance components to understand the sustainability performance of the cacao chain (Theobroma cacao) and to present potential strategies. The analysis applies a framework oriented to review of primary and support activities: the research clusters levels of pre-production, production, and post-production. Besides, it performs the mapping of the food chain, the identification of the actors, and the application of surveys to identify strengths and weaknesses. The results indicate several viable long-term strategies, such as the revision of national regulations to support small producers and the stimulation of the empowerment of young producers and associations. The main contribution of the research is the governance analysis to evaluate performance comprehensively.

    The Effect of Atopic Dermatitis and Diet on the Skin Transcriptome in Staffordshire Bull Terriers
    Anturaniemi, Johanna ; Zaldívar-López, Sara ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Elo, Kari ; Hielm-Björkman, Anna - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2297-1769
    atopic dermatitis - canine - diet - gene expression - kibble diet - raw meat-based diet - RNAseq - skin

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) has a hereditary basis that is modified by interactions with the environment, including diet. Differentially expressed genes in non-lesional skin, determined by RNA sequencing before and after a dietary intervention, were compared between dogs with naturally occurring CAD (n = 4) and healthy dogs (n = 4). The dogs were fed either a common commercial heat-processed high carbohydrate food (kibble diet) (n = 4), or a non-processed high fat food (raw meat-based diet) (n = 4). At the end of the diet intervention, 149 differentially expressed transcripts were found between the atopic and healthy dogs. The main canonical pathways altered by the dysregulation of these genes were angiopoietin signaling, epidermal growth factor signaling, activation of angiogenesis, and alterations in keratinocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism. On the other hand, 33 differently expressed transcripts were found between the two diet groups, of which 8 encode genes that are annotated in the current version of the dog genome: immunoglobulin heavy constant mu (IGHM), immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5), B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein beta chain (CD79B), polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1), secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), and mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor (MRRF). All genes were upregulated in the raw diet group. In conclusion the findings of this study suggest alterations in lipid and keratinocyte metabolism as well as angiogenesis in the skin of atopic dogs. Additionally, a possible enhancement of innate immunity and decrease in oxidative stress was seen in raw food fed dogs, which could have an important role in preventing hypersensitivities and disturbed immunity at young age.

    Protected-Denomination-of-Origin Cocoa Bean : Chain governance and Sustainability Performance
    Miranda, Carlos Moreno ; Moreno, Raul ; Moreno, Pablo - \ 2020
    Economia Agro-Alimentare 22 (2020)1. - ISSN 1126-1668 - p. 1 - 24.
    Socio-economic agricultural regulation rural farming governance structure

    The Protected Denominations of Origin in agricultural goods through recognized chains, have a fundamental economic role. In Ecuador, the pdo cocoa bean certification becomes a protagonist since it presents an opportunity to boost the social performance of smallholders. A substantial amount of research focused only on examining the crop performance of pdo products. However, there is a shift in the agricultural chain perspective towards more sustainable models. In this respect, social, economic, and institutional aspects are consequential and tribute to the agricultural sector development. Also, the current rise of market opportunities at the local and international levels is a driver to support them. This study aimed to analyze socio-economic and governance components to understand the pdo Cocoa Arriba (Theobroma cacao) chain sustainability performance and bring forward potential strategies. Principal Components Analysis was introduced to contribute with relevant insights. The framework applied accounts with a revision of primary and support activities. The investigation clustered pre-production, production, and post-production tiers. Also, it executed the food chain mapping and identification of chain actors. Results stated several viable long-term strategies. Examples of those strategies are the enhancement of national regulation to assist chain actors and the stimulus of young producers and associations empowerment. The main research contribution is the application of governance mechanisms to assess the chain performance comprehensively. Based on the results, our recommendation is to incorporate new indicators to analyze the environmental and institutional components profoundly.

    Acylsemicarbazide Moieties with Dynamic Reversibility and Multiple Hydrogen Bonding for Transparent, High Modulus, and Malleable Polymers
    Fu, Daihua ; Pu, Wuli ; Escorihuela, Jorge ; Wang, Xiaorong ; Wang, Zhanhua ; Chen, Siyao ; Sun, Shaojie ; Wang, Shuo ; Zuilhof, Han ; Xia, Hesheng - \ 2020
    Macromolecules 53 (2020)18. - ISSN 0024-9297 - p. 7914 - 7924.

    The realization of covalent adaptable networks with excellent mechanical and dynamic properties remains a major challenge. Herein, the acylsemicarbazide (ASC) moieties with dynamic reversibility and multiple hydrogen bonding were disclosed and used to prepare transparent, high modulus, and malleable polymer networks. It was found that the ASC moiety can reversibly generate isocyanate and hydrazide at elevated temperatures, that is, exhibiting dynamic reversibility. ASC can also produce the disordered multiple hydrogen bonds that contribute to superior mechanical strength for dynamic polymers. The hydrogen bonding in ASC moieties can diminish the energy barrier for the cleavage of dynamic covalent bonds, and the dissociation of ASC moieties further promotes the disruption of hydrogen bonds, showing the synergistic dynamic effects. ASC moieties provide a valuable molecular engineering opportunity toward high-performance dynamic polymer materials. The polymer containing ASC moieties possesses excellent optical transparency, superb mechanical performance (Young's modulus up to 1.7 GPa), together with malleable and healing properties.

    Vroege sterfte van biggen, kalveren en melkgeitenlammeren : Percentages, oorzaken en mogelijkheden tot reductie
    Ouweltjes, Wijbrand ; Verkaik, Jan ; Hopster, Hans - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen Livestock Research 1182) - 76
    This report contains an overview of recent literature regarding the mortality of piglets, calves on dairy farms and dairy goat kids during their first weeks of life. On the basis of literature data, early mortality in the Netherlands was compared with that in other countries. The main causes of early mortality have been identified as well as possible measures that can reduce early mortality of young animals. Finally, a number of conditions have been mentioned in order to be able to successfully reduce early mortality in piglets, dairy calves and dairy goat kids through benchmarking.
    If you leave young cheese to ripen, will it turn into mature cheese?: A little wiser
    Hettinga, Kasper - \ 2020
    Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
    Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Kendrick, Ian ; Lyon, Christopher ; Page, Glenn ; Patterson, James ; Riedy, Chris ; Strasser, Tim ; Verveen, Stephan ; Adams, David ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Klaes, Matthias ; Leicester, Graham ; Linyard, Alison ; McCurdy, Adrienne ; Ryan, Paul ; Sharpe, Bill ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Abdurrahim, Ali Yansyah ; Abson, David ; Adetunji, Olufemi Samson ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Alvarez-Pereira, Carlos ; Amparo, Jennifer Marie ; Amundsen, Helene ; Anderson, Lakin ; Andersson, Lotta ; Asquith, Michael ; Augenstein, Karoline ; Barrie, Jack ; Bent, David ; Bentz, Julia ; Bergsten, Arvid ; Berzonsky, Carol ; Bina, Olivia ; Blackstock, Kirsty ; Boehnert, Joanna ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Brand, Christine ; Böhme (born Sangmeister), Jessica ; Bøjer, Marianne Mille ; Carmen, Esther ; Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi ; Choudhury, Sarah ; Chunhachoti-ananta, Supot ; Cockburn, Jessica ; Colvin, John ; Connon, Irena L.C. ; Cornforth, Rosalind ; Cox, Robin S. ; Cradock-Henry, Nicholas ; Cramer, Laura ; Cremaschi, Almendra ; Dannevig, Halvor ; Day, Catherine T. ; Lima Hutchison, Cathel de; Vrieze, Anke de; Desai, Vikas ; Dolley, Jonathan ; Duckett, Dominic ; Durrant, Rachael Amy ; Egermann, Markus ; Elsner (Adams), Emily ; Fremantle, Chris ; Fullwood-Thomas, Jessica ; Galafassi, Diego ; Gobby, Jen ; Golland, Ami ; González-Padrón, Shiara Kirana ; Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin ; Grandin, Jakob ; Grenni, Sara ; Lauren Gunnell, Jade ; Gusmao, Felipe ; Hamann, Maike ; Harding, Brian ; Harper, Gavin ; Hesselgren, Mia ; Hestad, Dina ; Heykoop, Cheryl Anne ; Holmén, Johan ; Holstead, Kirsty ; Hoolohan, Claire ; Horcea-Milcu, Andra Ioana ; Horlings, Lummina Geertruida ; Howden, Stuart Mark ; Howell, Rachel Angharad ; Huque, Sarah Insia ; Inturias Canedo, Mirna Liz ; Iro, Chidinma Yvonne ; Ives, Christopher D. ; John, Beatrice ; Joshi, Rajiv ; Juarez-Bourke, Sadhbh ; Juma, Dauglas Wafula ; Karlsen, Bea Cecilie ; Kliem, Lea ; Kläy, Andreas ; Kuenkel, Petra ; Kunze, Iris ; Lam, David Patrick Michael ; Lang, Daniel J. ; Larkin, Alice ; Light, Ann ; Luederitz, Christopher ; Luthe, Tobias ; Maguire, Cathy ; Mahecha-Groot, Ana Maria ; Malcolm, Jackie ; Marshall, Fiona ; Maru, Yiheyis ; McLachlan, Carly ; Mmbando, Peter ; Mohapatra, Subhakanta ; Moore, Michele Lee ; Moriggi, Angela ; Morley-Fletcher, Mark ; Moser, Susanne ; Mueller, Konstanze Marion ; Mukute, Mutizwa ; Mühlemeier, Susan ; Naess, Lars Otto ; Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Novo, Paula ; ÓBrien, Karen ; O'Connell, Deborah Anne ; O'Donnell, Kathleen ; Olsson, Per ; Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Pereira, Laura ; Petridis, Panos ; Peukert, Daniela ; Phear, Nicky ; Pisters, Siri Renée ; Polsky, Matt ; Pound, Diana ; Preiser, Rika ; Rahman, Md Sajidur ; Reed, Mark S. ; Revell, Philip ; Rodriguez, Iokiñe ; Rogers, Briony Cathryn ; Rohr, Jascha ; Nordbø Rosenberg, Milda ; Ross, Helen ; Russell, Shona ; Ryan, Melanie ; Saha, Probal ; Schleicher, Katharina ; Schneider, Flurina ; Scoville-Simonds, Morgan ; Searle, Beverley ; Sebhatu, Samuel Petros ; Sesana, Elena ; Silverman, Howard ; Singh, Chandni ; Sterling, Eleanor ; Stewart, Sarah Jane ; Tàbara, J.D. ; Taylor, Douglas ; Thornton, Philip ; Tribaldos, Theresa Margarete ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Waddock, Sandra ; Merwe, Liza van der; Mierlo, Barbara van; Zwanenberg, Patrick van; Velarde, Sandra Judith ; Washbourne, Carla Leanne ; Waylen, Kerry ; Weiser, Annika ; Wight, Ian ; Williams, Stephen ; Woods, Mel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Wright, Ness ; Wunder, Stefanie ; Wyllie, Alastair ; Young, Hannah R. - \ 2020
    Energy Research & Social Science 70 (2020). - ISSN 2214-6296
    Climate and energy research - Epistemology - Knowledge - Social-technical transitions - Sustainability science - Transformation

    Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.

    Test grasgroeivoorspelling in de praktijk : resultaten modelmatige schatting drogestofopbrengst en ruw eiwitgehalte
    Hoving, I.E. ; Holshof, G. ; Stienezen, M. ; Roerink, G.J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen Livestock Research 1251) - 47
    Grassland management is an important part of farm management on a dairy farm.A web application is being developed for dairy farmers to predict the dry matter productionand fodderquality. In a practical pilot on five dairy farms, the model-based estimate of dry matter yield and crude protein content of grass has been compared with grass height and reflection measurements respectively fresh grass analyzes. Due to instabilitythe web application could not yet be used, the test was carried out after the growing season. The prediction of grass yields and crude protein contents gave a mixed picture, sometimes with a good approximation of reality, but sometimes also with clear deviations. For yield, it mainly concerned an underestimation for the first cut and an overestimate for cuts after grazing.For protein, the content was especially overestimated in relatively young grass. Model improvements and combining growth prediction with measurement data make it possible to improve the reliability of estimates.
    Bending the curve of terrestrial biodiversity needs an integrated strategy
    Leclère, David ; Obersteiner, Michael ; Barrett, Mike ; Butchart, Stuart H.M. ; Chaudhary, Abhishek ; Palma, Adriana De; DeClerck, Fabrice A.J. ; Marco, Moreno Di; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Dürauer, Martina ; Freeman, Robin ; Harfoot, Michael ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Hellweg, Stefanie ; Hilbers, Jelle P. ; Hill, Samantha L.L. ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Jennings, Nancy ; Krisztin, Tamás ; Mace, Georgina M. ; Ohashi, Haruka ; Popp, Alexander ; Purvis, Andy ; Schipper, Aafke M. ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Valin, Hugo ; Meijl, Hans van; Zeist, Willem Jan van; Visconti, Piero ; Alkemade, Rob ; Almond, Rosamunde ; Bunting, Gill ; Burgess, Neil D. ; Cornell, Sarah E. ; Fulvio, Fulvio Di; Ferrier, Simon ; Fritz, Steffen ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Grooten, Monique ; Harwood, Thomas ; Havlík, Petr ; Herrero, Mario ; Hoskins, Andrew J. ; Jung, Martin ; Kram, Tom ; Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Matsui, Tetsuya ; Meyer, Carsten ; Nel, Deon ; Newbold, Tim ; Schmidt-Traub, Guido ; Stehfest, Elke ; Strassburg, Bernardo B.N. ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Ware, Chris ; Watson, James E.M. ; Wu, Wenchao ; Young, Lucy - \ 2020
    Nature 585 (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 551 - 556.

    Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity3; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge4. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and biodiversity models to assess whether—and how—humanity can reverse the declines in terrestrial biodiversity caused by habitat conversion, which is a major threat to biodiversity5. We show that immediate efforts, consistent with the broader sustainability agenda but of unprecedented ambition and coordination, could enable the provision of food for the growing human population while reversing the global terrestrial biodiversity trends caused by habitat conversion. If we decide to increase the extent of land under conservation management, restore degraded land and generalize landscape-level conservation planning, biodiversity trends from habitat conversion could become positive by the mid-twenty-first century on average across models (confidence interval, 2042–2061), but this was not the case for all models. Food prices could increase and, on average across models, almost half (confidence interval, 34–50%) of the future biodiversity losses could not be avoided. However, additionally tackling the drivers of land-use change could avoid conflict with affordable food provision and reduces the environmental effects of the food-provision system. Through further sustainable intensification and trade, reduced food waste and more plant-based human diets, more than two thirds of future biodiversity losses are avoided and the biodiversity trends from habitat conversion are reversed by 2050 for almost all of the models. Although limiting further loss will remain challenging in several biodiversity-rich regions, and other threats—such as climate change—must be addressed to truly reverse the declines in biodiversity, our results show that ambitious conservation efforts and food system transformation are central to an effective post-2020 biodiversity strategy.

    Herders and livestock professionals' experiences and perceptions on developments and challenges in yak farming in Bhutan
    Dorji, Nedup ; Derks, Marjolein ; Dorji, Phub ; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G. ; Bokkers, Eddie A.M. - \ 2020
    Animal Production Science (2020). - ISSN 1836-0939
    policy - welfare

    Context: The yak-based transhumant system is influenced by socioeconomic developments, regulations and environmental changes. Little is known about the impact of this on yak farming practices among different regions in Bhutan. Aim and methods: The experienced changes in yak farming practices over the years and perceptions on developments were assessed through interviews with yak herders in three regions (west, n = 22; central, n = 20; east, n = 25) and with livestock extensionists (n = 28). Key results: At present, forage shortage in the rangeland, yak mortality mainly due to (endangered) wild predators and, to a lesser extent, labour availability are the main concerns in all yak farming regions. These concerns have increased due to socioeconomic developments (e.g. education and other sources of income) and strong conservation policy, which affects the living environment of the yaks. Overall, the market to sell yak products and livestock extension services has improved, but forage shortage and yak mortality has increased over the years. However, some factors causing forage shortage are more specific to certain regions, e.g. competition with the horse population (west), cattle and cattle-yak hybrids (east), cordyceps collection (west and central) and prohibited burning of rangelands (central and east). Family labour available to herd yaks has slightly decreased, and the number of young family members (successors) to take over yak farming has decreased over the years. Conclusions: On the basis of the experiences and perceptions of yak herders and extensionists, we conclude that increasing forage shortage in the rangelands, decreasing numbers of successors, and increasing yak predation by wild animals are the major threats to yak farming. Implications: This study demonstrates that yak farming in Bhutan experiences an increasing pressure to sustain. Differences between regions make clear that a one blanket-policy will not be effective to preserve yak farming for the future.

    A decision support framework assessing management impacts on crop yield, soil carbon changes and nitrogen losses to the environment
    Young, Madaline D. ; Ros, Gerard H. ; Vries, Wim de - \ 2020
    European Journal of Soil Science (2020). - ISSN 1351-0754
    crop yield - decision support tools - environmental performance - management - nutrient surplus - soil organic carbon

    Agricultural management practices have multiple impacts on farming systems, including crop yield, soil fertility parameters such as soil organic carbon (SOC), and environmental quality. Agricultural decision support tools (DSTs) are key in sustainable farm strategies to optimize yield and minimize environmental losses because both the current agroecosystem properties as well as the effectiveness of management practices are highly variable in time and space. Here, we introduce a highly data-driven framework focusing on the evaluation of agronomic measures to reach agronomic and environmental targets. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by a proof of principle for 81 selected farm types across Europe, focusing on measures with respect to crop rotation, fertilization and soil tillage. Synthesizing data from long-term experiments and meta-analytical models, we estimated the impact of these measures on crop yield, SOC and N surpluses, while accounting for site-specific properties for the current and desired situation. The impacts of these measures on all farm types have been quantified, and optimum sets of agronomic measures have been selected in order to maximize crop yield and SOC levels and minimize N surpluses to reach the critical values for NO3 concentrations in groundwater. Our results, quantifying trade-offs among sustainability indicators that have traditionally been analyzed separately, illustrate that the suitability of measures varies by soil, climate and crop types within Europe. Our approach is promising for mapping region-specific management recommendations and evaluating the effectiveness of agronomic measures over multiple environmental goals and targets. Highlights: We find a lack of empirical-based DSTs holistically assessing agronomic practices and indicators. Meta-analytical models were used to assess impacts of best fertilizer, tillage and crop measures. Our multi-criteria analysis shows impacts vary with crop, soil and climate in European regions. We demonstrate our developed framework focusing on crop yield, soil carbon and nitrogen losses.

