Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Quantification of morphochemical changes during in situ enzymatic hydrolysis of individual biomass particles based on autofluorescence imaging
    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios ; Loos, J. ; Boogers, Ilco A.L.A. ; Appeldoorn, Maaike M. ; Kabel, M.A. ; Zandvoort, Marc van - \ 2020
    Biopolymers 111 (2020)3. - ISSN 0006-3525 - 10 p.
    Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass is an established method for producing biofuels. Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover is very inhomogeneous material with big variation on conversion rates between individual particles therefore leading to variable recalcitrance results. In this study, we used noninvasive optical microscopy techniques, such as two‐photon microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, to visualize and analyze morphological and chemical changes of individual corn stover particles pretreated with sulfuric acid during hydrolysis. Morphochemical changes were interpreted based on the fluorescence properties of isolated building blocks of plant cell wall, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in particle size reduction, side wall collapse, decrease of second harmonic signal from cellulose, redshifting of autofluorescence emission, and lifetime decrease attributed to the relative increase of lignin. Based on these observations, tracking compositional change after hydrolysis of individual particles was accomplished. The methodologies developed offer a paradigm for imaging and analyzing enzymatic hydrolysis in vitro and in situ, which could be used for screening enzymes cocktails targeting specific recalcitrant structures or investigating locally enzyme anti‐inhibitory agents.
    Planning infrastructure replacements: Restructuring and exerting partial control over the environment
    Zandvoort, Mark ; Vlist, Maarten J. van der - \ 2020
    Environmental Science & Policy 103 (2020). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 67 - 76.
    (un)control - Infrastructure - Replacement strategies - System transformation - Uncertainty

    By building infrastructure, planners want to exert control over the environment for the sake of society. Due to uncertainty and complexity, such control is always limited and can become contested. Based on a case study of replacing a pumping station, we show how planners can understand the replacement of infrastructure and what informs adequate replacement strategies amid uncertainty. The paper argues that the concepts (un)control and (re)structuring help understand replacements in the context of infrastructure planning. Infrastructure replacements are interventions on different levels which restructure existing systems, asset networks, local areas and assets themselves. Necessary information for developing a replacement strategy, exerted control or uncontrol, possible innovations and restructuring effects differ among these levels. We conclude that planners need to be cognizant that infrastructure replacements, no matter how large or small, restructure both environments and social institutions.

    Lifecycle management and replacement strategies: Two of a kind?
    Zandvoort, M. ; Vlist, M.J. van der; Haitsma, R. ; Oosterveld, E. - \ 2019
    In: Life-Cycle Analysis and Assessment in Civil Engineering. - CRC Press/Balkema - ISBN 9781138626331 - p. 1507 - 1512.

    Due to the end of lifetime of infrastructure assets, water managers need to develop strategies for their replacement or demolishment. We outline four distinct reasons in which replacements differ from new assets and analyze which particular considerations about replacement can complement lifecycle management (LCM) practices. We conclude that these replacement considerations lead to additional technical design features for hydraulic structures and other assets. Complementing LCM with considerations about the new asset lifecycle after replacement informs planning approaches for developing adequate replacement strategies in the context of asset management.

    Groenbemesterdag 2019
    Kroonen-Backbier, Brigitte - \ 2019
    Dealing with uncertainty in collaborative planning: developing adaptive strategies for the IJsselmeer
    Zandvoort, Mark ; Brugge, Rutger van der; Vlist, Maarten J. van der; Brink, Adri van den - \ 2019
    Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 62 (2019)2. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 248 - 265.
    adaptive planning - collaborative water management - flexibility - responsibility - uncertainty

    Adaptive strategies to deal with uncertainty in water management are often collaboratively developed. So far, however, little attention has been paid to the influence of collaboration on handling uncertainty through adaptive planning. In this paper, we study how collaboration has influenced the handling of uncertainty through adaptive planning for water management strategies for the IJsselmeer area in the Netherlands. We show how a fixation on certainty, different perspectives among actors and unclear responsibilities between arenas affect the handling of uncertainty, and found that it is adversely affected by collaboration. The use of adaptive planning challenged current water uses and system functions, creating resistance from actors. We conclude that developing a shared problem perception, creating a common understanding of uncertainties and ensuring a clear demarcation between the water system, its societal functions and water usage, are necessary to make adaptive planning successful in handling uncertainty.

