Recovery of essential nutrients from municipal solid waste - Impact of waste management infrastructure and governance aspects
Zabaleta, Imanol ; Rodic-Wiersma, Ljiljana - \ 2015
Waste Management 44 (2015). - ISSN 0956-053X - p. 178 - 187.
Bio-waste - Nitrogen - Nutrient recovery - Phosphorus - Solid waste management
Every year 120-140. million tonnes of bio-waste are generated in Europe, most of which is landfilled, incinerated or stabilized and used as covering material in landfill operation. None of these practices enables the recovery of essential nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), which are in great demand for agricultural production. Recovery of these nutrients is a matter of international concern considering the non-renewable nature of P sources and the energy intensive production process required for the synthesis of N fertilizers. The objective of this research is to understand the relation between the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system, both its the physical components and governance aspects, and the recovery of nutrients in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country) as a benchmark for European medium-size cities. The analysis shows that the existing physical infrastructure and facilities for bio-waste have high potential for nutrient recovery, 49% for N and 83% for P contained in bio-waste. However, governance aspects of the MSWM system such as legislation and user inclusivity play an important role and decrease the actual nutrient recovery to 3.4% and 7.4% for N and P respectively.
What is sustainable farming?
Goewie, E.A. ; Silva, J. da; Zabaleta, J.P. ; Souza, R.M. de - \ 2006
In: Sustainable Development Policy and Administration New York : Routledge - ISBN 9781315087535 - p. 189 - 202.
Sustainability is an issue that has inspired policy makers, teachers, and scientists. The description of sustainability in farming accommodates various realistic types of land use. Land use is in a state of sustainable development if the managers involved permanently strive for equilibrium between what they apply to and what they remove from their land. The aim of farming—control of conditions for the production of top levels of biomass—is that of striving for minimal disturbance of production conditions in soil, crops, and animals. The chapter addresses the relation between biodiversity and the type of soil use; the relation between biodiversity and the development of a farm as an agroecosystem; and the relation between biodiversity and the possibilities for self-restoration inside agroecosystems. Integrated management of land use systems strives for that equilibrium by trying to produce the same with decreasing amounts of external inputs involved.