    Why (not) participate in citizen science? Motivational factors and barriers to participate in a citizen science program for malaria control in Rwanda
    Asingizwe, Domina ; Poortvliet, P.M. ; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Ingabire, Chantal Marie ; Mutesa, Leon ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2020
    PLoS ONE 15 (2020)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
    This study explores the motivational factors and barriers to participate in a citizen science program for malaria control in Rwanda. It assesses the changes in motivational factors over time and compares these factors among age and gender groups. Using a qualitative approach, this study involved 44 participants. At the initial stage, people participated in the program because of curiosity, desire to learn new things, helping others, and willingness to contribute to malaria control. As the engagement continued, other factors including ease of use of materials to report observations, the usefulness of the program, and recognition also played a crucial role in the retention of volunteers. Lack of time and information about the recruitment process, perceived low efficacy of the mosquito trap, and difficulties in collecting observations were reported as barriers to get and stay involved. Some variations in the motivational factors were observed among age and gender groups. At the initial phase, young adults and adults, as well as men and women were almost equally motivated to contribute to malaria control. For the ongoing phase, for age, the two groups were almost equally motivated by recognition of their effort. Also, the opportunity for learning was an important factor among young adults while ease of use of the materials was central for adults. For gender, the usefulness of the project, ease of use of materials, and learning opportunities were important motivational factors among women, while men were more motivated by recognition of their efforts. A framework including motivational factors and barriers at each stage of participation is presented. This framework may be used to explore motivations and barriers in future citizen science projects and might help coordinators of citizen science programs to determine whom to target, by which message, and at what stage of participation to retain volunteers in citizen science projects
    Understanding the psychological and social environmental determinants driving infant and young child feeding practices among Rwandan households: a salutogenic approach
    Ahishakiye, Jeanine - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.A. Koelen; H.W. Vaandrager, co-promotor(en): I.D. Brouwer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463954563 - 166

    Although adequate nutrition and good health are children’s rights, they are often violated, especially in developing countries where undernutrition is one of the leading causes of mortality among children under the age of five. The problem is more pertinent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), that still suffers from the highest under-five mortality rates in the world. Rwanda does not escape from this sad trend because despite continuous policy efforts, chronic malnutrition (stunting) among under-five remains a key public health concern. The 2014/15 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS) shows that 38% of under-five years old children were stunted in 2015. Hence, the Government of Rwanda has implemented numerous strategies to tackle the problem of chronic malnutrition. However, to date, much of our understanding on child chronic (mal) nutrition has been primarily based on research conducted on the nutritional physiological determinants of stunting such as the timing, composition and frequency of infant and young child feeding (IYCF). This view, however, has lacked a holistic orientation, ignoring the contextual and social determinants of IYCF practices. Moreover, the approach to tackle child undernutrition has been predominantly disease and risk-oriented, looking at the factors underlying stunting (pathogenic orientation). From this perspective, IYCF practices have been researched in relation to their contribution to stunting and the determinants of inadequate IYCF practices. Very little is known on factors contributing to good nutritional status, with a particular focus on factors facilitating mothers’ appropriate IYCF in the context of their everyday lives. The overall aim of this thesis is to identify factors that enable healthy IYCF practices in Rwandan households in order to contribute to the development of solution-oriented strategies for reducing child malnutrition. This dissertation is guided by the the salutogenic model of health that, in contrary to pathogenesis (that searches for causes of diseases), focuses on the search for the origins of health.

    The study was carried out in the catchment areas of Rutobwe and Buramba health centres located in a rural part of the district of Muhanga, in the southern province of Rwanda. The study adopted both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Four qualitative studies have been carried out. The first study was conducted among key informants ( mothers and fathers of infant aged 0–23 months, grandmothers and community health workers, n=144), focussed on a general understanding of IYCF practices, the challenges and the responses towards appropriate IYCF practices in the context in which mothers must live their lives (Chapter 2). Next, an in-depth study has been carried out on factors that impede or facilitate appropriate IYCF practices from the perspective of mothers themselves (n=39), specifically during the first 6 months of a child’s life (Chapter 3). The third study focused on coping strategies and facilitating factors among mothers who managed to follow the recommended IYCF practices during the first year of a child’s life (n=17; Chapter 4). Finally, the fourth study focused on unravelling how those mothers managed to do well by exploring the life course learning experiences that play a role in shaping healthy IYCF practices during the first year of a child’s life (n=14; Chapter 5).

    Based on the studies carried out, this thesis concludes that appropriate IYCF practices reflect not only food related practices to support the physical health but also the social and emotional needs of the mother and the child. In everyday life, mothers face challenges when they try to pursue the recommended IYCF practices. The results from this thesis reveal that mothers experienced an interplay of barriers and facilitators for appropriate IYCF practices, ranging from individual to group and societal levels. The perceived challenges consisted mainly of poverty, food insecurity, heavy workload and the influence of significant others. The results of this thesis also show that in a sea of those challenges, mothers’ sense of agency which refers to the feeling of being in control of one’s own actions play an important role in combatting and overcoming food and non-food related IYCF challenges. This sense of agency results from the combination of intrapersonal factors and the capacity of mothers to develop diverse coping strategies. Intrapersonal factors that facilitated coping with IYCF challenges included mothers’ confidence in the ability to breastfeed, self-efficacy, a sense of responsibility over their children’s health, and religious belief. Coping strategies consisted of balancing work and child feeding, prioritizing childcare, preparing child’s food in advance, active uptake of the recommendations and persistence in overcoming barriers. Furthermore, the findings indicate that appropriate IYCF practices result from the interaction of mothers with their social environment (interpersonal factors) exposed to not only during motherhood but also during earlier life course stages, for instance during childhood.  In view of these findings, policy makers and health professionals that aim to improve IYCF practices and thus reducing child malnutrition have to create optimal preconditions for appropriate IYCFpractices in which mothers’ sense of agency and capacities as well as optimal social conditions are highlighted, enabled and supported.

    Injustice in Food-Related Public Health Problems: A Matter of Corporate Responsibility
    Tempels, Tjidde ; Blok, Vincent ; Verweij, Marcel - \ 2020
    Business Ethics Quarterly 30 (2020)3. - ISSN 1052-150X - p. 388 - 413.
    The responsibility of the food and beverage industry for noncommunicable diseases is a controversial topic. Public health scholars identify the food and beverage industry as one of the main contributors to the rise of these diseases. We argue that aside from moral duties like not doing harm and respecting consumer autonomy, the food industry also has a responsibility for addressing the structural injustices involved in food-related health problems. Drawing on the work of Iris Marion Young, this article first shows how food-related public health problems can be understood as structural injustices. Second, it makes clear how the industry is sustaining these health injustices, and that due to this connection, corporate actors share responsibility for addressing food-related health problems. Finally, three criteria (capacity, benefit, and vulnerability) are discussed as grounds for attributing responsibility, allowing for further specification on what taking responsibility for food-related health problems can entail in corporate practice.
    Lake trout growth is sensitive to spring temperature in southwest Alaska lakes
    Biela, Vanessa R. von; Black, Bryan A. ; Young, Daniel B. ; Sleen, Peter van der; Bartz, Krista K. ; Zimmerman, Christian E. - \ 2020
    Ecology of Freshwater Fish (2020). - ISSN 0906-6691
    biochronology - growth - lake trout - marine-derived nutrients - Pacific salmon - temperature

    In high-latitude lakes, air temperature is an important driver of ice cover thickness and duration, which in turn influence water temperature and primary production supporting lake consumers and predators. In lieu of multidecadal observational records necessary to assess the response of lakes to long-term warming, we used otolith-based growth records from a long-lived resident lake fish, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), as a proxy for production. Lake trout were collected from seven deep, oligotrophic lakes in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve on in southwest Alaska that varied in the presence of marine-derived nutrients (MDN) from anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Linear mixed-effects models were used to partition variation in lake trout growth by age and calendar-year and model comparisons tested for a mean increase in lake trout growth with sockeye salmon presence. Year effects from the best mixed-effects model were subsequently compared to indices of temperature, lake ice, and regional indices of sockeye salmon escapement. A strong positive correlation between annual lake trout growth and temperature suggested that warmer springs, earlier lake ice break-up, and a longer ice-free growing season increase lake trout growth via previously identified bottom-up increases in production with warming. Accounting for differences in the presence or annual escapement of sockeye salmon with available data did not improve model fit. Collectively with other studies, the results suggest that productivity of subarctic lakes has benefitted from warming spring temperatures and that temperature can synchronise otolith growth across lakes with and without sockeye salmon MDN.