    Designing with pathways : A spatial design approach for adaptive and sustainable landscapes
    Zandvoort, Mark ; Kooijmans, Nora ; Kirshen, Paul ; Brink, Adri van den - \ 2019
    Sustainability 11 (2019)3. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Adaptiveness - Climate adaptation - Decision pathways - Flood risk management - Landscape architecture - Spatial design - Uncertainty - Visualization

    Despite rising attention to pathways thinking in multiple domains such as climate adaptation, energy supply planning, and flood risk management, their spatial translation is so far understudied. We set out to study how spatial design based on pathways thinking can help develop more adaptive and sustainable landscapes. Using landscape analysis, field research, and research-through-designing in a case study on climate resilience in Boston (USA), we argue for better understanding of the spatial and design consequences of pathways in general. Our results indicate that pathways can be spatially translated, demanding landscape-informed choices when sequencing different policy actions. We found that spatial designing makes the landscape consequences of pathways transparent and enables policy-makers to replace the input of policy actions with spatial interventions, select pathways according to different underlying design strategies, use the mapped pathways to initiate an iterative research-through-designing process to test and inform different designs, and spatially visualize the pathways and possible sequences of actions. We conclude that policy-makers should be cognizant about the spatial implications of pathways and offer directions to enrich applications of pathways thinking for achieving adaptive and sustainable landscapes.

    Biomass Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Dynamics Analysis Based on Particle Size Imaging
    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios ; Wilbers, Arnold ; Boogers, Ilco A.L.A. ; Appeldoorn, Maaike M. ; Kabel, Mirjam A. ; Loos, Joachim ; Zandvoort, Marc A.M.J. Van - \ 2018
    Microscopy and Microanalysis 24 (2018)5. - ISSN 1431-9276 - p. 517 - 525.
    biomass - enzymatic hydrolysis - large field of view - particle length distribution

    Parameters such as pretreatment method, enzyme type and concentration, determine the conversion efficiency of biomass' cellulose and hemicellulose to glucose and mainly xylose in biomass-based fuel production. Chemical quantification of these processes offers no information on the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) on particle morphology. We report on the development of a microscopy method for imaging pretreated biomass particles at different EH stages. The method was based on acquiring large field of view images, typically 20×10 mm2 containing thousands of particles. Morphology of particles with lengths between 2 μm and 5 mm could be visualized and analyzed. The particle length distribution of corn stover samples, pretreated with increasing amounts of sulfuric acid at different EH stages, was measured. Particle size was shown to be dependent on pretreatment severity and EH time. The methodology developed could offer an alternative method for characterization of EH of biomass for second generation biofuels and visualization of recalcitrant structures.

    Navigating amid uncertainty in spatial planning
    Zandvoort, Mark ; Vlist, Maarten J. Van der; Klijn, Frans ; Brink, Adri Van den - \ 2018
    Planning Theory 17 (2018)1. - ISSN 1473-0952 - p. 96 - 116.
    ambiguity - climate change - long-term consequences - moral responsibility - spatial planning - uncertainty
    In view of the need to adapt to uncertain climate change through spatial interventions, this article explores how spatial planners might navigate amid uncertainty. To draw out insights for planning, we examine planning frameworks which explicitly recognise uncertainty and uncertainty descriptions from studies in environmental risk and climate uncertainty. We build our case by addressing the implications of different characteristics of uncertainty and describe how planners can handle uncertainty based on the nature, level and location of uncertainty. We argue that a plural–unequivocal characterisation of uncertainty helps planners in their search for adequate and warranted interventions amid uncertainty.
    Handling uncertainty through adaptiveness in planning approaches : comparing adaptive delta management and the water diplomacy framework
    Zandvoort, M. ; Vlist, M.J. van der; Brink, A. van den - \ 2018
    Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 20 (2018)2. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 183 - 197.
    Adaptiveness - environmental planning - planning approaches - uncertainty - water management

    Planners and water managers seek to be adaptive to handle uncertainty through the use of planning approaches. In this paper, we study what type of adaptiveness is proposed and how this may be operationalized in planning approaches to adequately handle different uncertainties. We took a comparative case study approach to study two planning approaches: the water diplomacy framework (WDF) and adaptive delta management (ADM). We found that the approaches differ in their conceptualization of uncertainty and show that different types of adaptiveness are used in the approaches. While WDF builds on collaborative adaptive management as a set of ongoing adjustments and continuous learning to handle uncertainty, ADM deliberately attempts to anticipate future adaptations through a set of tools which allows for seizing opportunities and avoiding lock-in and lock-out mechanisms. We conclude that neither of the approaches is fully able to account for different uncertainties. Both approaches may benefit from specific insights in what uncertainty and adaptiveness entail for the development of water management plans.

