The social side of shame: approach versus withdrawal
Hooge, Ilona E. De; Breugelmans, Seger M. ; Wagemans, Fieke M.A. ; Zeelenberg, Marcel - \ 2018
Cognition and Emotion 32 (2018)8. - ISSN 0269-9931 - p. 1671 - 1677.
At present, the consequences and functions of experiences of shame are not yet well understood. Whereas psychology literature typically portrays shame as being bad for social relations, motivating social avoidance and withdrawal, there are recent indications that shame can be reinterpreted as having clear social tendencies in the form of motivating approach and social affiliation. Yet, until now, no research has ever put these alternative interpretations of shame-motivated behaviours directly to the test. The present paper presents such a test by studying the extent to which shame motivates a preference for social withdrawal versus a preference for social approach. Two studies (N=148 and N= 133) using different shame inductions both showed people experiencing shame to prefer to be together with others (social approach) over being alone (social withdrawal). In addition, the preference for a social situation was found to be unique for shame; it was not found for the closely related emotion of guilt. Taken together, these findings provide direct empirical support for the idea that shame can have positive interpersonal consequences.
Various ways for successful Cultivar introduction in the market
Nuijten, H.A.C.P. ; Zeelenberg, A. ; Janmaat, L. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. - \ 2015
Louis Bolk Instituut
marketing - marketingkanalen - appels - gevalsanalyse - cultivars - ziekteresistentie - fruitteelt - agro-industriële ketens - verbetering - biologische productie - biologische landbouw - marketing - marketing channels - apples - case studies - cultivars - disease resistance - fruit growing - agro-industrial chains - improvement - biological production - organic farming
In this brochure key obstacles and opportunities for market introduction of disease-resistant cultivars of apple and potato are described. Various solution pathways have been compared. The comparison focuses strongly on apple because many experiences have been gained with the introduction of scab resistant cultivars. Four solution pathways are described with four case studies.
When less sells more or less: The scarcity principle in wine choice
Herpen, E. van; Pieters, R. ; Zeelenberg, M. - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 36 (2014). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 153 - 160.
consumers - need - desirability - information - identity - quality - goods - price
When buying wine, consumers often need to infer unobservable characteristics of the wines that are available. Product scarcity in the store can signal that the quality of a wine is high, either because the product is deemed exclusive (when scarcity is supply-caused) or because the product is deemed popular (when scarcity is demand-caused). This “scarcity principle” has been observed in various contexts, and thus seems universal, but it is not. This study aims to show when scarcity of a specific wine increases consumer choice for this wine, and when it does not. Specifically, two experiments show that scarcity has little or no effect when consumers are less involved with the product category wine, that uniqueness goals can increase the effect of supply-caused scarcity on product choice, and that these uniqueness goals do not counteract the effect of demand-caused scarcity on choice. Thus, even consumers with a uniqueness goal respond positively to demand-caused scarcity. Moreover, the study shows that scarcity is effectively communicated not only through a verbal sales pitch but also through merely the visual display of the amount of shelf space provided for products and the amount of emptied shelf space as a signal of prior purchases. Keywords Involvement
Ain’t no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predicts effort and short-term weight loss
Vet, E. de; Nelissen, R.M.A. ; Zeelenberg, M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2013
Journal of Health Psychology 18 (2013)5. - ISSN 1359-1053 - p. 638 - 647.
Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. Hereto, 447 overweight and obese participants trying to lose weight completed two questionnaires with a 2-month interval. Many participants set goals that could be considered unrealistically high. However, higher weight loss goals did not predict dissatisfaction but predicted more effort in the weight loss attempt, as well as more self-reported short-term weight loss when baseline commitment and motivation were controlled for.
|Gedragsgevolgen van schaamte en schuld: Een nieuwe visie op de twee meest voorkomende sociale emoties
Hooge, I.E. de; Breugelmans, S.M. ; Zeelenberg, M. - \ 2012
Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie (2012). - ISSN 2211-9256 - p. 97 - 100.
|Een integratieve benadering van schaamte en gêne
Welten, S.C.M. ; Hooge, I.E. de; Breugelmans, S.M. ; Zeelenberg, M. - \ 2012
Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie (2012). - ISSN 2211-9256 - p. 245 - 250.
|Moral sentiments: A behavioral economics approach
Zeelenberg, M. ; Breugelmans, S.M. ; Hooge, I.E. de - \ 2012
In: Neuroscience and the Economics of Decision Making / Innocenti, A., Sirigu, A., London : Routledge (Routledge Advances in Experimental and Computable Economics ) - ISBN 9780415678438 - p. 73 - 85.
Anticipated emotions and effort allocation in weight goal striving
Nelissen, Rob M.A. ; Vet, Emely De; Zeelenberg, Marcel - \ 2011
British Journal of Health Psychology 16 (2011)1. - ISSN 1359-107X - p. 201 - 212.
Objective. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anticipated emotions on preventive health behaviour if specified at the level of behavioural outcomes. Consistent with predictions from a recently developed model of goal pursuit, we hypothesized that the impact of emotions on effort levels depended on the perceived proximity to the goal. Design. Participants with weight-loss intentions were randomly selected from an Internet panel and completed questionnaires at three points in time, baseline (T1; N= 725), 2 weeks later at T2 (N= 582) and again 2 months later at T3 (N= 528). Methods. Questionnaires assessed anticipated emotions (at T1) and experienced emotions (at T2) towards goal attainment and non-attainment. Goal proximity, goal desirability, and effort levels in striving for weight loss were assessed at both T1 and T2. Current and target weights were reported at all three assessments. Results. In line with predictions, we found that negative anticipated emotions towards goal non-attainment resulted in increased effort but only if people perceived themselves in close proximity to their goal. Effort, in turn, predicted weight loss and goal achievement. Conclusion. The current data bear important practical implications as they identify anticipated emotions as targets of behaviour change interventions aimed to stimulate effort in striving for broad, health-related goals like weight loss.
Self-conscious emotions and social functioning
Hooge, I.E. de; Zeelenberg, M. ; Breugelmans, S.M. - \ 2011
In: Emotion Regulation and Well-Being / Nyklicek, I., Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M., Zeelenberg, M., New York : Springer Publishers - ISBN 9781441969521 - p. 197 - 210.
Introduction Have you ever felt guilty about hurting a loved one, or been proud after achieving something that you always dreamed of? These emotions, but also embarrassment, shame, and hubris, are called self-conscious emotions. They are a special kind of emotions that cannot be described solely by examining facial movements (Darwin, 1872/1965) and that do not have clear, distinct elicitors (Lewis, 2000). Selfconscious emotions are cognitively complex and play a central role in the motivation and regulation of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (Baumeister, Stillwell, & Heatherton, 1994; Leith & Baumeister, 1998; Tangney & Fischer, 1995). Until now, most research concerning the relationship between self-conscious emotions and social behavior has focused on their anticipation affects of what people do (e.g., Gruenewald, Dickerson, & Kemeny, 2007; Keltner & Buswell, 1997; Tracy & Robins, 2004). The anticipation of negative self-conscious emotions such as shame or guilt can motivate avoidance of immoral or asocial behavior (I will not do that, otherwise I will feel ashamed), and the anticipation of positive self-conscious emotions such as pride can stimulate compliance with social and moral norms (If I do that, I will be proud of myself). Also, actual experiences of self-conscious emotions may exert an influence. For example, when people feel ashamed, they do certain things because of that (e.g., hide or try to appease). The aim of the present chapter is to shed some light on how experiences of self-conscious emotions are regulated and as such influence social behavior. We will start with a discussion concerning the definition of self-conscious emotions and how they differ from so-called basic emotions. Then the focus shifts to existing research concerning the influences of self-conscious emotions on moral and social behavior. We will discuss how these often-contrasting findings can be interpreted using an emotion-specific approach. Finally, two self-conscious emotions, namely shame and guilt will be highlighted. We will explain how our approach can clarify the contrasting, empirical findings concerning the influences of shame and guilt on behavior (e.g., Gilbert & Andrews, 1998; Lewis, 1971, 1992; Tangney & Dearing, 2002; Tangney & Fischer, 1995).