    Boundary Spanning in Sport for Development: Opening Transdisciplinary and Intersectoral Perspectives
    Haudenhuyse, Reinhard ; Hayton, John ; Parnell, Dan ; Verkooijen, Kirsten ; Delheye, Pascal - \ 2020
    Social Inclusion 8 (2020)3. - ISSN 2183-2803 - p. 123 - 128.
    We can no longer claim that academic interest in the area of sport and social inclusion is lacking. Dedicated books, special issues, commissioned reports, and landmark articles on the topic of social inclusion and sport have been produced by devoted scholars. The same can be said for the burgeoning area of sport for development and peace. These relatively young academic fields seem to be struggling to create new fundamental theoretical insights about how organized sport can both act as an inclusive space and as a vehicle for broader developmental outcomes. Despite scholarly advancements, there remains a number of empirical and theoretical gaps. The aim of this special issue is to critically reflect on issues related to sport, development, and inclusion, and to do so via transdisciplinary and intersectoral perspectives. By making such a contribution, we aim to open up new research pathways.
    Intramuscular short-chain acylcarnitines in elderly people are decreased in (pre-)frail females, but not in males
    Hoek, Marjanne D. van der; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G. ; Kuda, Ondřej ; Bos, Paul ; Paluchová, Veronika ; Verschuren, Lars ; Hoek, Anita M. van den; Kleemann, Robert ; Veeger, Nic J.G.M. ; Leij, Feike R. van der; Keijer, Jaap - \ 2020
    FASEB Journal 34 (2020)9. - ISSN 0892-6638 - p. 22658 - 11671.
    acetylcarnitine - carnitine - frailty - mitochondrial dysfunction - mitochondrial energy production - physical function

    This study tested the hypothesis that in human aging, a decreased intramuscular acylcarnitine status is associated with (pre-)frailty, reduced physical performance, and altered mitochondrial function. We used a cross-sectional study design with well-matched fit and (pre-)frail old males and females, using young males and females as healthy controls. Frailty was assessed according to the Fried criteria and physical performance was determined by 400 m walk test, short physical performance battery and handgrip strength. Muscle and plasma acylcarnitine status, and muscle mitochondrial gene expression was analyzed. Results showed that intramuscular total carnitine levels and short-chain acylcarnitine levels were lower in (pre-)frail old females compared to fit old females and young females, whereas no differences were observed in males. The low intramuscular short-chain acylcarnitine levels in females correlated with low physical performance, even after correction for muscle mass (%), and were accompanied with lowered expression of genes involved in mitochondrial energy production and functionality. It is, therefore, concluded that in (pre-)frail old females, intramuscular total carnitine levels and short-chain acylcarnitine levels are decreased, and this decrease is associated with reduced physical performance and low expression of a wide range of genes critical for mitochondrial function. The results stress the importance of taking sex differences into account in aging research.

    Honey bee colony winter loss rates for 35 countries participating in the COLOSS survey for winter 2018–2019, and the effects of a new queen on the risk of colony winter loss
    Gray, Alison ; Adjlane, Noureddine ; Arab, Alieza ; Ballis, Alexis ; Brusbardis, Valters ; Charrière, Jean Daniel ; Chlebo, Robert ; F. Coffey, Mary ; Cornelissen, A.C.M. ; Amaro da Costa, Cristina ; Brodschneider, Robert - \ 2020
    Journal of Apicultural Research 59 (2020)5. - ISSN 0021-8839 - p. 744 - 751.
    apis mellifera - Mortality - colony winter losses - queens - queen replacement - monitoring - surveys - beekeeping - citizen science
    This article presents managed honey bee colony loss rates over winter 2018/19 resulting from using the standardised COLOSS questionnaire in 35 countries (31 in Europe). In total, 28,629 beekeepers supplying valid loss data wintered 738,233 colonies, and reported 29,912 (4.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0–4.1%) colonies with unsolvable queen problems, 79,146 (10.7%, 95% CI 10.5–10.9%) dead colonies after winter and 13,895 colonies (1.9%, 95% CI 1.8–2.0%) lost through natural disaster. This gave an overall colony winter loss rate of 16.7% (95% CI 16.4–16.9%), varying greatly between countries, from 5.8% to 32.0%. We modelled the risk of loss as a dead/empty colony or from unresolvable queen problems, and found that, overall, larger beekeeping operations with more than 150 colonies experienced significantly lower losses (p < 0.001), consistent with earlier studies. Additionally, beekeepers included in this survey who did not migrate their colonies at least once in 2018 had significantly lower losses than those migrating (p < 0.001). The percentage of new queens from 2018 in wintered colonies was also examined as a potential risk factor. The percentage of colonies going into winter with a new queen was estimated as 55.0% over all countries. Higher percentages of young queens corresponded to lower overall losses (excluding losses from natural disaster), but also lower losses from unresolvable queen problems, and lower losses from winter mortality (p < 0.001). Detailed results for each country and overall are given in a table, and a map shows relative risks of winter loss at regional level.
    Non-conventional sources of agricultural water management : Insights from young professionals in the irrigation and drainage sector
    Amali, Amali A. ; Mersha, Adey N. ; Nofal, Eman R. ; Murray, Kathleen ; Norouzi, Sahar ; Saboory, Shoaib ; Salo, Heidi ; Chevuru, Sneha R. ; Sarai Tabrizi, Mahdi ; Reddy, Paavan K. ; Abdullahi, Abdulrahman O. ; Farahani, Hassan ; Kolhe, Pravin ; Dowlati Fard, Reza ; Salik, Abdul W. ; Hussein, Abdullahi H. ; Najafi, Husain ; Poormoghadam, Mojtaba ; Adiaha, Monday - \ 2020
    Irrigation and Drainage (2020). - ISSN 1531-0353 - 17 p.
    drainage - food security - irrigation - non-conventional - water security - Young Professionals

    Distribution and availability of global resources is highly variable over time and heterogeneous in space. With the natural or conventional supply of these resources no longer meeting a growing demand, the need to promote resource efficiency is now being paralleled with innovative approaches to conserve resources within their use cycle. These ‘innovative approaches’ herewith referred to as non-conventional was the subject of a 10-weeks extensive discussion among Young Professionals (YPs) in the field of irrigation and drainage. The discussion aligns to a higher objective of breeding a generation of YPs with an open mindset and multi-disciplinary approach to the challenges in irrigation and drainage. Cutting across development corridors in the water sector, this review paper presents insights on non-conventional sources of agricultural water management (AWM) as viewed from the lenses of YPs. The discussions underscore the need for broad-based approaches to resource management, building on the premise that all forms of resources are linked to form a system that provides the most effective service when managed in an integrated fashion. Non-conventional requires divergent approaches and flexibility; underlining the invaluable capabilities YPs present in AWM. Besides highlighting these roles, insights provided by YPs suggests that feeding a growing population necessitates looking beyond system efficiency to multivariate approaches of resource optimisation and utilisation in the field of irrigation and drainage.

    The global abundance of tree palms
    Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1495 - 1514.
    above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density

    Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.

    Safety and efficacy of four-segmented Rift Valley fever virus in young sheep, goats and cattle
    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Oreshkova, Nadia ; Keulen, Lucien van; Kant, Jet ; Water, Sandra van de; Soós, Pál ; Dehon, Yves ; Kollár, Anna ; Pénzes, Zoltán ; Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Vaccines 5 (2020)1. - ISSN 2076-393X

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus that causes severe and recurrent outbreaks on the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula and continues to expand its habitat. RVFV induces severe disease in newborns and abortion in pregnant ruminants. The viral genome consists of a small (S), medium (M) and large (L) RNA segment of negative polarity. The M segment encodes a glycoprotein precursor protein that is co-translationally cleaved into the two structural glycoproteins Gn and Gc, which are involved in receptor attachment and cell entry. We previously constructed a four-segmented RVFV (RVFV-4s) by splitting the M genome segment into two M-type segments encoding either Gn or Gc. RVFV-4s replicates efficiently in cell culture but was shown to be completely avirulent in mice, lambs and pregnant ewes. Here, we show that a RVFV-4s candidate vaccine for veterinary use (vRVFV-4s) does not disseminate in vaccinated animals, is not shed or spread to the environment and does not revert to virulence. Furthermore, a single vaccination of lambs, goat kids and calves was shown to induce protective immunity against a homologous challenge. Finally, the vaccine was shown to provide full protection against a genetically distinct RVFV strain. Altogether, we demonstrate that vRVFV-4s optimally combines efficacy with safety, holding great promise as a next-generation RVF vaccine.

    Salt equilibria in nutritional formulae for infants and young children
    Huppertz, Thom ; Timmer, Christel - \ 2020
    International Dairy Journal 110 (2020). - ISSN 0958-6946

    The distribution of Ca, Mg, K and Na between the sedimentable (200×g), protein-associated and soluble phase of infant formula (IF; n = 46), follow-on formula (FOF; n = 8), junior growing up milk (jGUM; n = 22) and senior GUM (sGUM; n = 16) were studied. For all product classes, virtually all Na and K was in the soluble phase and small amounts were found as protein-associated, i.e., as counterions. Most Mg was also found in the soluble phase, but a notable proportion (20–30%) was found to be protein-associated. Sedimentable Mg was only found in a few samples. Particularly in IF and FOF products, notable amounts of sedimentable Ca were observed; the proportion of protein-associated Ca increased with increasing casein content of samples, but even after correction for casein content, large differences (>2-fold) remained between products. These differences in casein mineralisation can affect physicochemical properties and colloidal stability.