    Does transition management merge with strategic spatial planning? : a theoretical evaluation applied to the introduction of the Multi-layer Safety Approach (MLSA) in the Netherlands
    Knaap, W.G.M. van der; Maouche, Joa ; Zandvoort, M. - \ 2017
    - 33 p.
    Transition management - strategic spatial planning - mulit-layer safety approach
    Planning amid uncertainty : Adaptiveness for spatial interventions in delta areas
    Zandvoort, Mark - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A. van den Brink, co-promotor(en): M.J. Vlist; F. Klijn. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437158 - 242
    physical planning - deltas - climatic change - risk management - uncertainty - ruimtelijke ordening - delta's - klimaatverandering - risicobeheersing - onzekerheid

    Planning for delta areas happens amid uncertainty, which may influence the location, type and form of interventions such as infrastructure, spatial strategies and design standards. Interventions, however, may fix the spatial configuration for decades, for which insight in the appropriate use of adaptiveness to account for uncertainty is essential. This thesis explores uncertainty and adaptiveness in spatial planning and studies their expression and empirical manifestation in planning approaches, planning tools and planning processes. Uncertainty’s characteristics are used to distill information about the (in)adequacy of specific interventions and are related to three domains of adaptiveness: adaptive management, adaptive capacity and adaptive planning. The thesis shows that while some uncertainties demand interventions aimed at ensuring the effectiveness of planning while anticipating future change, others require a focus on the planning process by the co-construction of knowledge, deliberating about values and increasing the adaptive capacity of actors and institutions.

    Adaptation pathways in planning for uncertain climate change : Applications in Portugal, the Czech Republic and the Netherlands
    Zandvoort, Mark ; Campos, Inês S. ; Vizinho, André ; Penha-Lopes, Gil ; Lorencová, Eliška Krkoška ; Brugge, Rutger van der; Vlist, Maarten J. van der; Brink, Adri van den; Jeuken, Ad B.M. - \ 2017
    Environmental Science & Policy 78 (2017). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 18 - 26.
    Adaptation pathways - Climate adaptation - Design choices - Planning tools - Policy-making - Uncertainty

    Adaptation pathways are developed to design adaptive policies to handle climate change uncertainty. Use of this tool varies across planning practices and adaptation challenges and adjusting the tool to particular practices can foster its adequate use. To gain insight into the use of adaptation pathways, we compared four initiatives (one each in Portugal and the Czech Republic and two in the Netherlands) with regard to design choices made. We found six design choices which need to be considered when adjusting adaptation pathways. Design choices about the geographic scale, inclusion of sectors, the generation and delineation of adaptation options, specification of possible pathways, the related performance metrics and the type of assessment are interdependent, but they are also influenced by contextual aspects. Analysis of the institutional diversity, planning culture and framing shows that the use of adaptation pathways is flexible enough to be adjusted for diverging planning practices. However, the tool is best suited to deliver local adaptation solutions, and adequate use depends on consensus about the adaptation problem, setting objective thresholds and determining uncertainty about future change. We conclude that understanding the customised use of tools for local planning practices is essential for adaptive policy design.

    DISCOVER: Development of Innovative Sustainable COVEring materials for Roofs
    Berg, W.J. van den; Zandvoort, F. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Blaauw, R. - \ 2016
    Roofing materials are high quality products with a long life-time, but are made mainly from fossil raw materials and its derivatives; like bituminous roofing based on the oil derivative bitumen, or synthetic membranes that are based on polymers stemming from the petroleum chemistry (Figure 1). The uncertainty of petroleum exploitation, the by consequence high fluctuations in price, as well as the CO2 footprint motivate us to look for alternative renewable raw materials. The target is to maintain the technical and functional characteristics.
    The replacement of hydraulic structures in light of tipping points
    Vlist, M.J. van der; Ligthart, S.S.H. ; Zandvoort, Mark - \ 2015
    Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)4. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 683 - 694.
    Adaptation - Decision-making - Infrastructure - Uncertainty - Water management

    In many delta areas hydraulic structures are key elements in water management strategies for fresh water supply and flood risk management. Adaptation of delta areas to changing climatological and societal conditions will be in pace with the renovation and replacement of these hydraulic structures. Since hydraulic structures are prone to deterioration, their performance diminishes over time. Changes in society, the economy, and the physical environment can also alter the functionality of structures, or have an impact on their performance. Although faced with deterioration and exogenous changes, timing of replacement is essential because replacing too early leads to insufficient use of invested capital, while replacing too late leads to loss of societal benefits. This article explores the timing of replacement using adaptation tipping points. We indicate three drivers – deterioration, biophysical change, and socio-economic change – that determine the moment in time when replacement becomes necessary. Moreover, we conclude that for determining the moment of replacement, at the very least, the objectives, maintenance and operations of hydraulic structures need to be taken into account. This exploration is illustrated with the task of replacing seven hydraulic structures in the River Meuse.