A functionalist account of shame induced behaviour
Hooge, I.E. de; Zeelenberg, M. ; Breugelmans, S.M. - \ 2011
Cognition and Emotion 25 (2011)5. - ISSN 0269-9931 - p. 939 - 946.
self-esteem - guilt - emotion
Recent research has shown that shame activates both a restore and a protect motive (De Hooge, Zeelenberg, & Breugelmans, 2010), explaining the hitherto unexpected finding that shame can lead to both approach and avoidance behaviours. In the present article we show a clear difference in priority and development of restore and protect motives over time. Our experiment reveals that shame mainly motivates approach behaviour to restore the damaged self, but that this restore motive decreases when situational factors make it too risky or difficult to restore. In contrast, the motive to protect one's damaged self from further harm is not influenced by such situational factors. As a consequence, the approach behaviour that shame activates may change over time. These findings add to our understanding of the motivational processes and behaviours following from shame.
What is moral about guilt? Acting 'prosocially' at the disadvantage of others
Hooge, I.E. de; Nelissen, R.M.A. ; Breugelmans, S.M. ; Zeelenberg, M. - \ 2011
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 100 (2011)3. - ISSN 0022-3514 - p. 462 - 473.
empathy-induced altruism - decision-making - shame - emotions - dilemma - anger - embarrassment - perspective - fairness - behavior
For centuries economists and psychologists have argued that the morality of moral emotions lies in the fact that they stimulate prosocial behavior and benefit others in a person’s social environment. Many studies have shown that guilt, arguably the most exemplary moral emotion, indeed motivates prosocial behavior in dyadic social dilemma situations. When multiple persons are involved, however, the moral and prosocial nature of this emotion can be questioned. The present article shows how guilt can have beneficial effects for the victim of one’s actions but also disadvantageous effects for other people in the social environment. A series of experiments, with various emotion inductions and dependent measures, all reveal that guilt motivates prosocial behavior toward the victim at the expense of others around—but not at the expense of oneself. These findings illustrate that a thorough understanding of the functioning of emotions is necessary to understand their moral nature. Keywords: moral emotions, guilt, interpersonal relationships, prosocial behavior, social dilemmas
Targeted delivery of TLR ligands to human and mouse dendritic cells strongly enhances adjuvanticity
Tacken, P.J. ; Zeelenberg, I.S. ; Cruz, L.J. ; Hout-Kuijer, M.A. ; Glind, G. van de; Fokkink, R.G. ; Lambeck, A.J.A. ; Figdor, C.G. - \ 2011
Blood : journal of the American Society of Hematology 118 (2011)26. - ISSN 0006-4971 - p. 6836 - 6844.
tumor-necrosis-factor - in-vivo - cross-presentation - polyribocytidylic acid - antigen presentation - t-cells - receptor - activation - responses - immunity
Effective vaccines consist of 2 components: immunodominant antigens and effective adjuvants. Whereas it has been demonstrated that targeted delivery of antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) improves vaccine efficacy, we report here that co-targeting of TLR ligands (TLRLs) to DCs strongly enhances adjuvanticity and immunity. We encapsulated ligands for intracellular TLRs within biodegradable nanoparticles coated with Abs recognizing DC-specific receptors. Targeted delivery of TLRLs to human DCs enhanced the maturation and production of immune stimulatory cytokines and the Ag-specific activation of naive CD8(+) T cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that nanoparticles carrying Ag induced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses at 100-fold lower adjuvant dose when TLRLs were co-encapsulated instead of administered in soluble form. Moreover, the efficacy of these targeted TLRLs reduced the serum cytokine storm and related toxicity that is associated with administration of soluble TLRLs. We conclude that the targeted delivery of adjuvants may improve the efficacy and safety of DC-based vaccines. (Blood.2011;118(26):6836-6844)
What is moral about moral emotions? Guilt elicits prosocial behavior as well as antisocial behavior
Hooge, I.E. de; Nelissen, R.M.A. ; Breugelmans, S.M. ; Zeelenberg, M. - \ 2010
Advances in Consumer Research 37 (2010). - ISSN 0098-9258 - p. 715 - 715.