    The fungal collaboration gradient dominates the root economics space in plants
    Bergmann, Joana ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Plas van der, Fons ; Mommer, L. ; Ruijven, J. van - \ 2020
    Science Advances 6 (2020)27. - ISSN 2375-2548 - 9 p.
    Plant economics run on carbon and nutrients instead of money. Leaf strategies aboveground span an economic spectrum from “live fast and die young” to “slow and steady,” but the economy defined by root strategies belowground remains unclear. Here, we take a holistic view of the belowground economy and show that root-mycorrhizal collaboration can short circuit a one-dimensional economic spectrum, providing an entire space of economic possibilities.Root trait data from 1810 species across the globe confirm a classical fast-slow “conservation” gradient but show that most variation is explained by an orthogonal “collaboration” gradient, ranging from “do-it-yourself”resource uptake to “outsourcing” of resource uptake to mycorrhizal fungi. This broadened “root economics space”provides a solid foundation for predictive understanding of belowground responses to changing environmental conditions.
    Nest defence and offspring provisioning in a cooperative bird : individual subordinates vary in total contribution, but no division of tasks among breeders and subordinates
    Teunissen, Niki ; Kingma, Sjouke A. ; Peters, Anne - \ 2020
    Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 74 (2020)7. - ISSN 0340-5443
    Altruism - Cooperation - Parental care - Predation - Predator defence - Task division

    Abstract: Research aimed at understanding the evolution of costly, seemingly altruistic helping behaviour in cooperative birds has strongly focused on a single aspect of helping—offspring provisioning. However, various other activities are also important for successful breeding, most notably nest defence, and emphasis on a single aspect of helping might hamper a full understanding of the evolutionary drivers of cooperation and seemingly altruistic helping behaviour. Nonetheless, the extent to which social classes (i.e. dominant breeders and subordinate helpers), as well as different individuals within social classes, divide tasks in cooperative groups remains largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual purple-crowned fairy-wrens, Malurus coronatus, show task division in the two forms of costly offspring care important for reproductive success: nestling provisioning and nest defence (to predator models presented at nests). Subordinates and breeders generally contributed to both tasks. Breeders defended marginally more than subordinates, and provisioned at a consistently high level, irrespective of their individual contribution to defence, whereas subordinates’ investment in both types of care was positively correlated. Thus, we found no evidence for division of tasks between or within social classes, highlighting it may be absent in facultatively cooperative birds even when activities are costly and important for reproduction. This suggests that in such species, cooperative improvement of overall investment may be more effective than enhanced individual efficiency at different tasks. Significance statement: In many social species, cooperation between individuals to achieve communal goals is important for successful reproduction. When multiple individuals are working together, division of tasks can occur, with tasks unevenly distributed among group members. Research on cooperative breeding, where subordinate helpers seemingly altruistically assist others in raising their young, has however mainly focused on offspring provisioning, while subordinates can often contribute to several breeding tasks. Thus, if task divisioning occurs, this would call into question conclusions about adaptive benefits of helping based on provisioning effort alone. Here we use nestling feeding watches and predator model presentations at nests to quantify nestling provisioning and nest defence effort by individuals in a classical cooperative breeder, the purple-crowned fairy-wren. We show a lack of task divisioning by breeders and subordinates, which is reassuring for our current understanding of the evolution of cooperative breeding.

    An Acyl-CoA N-Acyltransferase Regulates Meristem Phase Change and Plant Architecture in Barley
    Walla, Agatha ; Esse, G.W. van; Kirschner, Gwendolyn K. ; Guo, Ganggang ; Brünje, Annika ; Finkemeier, Iris ; Simon, Rüdiger ; Korff, Maria von - \ 2020
    Plant Physiology 183 (2020)3. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1088 - 1109.

    The modification of shoot architecture and increased investment into reproductive structures is key for crop improvement and is achieved through coordinated changes in the development and determinacy of different shoot meristems. A fundamental question is how the development of different shoot meristems is genetically coordinated to optimize the balance between vegetative and reproductive organs. Here we identify the MANY NODED DWARF1 (HvMND1) gene as a major regulator of plant architecture in barley (Hordeum vulgare). The mnd1.a mutant displayed an extended vegetative program with increased phytomer, leaf, and tiller production but a reduction in the number and size of grains. The induction of vegetative structures continued even after the transition to reproductive growth, resulting in a marked increase in longevity. Using mapping by RNA sequencing, we found that the HvMND1 gene encodes an acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase that is predominately expressed in developing axillary meristems and young inflorescences. Exploration of the expression network modulated by HvMND1 revealed differential expression of the developmental microRNAs miR156 and miR172 and several key cell cycle and developmental genes. Our data suggest that HvMND1 plays a significant role in the coordinated regulation of reproductive phase transitions, thereby promoting reproductive growth and whole plant senescence in barley.

    Promoting self‐facilitating feedback processes in coastal ecosystem engineers to increase restoration success: testing engineering measures
    Schotanus, Jildou ; Walles, Brenda ; Capelle, Jacob J. ; Belzen, Jim Van; De Koppel, Johan Van; Bouma, Tjeerd J. - \ 2020
    Journal of Applied Ecology 57 (2020)10. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 1958 - 1968.
    Coastal ecosystem engineers often depend on self‐facilitating feedbacks to ameliorate environmental stress. This makes the restoration of such coastal ecosystem engineers difficult. We question if we can increase transplantation success in highly dynamic coastal areas by engineering measures that promote the development of self‐facilitating feedback processes.
    Intertidal blue mussels Mytilus edulis are a typical example of ecosystem engineers that are difficult to restore. A lack of self‐facilitating feedbacks at low densities limits establishment success when young mussels are transplanted on dynamic mudflats.
    In a large field experiment, we investigated the possibility of increasing transplantation success by stimulating the formation of an aggregated spatial configuration in mussels, thereby reducing hydrologically induced dislodgment and the risks of predation. For this, we applied engineering measures in the form of fences that trapped wave dislodged mussels.
    Mussel loss rates were significantly lower when mussels were placed between both artificial fences, and in high densities (4.2 kg/m2) compared with mussels placed in areas without fences and in low densities (2.1 kg/m2). The fences induced the formation of a banded pattern with high local mussel densities, which locally reduced predation.
    Synthesis and applications. Our results underline the importance of actively promoting the development of self‐facilitating processes, such as aggregation into patterns, in restoration projects of ecosystem engineers. In particular, the current study shows that engineering measures can help to initiate these kinds of self‐facilitating interactions, especially in highly dynamic areas.
    Study of improvement for the analysis and exploitation of observers' reports EU fisheries from NW African waters : Final report
    Garcia-Isarch, E. ; Clark, J.M. ; Fernandez-Peralta, L. ; Gonzalez-Lorenza, J.G. ; Duque-Nogal, V. ; Corten, A.A.H.M. ; Rey, J. ; Young, C. ; Perales-Raya, C. ; Cervantes, A. ; Verver, S.W. - \ 2020
    Luxembourg : European Commission (Specific Contract No. 12 of the Framework Contract EASME/EMFF/2016/008 12) - 190 p.
    The availability of detailed information on fishing activities and the biology of exploited species is an essential element for fishery resource assessment. Given the diversity of the fleets operating in the Atlantic waters of West Africa, obtaining this information is a challenge. The protocols for mixed Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreements (SFPAs) in West Africa (Morocco, Mauritania,
    Senegal and Guinea-Bissau) include provisions for observers from these countries to join EU vessels. Member States (MS) must also provide biological information from the exploited resources, under the EU Multi-Annual Programme (EU MAP) for the Data Collection Framework (DCF). For vessels that operate and unload their catches outside EU waters, this information can only be obtained from scientific observers. Although such observer data is analysed, there is considerable scope for further analysis to maximise information obtained. It is therefore necessary to ensure the observer schemes obtain complementary information to provide the data necessary to formulate relevant fisheries management advice in the region. The main objective of this Specific Contract is twofold: a) to scrutinise and deeply analyse the available information in DG MARE and MS in order to maximise its use; b) to critically analyse the content of these reports to identify strengths and weaknesses in data coverage, with a view to establish a standardised manual for the use of the observers.
    Rapid Vegetation Succession and Coupled Permafrost Dynamics in Arctic Thaw Ponds in the Siberian Lowland Tundra
    Magnússon, Rúna ; Limpens, J. ; Huissteden, Jacobus van; Kleijn, D. ; Maximov, Trofim C. ; Rotbarth, Ronny ; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. - \ 2020
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 125 (2020)7. - ISSN 2169-8953
    Thermokarst features, such as thaw ponds, are hotspots for methane emissions in warming lowland tundra. Presently we lack quantitative knowledge on the formation rates of thaw ponds and subsequent vegetation succession, necessary to determine their net contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. This study sets out to identify development trajectories and formation rates of small‐scale (<100 m2), shallow arctic thaw ponds in north‐eastern Siberia. We selected 40 ponds of different age classes based on a time‐series of satellite images and measured vegetation composition, microtopography, water table, and thaw depth in the field and measured age of colonizing shrubs in thaw ponds using dendrochronology. We found that young ponds are characterized by dead shrubs, while older ponds show rapid terrestrialization through colonization by sedges and Sphagnum moss. While dead shrubs and open water are associated with permafrost degradation (lower surface elevation, larger thaw depth), sites with sedge and in particular Sphagnum display indications of permafrost recovery. Recruitment of Betula nana on Sphagnum carpets in ponds indicates a potential recovery toward shrub‐dominated vegetation, although it remains unclear if and on what timescale this occurs. Our results suggest that thaw ponds display potentially cyclic vegetation succession associated with permafrost degradation and recovery. Pond formation and initial colonization by sedges can occur on subdecadal timescales, suggesting rapid degradation and initial recovery of permafrost. The rates of formation and recovery of small‐scale, shallow thaw ponds have implications for the greening/browning dynamics and carbon balance of this ecosystem.
    Does entry to center-based childcare affect gut microbial colonization in young infants?
    Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Eckermann, Henrik A. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Weerth, Carolina de - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    Entry to center-based childcare (CC) at three months of life can be an important challenge for infants as it includes major stressors such as long maternal separations and frequently changing caregivers. Stress and the new environment may in turn alter the composition of the gut microbiota with possible implications for future health outcomes. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated whether CC, as compared to being cared for by the parents at home, alters the composition of the gut microbiota, while accounting for known covariates of the infant gut microbiota. Stool samples of infants who entered CC (n = 49) and control infants (n = 49) were obtained before and four weeks after CC entrance. Using Redundancy analysis, Random Forests and Bayesian linear models we found that infant gut microbiota was not affected in a uniform way by entry to CC. In line with the literature, breastfeeding, birth mode, age, and the presence of siblings were shown to significantly impact the microbial composition.