    Accumulation of recalcitrant xylan in mushroom-compost is due to a lack of xylan substituent removing enzyme activities of Agaricus bisporus
    Jurak, E. ; Patyshakuliyeva, A. ; Kapsokalyvas, D. ; Xing, L. ; Zandvoort, M.A.M.J. van; Vries, R.P. de; Gruppen, H. ; Kabel, M.A. - \ 2015
    Carbohydrate Polymers 132 (2015)5. - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 359 - 368.
    The ability of Agaricus bisporus to degrade xylan in wheat straw based compost during mushroom formation is unclear. In this paper, xylan was extracted from the compost with water, 1 M and 4 M alkali. Over the phases analyzed, the remaining xylan was increasingly substituted with (4-O-methyl-)glucuronic acid and arabinosyl residues, both one and two arabinosyl residues per xylosyl residue remained. In the 1 M and 4 M KOH soluble solids of spent compost, 33 and 49 out of 100 xylosyl residues, respectively, were substituted. The accumulation of glucuronic acid substituents matched with the analysis that the two A. bisporus genes encoding for a-glucuronidase activity (both GH115) were not expressed in the A. bisporus mycelium in the compost during fruiting. Also, in a maximum likelihood tree it was shown that it is not likely that A. bisporus possesses genes encoding for the activity to remove arabinose from xylosyl residues having two arabinosyl residues.
    Reactive versus anticipative adaptive management of Deltas: The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Rhine-Meuse Delta compared
    Vlieg, T.J. ; Zandvoort, M. - \ 2013
    Water Governance 2013 (2013)05-06. - ISSN 2211-0224 - p. 52 - 57.
    waterbeheer - onzekerheidsanalyse - risicobeheersing - governance - nederland - californië - vergelijkingen - water management - uncertainty analysis - risk management - governance - netherlands - california - comparisons
    In this paper Californian Adaptive Management (AM) and Dutch Adaptive Delta Management (ADM) are compared. The concepts are introduced in a policy context to deal with prevailing types of uncertainty in water management in the Californian Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Dutch Rhine-Meuse Delta respectively. While having the same objective, we show that adaptive management in these Deltas differs considerably, because the concepts address different uncertainties. Californian AM is primarily applied to ecosystem management while Dutch ADM is primarily developed for flood risk management and fresh water supply purposes. Californian AM is based on modeling the performance of different actions. It emphasizes that, once management actions are selected, formal and continuous learning is required to deal with uncertain effects and effectiveness of management actions. Thus it reacts on present states in a continuous fashion as adequately and flexible as possible. In contrary Dutch ADM anticipates on possible futures through projections of climate change and socio-economic circumstances. Different sets of measures to avoid or postpone projected problems are developed. In ADM uncertainty in projections is recognized, and possible rejection of projections over time is acknowledged. For climatic and socio-economic circumstances ADM aims to ensure that alternative adaptation pathways can still be opted. We argue that good Delta management should be based on long term projections, as in Dutch ADM, and scientific learning from implemented actions, as in Californian AM. A hybrid of both concepts can thus be created in order to strengthen adaptive management practice in the face of future uncertainty.
    Gemeenten Heemstede en Zandvoort: haal ambrosia weg uit tuin
    Vliet, Arnold van - \ 2013
    Bijzonder blauw oplichtende zee bij Katwijk en Zandvoort (interview met Han Lindeboom)
    Lindeboom, Han - \ 2012
    Report on Workshop setting nutrient : International workshop, Zandvoort 11-12 October 2007
    Evers, N. ; Boers, P. ; Portielje, R. ; Prins, T. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2007
    's-Hertogenbosch : Royal Haskoning - 20
    Trace Metals in Anaerobic Granular Sludge Reactors: Bioavailability and Dosing Strategies
    Zandvoort, M.H. ; Hullebusch, E.D. van; Gonzalez, F. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2006
    Engineering in Life Sciences 6 (2006)3. - ISSN 1618-0240 - p. 293 - 301.
    soluble microbial products - sulfate-reducing bacteria - methanobacterium-thermoautotrophicum - heavy-metals - methanol degradation - formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase - sequential extraction - waste-water - molybdenum requirement - cobalt sorption
    The trace metal dynamics in anaerobic granular sludge bed reactors and their influence on reactor performance is reviewed in this paper. An insight into the metal dynamics is required from a practical point of view in order to be able to early recognize limitations for essential trace elements, viz., to know when dosing of these elements is required in full-scale anaerobic bioreactor applications. Further such knowledge is indispensable for a rational dosage of these metals, e.g., to ensure maximum substrate conversion rates and to prevent disturbances in reactor performance using a minimum amount of metals. Therefore, the retention, accumulation and release of trace metals in anaerobic granular sludge and the factors affecting these processes need to be known
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