EXTENDED ABSTRACT Moral emotions have been portrayed as the social mortar of human societies because these feelings encourage us to put the concerns of others above our own and to engage in prosocial behavior. The hallmark moral emotion is guilt, which is typically described as an “adaptive emotion, benefiting individuals and their relationships in a variety of ways” (Tangney, Stuewig, & Mashek, 2007, p. 26). However, is it really the case that moral emotions make the interest of others paramount, neglecting our self-interest? Guilt mostly arises from a moral transgression in which the actor has violated an important norm and has hurt another person. This elicits a preoccupation with the victim and the ensuing reparative action tendencies are aimed at restoring the relationship between transgressor and victim. This victim-oriented focus explains the often-replicated finding that guilty people contribute more of their endowments to others in comparison to non-guilty people. It is clear that in dyadic situations guilt produces behavior that benefits others. However, we have reason to believe that the very characteristics of guilt that make it beneficial to the victim in dyadic interactions have disadvantageous side effects for others in the social environment. In dyadic interactions the costs of acting prosocially come necessarily at the expense of oneself. But in daily life it is also possible to act prosocially at the cost of others. We think that the generosity towards the victim has disadvantageous consequences for the social environment. Precisely because guilt induces a preoccupation with restoring the harm to the victim, it simultaneously causes a neglect of others. Consequently, a guilty state may not evoke a disregard for personal concerns (as is often assumed) but rather a depreciation of the concerns of non-victimized others. We predict that when taking such a broader, more ecologically valid perspective, it will appear that people experiencing guilt are motivated to benefit the relationship with the victim, but at the best possible outcomes for themselves. Three experiments investigated if the experience of guilt induces prosocial behavior towards the victim at the expense of others rather than the self. In Experiment 1, participants reported a personal experience of feeling guilty (Guilt condition), or described a regular weekday (Control condition). They were asked to think of the person they felt guilty towards (guilt condition) or of a person they had met during the weekday (control condition). This person was labeled Person A. Participants then divided ¤50 between the birthday of Person A, the fundraising of the victims of a flood, and themselves. We found that Guilt participants offered more money to Person A than Control participants. At the same time, guilt participants offered less money to flood victims than Control participants. Guilt and Control participants did not differ in the amount they kept for themselves. Experiment 2 explored whether guilty people could also act disadvantageously towards known others. Participants were randomly assigned to the Guilt or Control condition and read a scenario. Next, they divided ¤50 between the birthday of the victim of the scenario, the birthday of another friend, and themselves. Results showed that Guilt participants offered more money to the victim than Control participants, and offered less money to the third party. Participants did not differ in the amount they kept for themselves. Thus, even when the social surrounding consists of family and friends, the costs of compensatory behavior befall those other people rather than oneself. Experiment 3 tested our assumption that the preoccupation with the victim that characterizes guilt causes disadvantageous side effects for the social environment. This entails that no effects should be found in situations where the victim is not present, which was tested by adding a condition where the victim was not present. Participants were randomly assigned to the conditions of a 2 (Emotion condition: Guilt vs. Control) × 2 (Victim Presence: Victim-present vs. Victim-not-present) design. They were told that during the lab-session they could earn lottery tickets for a lottery. The session started with two rounds of a performance task, ostensibly with another participant. In the first round they could