    Short Communication: The effects of physical feed properties on gastric emptying in pigs measured with the 13C breath test
    Martens, B.M.J. ; Schols, H.A. ; Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2020
    Animal 14 (2020)9. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1892 - 1898.
    extrusion - glycine - liquid phase - octanoic acid - solid phase

    The performance of pigs is affected by the rate of nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, which depends in turn strongly on the rate of stomach emptying. The 13C breath test provides a non-invasive diagnostic tool to measure gastric emptying patterns. Despite the wide acceptance of this method in human intervention studies, it has not found its way to the domain of animal sciences. In this study, we used the breath test to measure gastric emptying in young growing pigs using [1-13C] octanoic acid to trace digesta solids and [1-13C] glycine to study liquids. Pigs were fed a starch-rich diet, varying in starch source (isolated starch from barley, maize or high-amylose maize) or form (isolated barley starch, ground barley or extruded barley), after which 13CO2 enrichment was frequently measured during 11 h. Outliers in 13CO2 enrichment in the response curve of each pig were identified with a Cook 1/4s distance outlier test in combination with a leave-one-out analysis. Effects of experimental treatments on breath test parameters were tested using a GLM. In general, pigs were easy to train and the tailor-made mask allowed effortless sampling. Gastric emptying of all pigs followed a biphasic pattern, with a higher 13C recovery during the first peak. The first peak in gastric emptying of solids reached its maximum enrichment within 2 h after feeding in all cases. For digesta liquids, this peak was reached earlier for pigs fed ground barley (2.2 h after feeding), compared to pigs fed diets containing isolated starch (2.8 h after feeding). The second peak in gastric emptying of solids was reached later for pigs fed ground barley (5.9 h after feeding), compared with pigs fed extruded barley (4.5 h after feeding) and pigs fed diets containing isolated barley starch (4.8 h after feeding). In conclusion, the 13C breath test is a convenient, non-invasive tool to gain more insights into the gastric emptying pattern of pigs.

    Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
    Taddei, Cristina ; Zhou, Bin ; Bixby, Honor ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia ; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez ; Asghari, Golaleh ; Dhana, Klodian ; Gulayin, Pablo ; Kakarmath, Sujay ; Santero, Marilina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Savin, Stefan ; Bennett, James E. ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Cifkova, Renata ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Margozzini, Paula ; Mathur, Prashant ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Zhao, Dong ; Aadahl, Mette ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Rahim, Hanan Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Dam, Rob M. van; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2020
    Nature 582 (2020)7810. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 73 - 77.

    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.

    The importance of swelling for in vitro gastric digestion of whey protein gels
    Deng, Ruoxuan ; Mars, Monica ; Sman, Ruud G.M. Van Der; Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Janssen, Anja E.M. - \ 2020
    Food Chemistry 330 (2020). - ISSN 0308-8146
    Acid - Green fluorescent protein - In vitro gastric digestion - Pepsin - Swelling - Whey protein gel

    In this paper we report the importance of swelling on gastric digestion of protein gels, which is rarely recognized in literature. Whey protein gels with NaCl concentrations 0–0.1 M were used as model foods. The Young's modulus, swelling ratio, acid uptake and digestion rate of the gels were measured. Pepsin transport was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy using green fluorescent protein (GFP). With the increase of NaCl in gels, Young's modulus increased, swelling was reduced and digestion was slower, with a reduction of acid transport and less GFP present both at surface and in the gels. This shows that swelling affects digestion rate by enhancing acid diffusion, but also by modulating the partitioning of pepsin at the food-gastric fluid interface and thereby the total amount of pepsin in the food particle. This perspective on swelling will provide new insight for designing food with specific digestion rate for targeted dietary demands.

    “How uncertainties are tackled in multi-disciplinary science? A review of integrated assessments under global change”
    Pastor, A.V. ; Vieira, D.C.S. ; Soudijn, F.H. ; Edelenbosch, O. - \ 2020
    Catena 191 (2020). - ISSN 0341-8162

    The authors regret the Acknowledgements section was incorrect. The corrected version is provided below: Acknowledgements Pastor A.V. is funded by an EU H2020 project ‘LOCOMOTION – Low carbon society: an enhanced modelling tool for transition to sustainability’. Vieira D.C.S is funded by national funds (OE), through FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P., in the scope of the framework contract foreseen – DL57/2016 (CDL-CTTRI-97-ARH/2018 – REF.191-97-ARH/2018), and acknowledges CESAM financial support through ( UIDP/50017/2020+UIDB/50017/2020). Soudijn F.H. is funded by the E&P Sound and Marine Life Joint Industry Programme (JIP). We acknowledge the Young Scientific Summer Program (YSSP) 2014 to have brought together three authors of this study. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

    Responses of rural households to the cotton crisis in Benin
    Alidou, Guirguissou Maboudou ; Niehof, Anke - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)10. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Cotton production - Income decline - Livelihood diversification - Rural benin

    Relying on one source of income puts the livelihood system of rural households at risk. In Benin, cotton has long been the core cash crop of rural livelihood systems-until the mid-2000s, when multiple constraints led to the demise of cotton production. This paper investigates the responses of rural households to the economic shock resulting from the collapse of the cotton sector and the consecutive decrease of income from cotton. The primary data collection was carried out between 2009 and 2012 and included a household survey and focus group discussions with groups of farmers. The results reveal that households diversified their sources of income on farm, with food crops increasingly gaining a cash function. However, because the production system still depended heavily on cotton for access to fertilizers and other inputs for food crops, farmers continued to grow cotton despite its decreasing returns. In addition, because of their multiple extra-domestic activities, women seemed to be less vulnerable than men when coping with livelihood shocks; indeed, their contribution to providing for household needs increased. Further results revealed that young men devised their own ways of dealing with the crisis by temporary migration.

    Game Over or Play Again? Deploying games for promoting water recycling and hygienic practices at schools in Ethiopia
    Kragic, D. ; Bisschops, I.A.E. ; Knoop, Lenneke ; Tulu, Lemma ; Kujawa, K. ; Masresha, Nardos ; Houtkamp, J.M. - \ 2020
    Environmental Science & Policy 111 (2020). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 83 - 90.
    Worldwide, every year 525 000 children under the age of five die from diarrhoea. The simple act of washing hands with soap and water can prevent more than one-third of diarrhoeal disease cases. In the densely populated urban areas of the developing world, handwashing wastewater is commonly discharged to the environment without any treatment, creating unhygienic situations and breeding places for different vectors and wasting a valuable resource. However, this relatively clean wastewater can be treated and reused using simple technological solutions. The objective of our water innovation is, therefore, twofold: improving children’s health through stimulating handwashing at schools while at the same time demonstrating the feasibility of water conservation through low-tech, nature-based treatment and safe reuse of handwashing wastewater for irrigation and toilet flushing. To enhance the intrinsic motivation of children and school staff to adopt this innovation, four educational games were developed drawing on theories used in gamification of learning, such as social learning theory and engagement theories. This paper provides an overview of the games and the main results of the game testing. For promoting hygiene among school children, a board and a card game were developed based on the F-diagram – commonly used by water and sanitation practitioners to illustrate the main routes for pathogen transmissions from faeces. In addition, the system linking handwashing wastewater collection, treatment and reuse for irrigation and toilet flushing was simulated by the development of two board games which targeted school children, school staff and the operators of the treatment system. The prototypes and final versions were tested in two schools in the Oromia region in Ethiopia – while the treatment system (constructed wetland) for handwashing wastewater is located in one school. Children that play-tested the games were generally enthusiastic and eager to play repeatedly, which demonstrated that board and card games are appropriate tools to engage with this young target group. We conclude that there is a large potential for development, use, and upscaling of educational games for more sustainable WaSH interventions.
    Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth's tropical forests
    Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Castilho, Carolina ; Costa, Flávia ; Sanchez, Aida Cuni ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Qie, Lan ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Almeida, Everton C. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter ; Aymard C, Gerardo ; Baccaro, Fabrício B. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barlow, Jos ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastin, Jean François ; Batterman, Sarah A. ; Beeckman, Hans ; Begne, Serge K. ; Bennett, Amy C. ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bogaert, Jan ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brncic, Terry ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Céron, Carlos ; Ribeiro, Sabina Cerruto ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerôme ; Chezeaux, Eric ; Clark, Connie J. ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Medina, Massiel Corrales ; Costa, Lola da; Dančák, Martin ; Dargie, Greta C. ; Davies, Stuart ; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Haulleville, Thales de; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon Del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Droissant, Vincent ; Duque, Luisa Fernanda ; Ekoungoulou, Romeo ; Elias, Fernando ; Erwin, Terry ; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Fauset, Sophie ; Ferreira, Joice ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Foli, Ernest ; Ford, Andrew ; Gilpin, Martin ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hamilton, Alan C. ; Harris, David J. ; Hart, Terese B. ; Hédl, Radim ; Herault, Bruno ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Hladik, Annette ; Coronado, Eurídice Honorio ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Huasco, Walter Huaraca ; Jeffery, Kathryn J. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Djuikouo, Marie Noël Kamdem ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Umetsu, Ricardo Keichi ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Killeen, Timothy ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Koch, Alexander ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Laurance, William ; Laurance, Susan ; Leal, Miguel E. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lima, Adriano J.N. ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lopes, Aline P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Tom ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lowe, Richard ; Magnusson, William E. ; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba ; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Marthews, Toby ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Maycock, Colin ; Melgaço, Karina ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Metali, Faizah ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Milliken, William ; Mitchard, Edward T.A. ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Mossman, Hannah L. ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nascimento, Henrique ; Neill, David ; Nilus, Reuben ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Walter ; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Peacock, Julie ; Pendry, Colin ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Playfair, Maureen ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Preziosi, Richard ; Prieto, Adriana ; Primack, Richard B. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues de; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustín ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sheil, Douglas ; Silva, Richarlly C. ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Valeria, Camila Silva ; Silveira, Marcos ; Simo-Droissart, Murielle ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Singh, James ; Soto Shareva, Yahn Carlos ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Swamy, Varun ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Talbot, Joey ; Taplin, James ; Taylor, David ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Hout, Peter van der; Meer, Peter van der; Nieuwstadt, Mark van; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Wang, Ophelia ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Woods, John T. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Young, Kenneth ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zemagho, Lise ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Zwerts, Joeri A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2020
    Science 368 (2020)6493. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 869 - 874.

    The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (-9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth's climate.

    Effects of climate and land-use changes on fish catches across lakes at a global scale
    Kao, Yu Chun ; Rogers, Mark W. ; Bunnell, David B. ; Cowx, Ian G. ; Qian, Song S. ; Anneville, Orlane ; Beard, T.D. ; Brinker, Alexander ; Britton, J.R. ; Chura-Cruz, René ; Gownaris, Natasha J. ; Jackson, James R. ; Kangur, Külli ; Kolding, Jeppe ; Lukin, Anatoly A. ; Lynch, Abigail J. ; Mercado-Silva, Norman ; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo ; Njaya, Friday J. ; Ostrovsky, Ilia ; Rudstam, Lars G. ; Sandström, Alfred L.E. ; Sato, Yuichi ; Siguayro-Mamani, Humberto ; Thorpe, Andy ; Zwieten, Paul A.M. van; Volta, Pietro ; Wang, Yuyu ; Weiperth, András ; Weyl, Olaf L.F. ; Young, Joelle D. - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    Globally, our knowledge on lake fisheries is still limited despite their importance to food security and livelihoods. Here we show that fish catches can respond either positively or negatively to climate and land-use changes, by analyzing time-series data (1970–2014) for 31 lakes across five continents. We find that effects of a climate or land-use driver (e.g., air temperature) on lake environment could be relatively consistent in directions, but consequential changes in a lake-environmental factor (e.g., water temperature) could result in either increases or decreases in fish catch in a given lake. A subsequent correlation analysis indicates that reductions in fish catch was less likely to occur in response to potential climate and land-use changes if a lake is located in a region with greater access to clean water. This finding suggests that adequate investments for water-quality protection and water-use efficiency can provide additional benefits to lake fisheries and food security.

    Population dynamics of Hippophae rhamnoides shrub in response of sea-level rise and insect outbreaks
    Decuyper, Mathieu ; Dool, Robbert Van Den; Slim, Pieter A. ; Kuiters, A.T. ; Jansen, Jeroen M. ; Sass-Klaassen, Ute - \ 2020
    PLoS ONE 15 (2020)5. - ISSN 1932-6203
    The coastal vegetation of islands is expected to be affected by future sea-level rise and other anthropogenic impacts. The biodiverse coastal vegetation on the eastern part of the Dutch Wadden Island of Ameland has experienced land subsidence caused by gas extraction since 1986. This subsidence mimics future sea-level rising through increased flooding and raising groundwater levels. We studied the effects of this relative sea-level rise and other environmental factors (i.e. insect outbreaks, temperature and precipitation) on the population dynamics (i.e. cover and age structure and annual growth) of the shrub sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in young (formed after 1950) and old (formed before 1950) dune areas over a period of 56 years (1959–2015). We found an increase in sea-buckthorn cover in the young dune areas since 1959, while over time the population in the old dunes decreased due to successional replacement by other species. With the increasing age of the young dunes, we found also a decrease in sea-buckthorn after 2009. However the sharp decrease indicated that other environmental factors were also involved. The most important determinant of annual shrub growth appeared to be five outbreaks of the brown-tail moth (Euproctis chrysorrhoea L.), in the last decade. Relative sea-level rise caused more frequent flooding and reduced growth at lower elevations due to inundation or soil water saturation. This study clearly indicates that sea-buckthorn is affected by relative sea-level rise, but that other ecological events better explain its variation in growth. Although shrub distribution and growth can be monitored with robust methods, future predictions of vegetation dynamics are complicated by unpredictable extreme events caused by (a)biotic stressors such as insect outbreaks.
    Palaeosols and their cover sediments of a glacial landscape in northern central Europe : Spatial distribution, pedostratigraphy and evidence on landscape evolution
    Kaiser, Knut ; Schneider, Thomas ; Küster, Mathias ; Dietze, Elisabeth ; Fülling, Alexander ; Heinrich, Susann ; Kappler, Christoph ; Nelle, Oliver ; Schult, Manuela ; Theuerkauf, Martin ; Vogel, Sebastian ; Boer, Anna Maartje de; Börner, Andreas ; Preusser, Frank ; Schwabe, Matthias ; Ulrich, Jens ; Wirner, Michael ; Bens, Oliver - \ 2020
    Catena 193 (2020). - ISSN 0341-8162
    Buried soil - Holocene - Human impact - Land-cover change - Landscape dynamics - Soil erosion

    Knowledge of the distribution, types and properties of buried soils, i.e. palaeosols, is essential in understanding how lowlands in northern central Europe have changed over past millennia. This is an indispensable requirement for evaluating long-term human impact including soil erosion and land-cover dynamics. In the Serrahn area (62 km2), a young glacial landscape representative for northeastern Germany and part of the Müritz National Park, 26 pedosedimentary sections were documented and analysed. To this end, a multiproxy-approach was applied using pedology, micromorphology, geochronology, and palaeoecology. Statistical and spatial analyses of c. 5200 soil profiles, of which 10% contain palaeosols, show that buried soils cover an area of 5.7 km2, i.e. 9% of the area studied. Most palaeosols are Cambisols, Arenosols and Gleysols. Palaeosols are mainly covered by aeolian and colluvial sands, as well as by lacustrine sands and peat. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating together with palynological and anthracological data reveal that former land surfaces were dominantly buried through erosion triggered by human activity in the late Holocene. In addition, but to a clearly smaller extent, Lateglacial/early Holocene palaeosols and cover sediments occur. Following Medieval clear-cutting and intensive land use, the study area is today again widely forested. The high share of buried land surfaces detected here is expected to be representative for the hilly glacial landscapes even in the wider region, i.e. in northern central Europe, and should be considered in soil mapping, soil carbon budgeting and assessments of past human impact.

    Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Phytophthora infestans in South Korea during 2009–2016 reveals clonal reproduction and absence of EU_13_A2 genotype
    Choi, Jang Gyu ; Hong, Su Young ; Kessel, Geert J.T. ; Cooke, David E.L. ; Vossen, Jack H. ; Cho, Ji Hong ; Im, Ju Seong ; Park, Young Eun ; Cho, Kwang Soo - \ 2020
    Plant Pathology 69 (2020)5. - ISSN 0032-0862
    genotype - late blight - phenotype - potato - SSR

    In order to better understand the Phytophthora infestans population structure in South Korea, 172 isolates were collected between 2009 and 2016 from four major potato cultivation areas. Fungicide (metalaxyl and dimethomorph) response, mating type, and microsatellite (SSR) genetic fingerprints were analysed to characterize these isolates. Ten isolates collected in Gyeongnam Province, which specializes in protected winter cultivation in polytunnels, were A2 mating type. All other isolates were A1 mating type. Overall, 42% of the isolates were resistant to metalaxyl, and 43% were sensitive. All isolates were sensitive to dimethomorph. From the SSR fingerprints, 45 distinct genotypes were identified, which could be clustered into four clonal lineages: KR_1_A1, KR_2_A2, SIB-1, and US-11. KR_1_A1 was the predominant P. infestans genotype in South Korea. KR_2_A2 was only found in Gyeongnam Province; all isolates were A2 mating type and resistant to metalaxyl. SIB-1 was dominant until 2013 but its frequency has gradually decreased in more recent years. US-11 was first found in 2014, after which its frequency has increased to become codominant with KR_1_A1. The calculated standardized index of association (IA) suggests that the South Korean P. infestans population is undergoing clonal reproduction. When compared with populations of P. infestans from the Netherlands, it has less genetic diversity and the dominant Netherlands P. infestans genotype, EU_13_A2 (Blue_13), was not found in South Korea. Such monitoring of the pathogen population contributes to a more efficient integrated pest management-based control strategy for potato late blight control in South Korea.

    Give CRISPR a Chance : the GeneSprout Initiative
    Vangheluwe, Nick ; Swinnen, Gwen ; Koning, Ramon de; Meyer, Prisca ; Houben, Maarten ; Huybrechts, Michiel ; Sajeev, Nikita ; Rienstra, Juriaan ; Boer, Damian - \ 2020
    Trends in Plant Science 25 (2020)7. - ISSN 1360-1385 - p. 624 - 627.
    CRISPR - policy - science communication - young researcher

    Did you know that a group of early-career researchers launched an initiative enabling open dialog on new plant breeding techniques, such as genome editing? We developed a wide-ranging initiative that aims to facilitate public engagement and provide a platform for young plant scientists to encourage participation in science communication.

    Sensory Evaluation of E-Liquid Flavors by Smelling and Vaping Yields Similar Results
    Krüsemann, Erna J.Z. ; Wenng, Franziska M. ; Pennings, Jeroen L.A. ; Graaf, Kees de; Talhout, Reinskje ; Boesveldt, Sanne - \ 2020
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 22 (2020)5. - ISSN 1462-2203 - p. 798 - 805.

    INTRODUCTION: Sensory research on e-liquid flavors can be performed by means of smelling and vaping. However, data comparing smelling versus vaping e-liquid flavors are lacking. This study aims to investigate if smelling could be an alternative to vaping experiments by determining the correlation for hedonic flavor assessment between orthonasal smelling and vaping of e-liquids, for smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: Twenty-four young adult smokers (mean age 24.8 ± 9.3) and 24 nonsmokers (mean age 24.9 ± 7.7) smelled and vaped 25 e-liquids in various flavors. Participants rated liking, intensity, familiarity, and irritation on a 100-mm Visual Analog Scale. Pearson correlations within and between smelling and vaping were calculated. Differences between user groups were calculated using t tests. RESULTS: Correlation coefficients between smelling and vaping based on mean group ratings were 0.84 for liking, 0.82 for intensity, 0.84 for familiarity, and 0.73 for irritation. Means of the within-subjects correlation coefficients were, respectively, 0.51, 0.37, 0.47, and 0.25. Correlations between smelling and vaping varied across individuals (ranging from -0.27 to 0.87) and flavors (-0.33 to 0.81). Correlations and mean liking ratings did not differ between smokers and nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: The strong group-level correlations between orthonasal smelling and vaping e-liquid flavors justify the use of smelling instead of vaping in future research. For example, smelling could be used to investigate differences in e-liquid flavor liking between (potential) user groups such as nicotine-naïve adolescents. The more modest within-subject correlations and variation across individuals and flavors merit caution in using smelling instead of vaping in other types of experiments. IMPLICATIONS: This study supports the use of orthonasal smelling (instead of vaping) e-liquids to measure hedonic flavor perception in some studies where vaping would be inappropriate or not feasible. Examples of research situations where smelling e-liquids may be sufficient are (1) investigating nicotine-naïve individuals (ie, nonusers), (2) investigating individuals under legal age for e-cigarette use (ie, youth and adolescents), (3) investigating brain responses to exposure of e-liquid flavors using functional magnetic resonance imaging or electroencephalogram, and (4) comparing hedonic flavor assessment between adolescent nonusers and current smokers to provide support for future regulations on e-liquid flavors.

    Greener Future for Young Farmers
    Doorn, Anne van - \ 2020
    Herbivory meets fungivory : insect herbivores feed on plant pathogenic fungi for their own benefit
    Eberl, Franziska ; Fernandez de Bobadilla, Maite ; Reichelt, Michael ; Hammerbacher, Almuth ; Gershenzon, Jonathan ; Unsicker, Sybille B. - \ 2020
    Ecology Letters 23 (2020)7. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1073 - 1084.
    gypsy moth - mycophagy - nutritional ecology - rust fungus - Salicaceae - tripartite interaction

    Plants are regularly colonised by fungi and bacteria, but plant-inhabiting microbes are rarely considered in studies on plant–herbivore interactions. Here we show that young gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars prefer to feed on black poplar (Populus nigra) foliage infected by the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina instead of uninfected control foliage, and selectively consume fungal spores. This consumption, also observed in a related lepidopteran species, is stimulated by the sugar alcohol mannitol, found in much higher concentration in fungal tissue and infected leaves than uninfected plant foliage. Gypsy moth larvae developed more rapidly on rust-infected leaves, which cannot be attributed to mannitol but rather to greater levels of total nitrogen, essential amino acids and B vitamins in fungal tissue and fungus-infected leaves. Herbivore consumption of fungi and other microbes may be much more widespread than commonly believed with important consequences for the ecology and evolution of plant–herbivore interactions.

    Youth as an asset fordairy development : What have we learned from youth-led dairy initiatives in East Africa?
    Andeweg, K. ; Lee, J. van der; Bashuna, Sabdiyo Dido - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research - 8 p.
    Over the last decade, several initiatives have focused on supporting youth employment in the African dairy sector. Some with success, some without. What can we learn from these initiatives? What were the challenges encountered? What have been successful strategies to increase youth involvement in the dairy sector? Work-ing with youth groups, mainstreaming entrepreneurial skills, digitisation and establishing strong links with cooperatives have shown to be effective to engage youth in this prospective sector.
    Productivity and topsoil quality of young and old permanent grassland : An on-farm comparison
    Iepema, Goaitske ; Deru, Joachim G.C. ; Bloem, Jaap ; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Goede, Ron de; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)7. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Grassland productivity - Grassland renewal - Nitrogen - Production system - Soil functions - Soil organic matter - Sustainable land-use

    Renewing agricultural grasslands for improved yields and forage quality generally involves eliminating standing vegetation with herbicides, ploughing and reseeding. However, grassland renewal may negatively affect soil quality and related ecosystem services. On clay soil in the north of the Netherlands, we measured grass productivity and soil chemical parameters of 'young' (5-15 years since last grassland renewal) and 'old' (>20 years since last grassland renewal) permanent grasslands, located as pairs at 10 different dairy farms. We found no significant difference with old permanent grassland in herbage dry matter yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) response, whereas herbage N yield was lower in young permanent grassland. Moreover, the young grassland soil contained less soil organic matter (SOM), soil organic carbon (C) and soil organic N compared to the old grassland soil. Grass productivity was positively correlated with SOM and related parameters such as soil organic C, soil organic N and potentially mineralizable N. We conclude that on clay soils with 70% desirable grasses (i.e., Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense) or more, the presumed yield benefit of grassland renewal is offset by a loss of soil quality (SOM and N-total). The current practice of renewing grassland after 10 years without considering the botanical composition, is counter-productive and not sustainable.

    Participation rate and demographic profile in recreational angling in The Netherlands between 2009 and 2017
    Hammen, Tessa van der; Chen, Chun - \ 2020
    Fisheries Research 229 (2020). - ISSN 0165-7836
    Angling - Demographics - Online panel - Recreational fishing - Screening survey - Survey design

    Since 2009 the Netherlands has conducted extensive online screening surveys to establish the number, trends and demographic profile of recreational anglers, resulting in a large dataset of almost 500.000 data records between 2009 and 2017. Participation in both marine and fresh water recreational angling were analysed using general linear models (GLM). Results showed a steady decline in the participation rate in fresh water angling. The participation rate in marine angling was smaller, and declined from 2009 to 2011, but remained similar afterwards. Analysis of demographics (age, gender, education and region) showed that males were overall much more likely to participate in recreational angling than females. Additionally, the age distribution differed for marine and fresh water. In marine water young adult males (age group (25,45]) had the highest participation rate, whereas in fresh water the youngest age group, (5,15], had the highest participation rate, closely followed by young adult males (age group (25,45]). Additionally, lower educated persons were more likely to participate in recreational angling than higher educated persons. This study provides more insight in the culture of Dutch recreational angling. Furthermore, the participation model can be used to predict future angling participation.

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