earn 8 lottery tickets for themselves, in the second round 8 tickets for the other player. After the first round, all participants received feedback that they earned the bonus. After the second round, the other player in the Guilt condition did not receive the bonus due to the participant’s bad performance. In the Control condition, the other player received the bonus. Participants continued with a three persondictator game, either with the player from the performance task (Victim-present condition) or with a participant who knew nothing about the performance task (Victim-not-present condition). In all conditions the third player was a participant who knew nothing about the letter task. As the dependent variable, the participant divided twelve lottery tickets among the three players. We found that participants in the Victim-present Guilt condition offered significantly more to the victim than participants in the Victim-present Control condition, and than participants in the Victim-not-present Guilt condition. They also offered significantly less to the third player than participants in the Victim-present Control condition, and than participants in the Victim-not-present Guilt condition. Higher offers to the victim did not come at personal expense: all conditions did not differ in tickets kept for oneself. In summary, it appears that guilt, the hallmark moral emotion, can motivate behaviors that do not fit the predicate moral. When people experience guilt, they are preoccupied with repairing the harm done to the victim, leading to disadvantageous effects for others in their social environment. This suggests that the view of moral emotions as (unconditionally) beneficial for others should be rephrased. Moral emotions do not make the interest of others in general paramount, but rather motivate a selective focus on the interests of the wronged other while not forgetting self-interest. This indicates that a thorough understanding of functioning of moral emotions is necessary to fully understand their influence on consumer behavior.
Restore and protect motivations following shame
Hooge, I.E. de; Zeelenberg, M. ; Breugelmans, S.M. - \ 2010
Cognition and Emotion 24 (2010)1. - ISSN 0269-9931 - p. 111 - 127.
planned behavior - guilt - emotion - embarrassment - proneness - psychopathology - phenomenology - appeasement - model
Shame has been found to promote both approach and withdrawal behaviours. Shame theories have not been able to explain how shame can promote such contrasting behaviours. In the present article, the authors provide an explanation for this. Shame was hypothesised to activate approach behaviours to restore the threatened self, and in situations when this is not possible or too risky, to activate withdrawal behaviours to protect the self from further damage. Five studies with different shame inductions and different dependent measures confirmed our predictions. We therefore showed that different behavioural responses to shame can be understood in terms of restore and protect motives. Implications for theory and behavioural research on shame are discussed.
Voorkomen van insecten in verwerkte spinazie
Broek, R.C.F.M. van den; Groen, J. ; Zeelenberg, A. - \ 2010
BioKennis nieuws 2010 (2010)28-09-2010.
Reeuwijk, P. van; Leeuwen, M.A.E. van; Balen, D.J.M. van; Zeelenberg, A. ; Veer, J. de - \ 2010
Noord-Hollands koolbedrijf van 28 ha op kleigrond
Leeuwen, M.A.E. van; Reeuwijk, P. van; Balen, D.J.M. van; Zeelenberg, A. - \ 2010
WWW.biologisch ondernemen 2010 (2010)12-05-2010. - p. 1 - 13.
biologische landbouw - koolsoorten - conversie - vollegrondsteelt - organic farming - cabbages - conversion - outdoor cropping
Met deze voorbeeldberekening wordt aan de oriënterende ondernemer inzicht gegeven in de financiële verandering tijdens en na het omschakelen naar een biologische bedrijfsvoering. In dit voorbeeld gaat het om een gespecialiseerd (sluit)koolbedrijf met een bedrijfsgrootte van 18 hectare eigen grond en daarnaast nog 10 hectare huurland voor de koolteelt. Door de flexibiliteit van huurland en het hanteren van een 'slim en kort omschakeltraject' komt het bouwplansaldo alleen in het eerste omschakeljaar iets lager uit dan in de gangbare situatie.
When demand accelerates demand: Trailing the bandwagon
Herpen, E. van; Pieters, F.G.M. ; Zeelenberg, M. - \ 2009
Journal of Consumer Psychology 19 (2009)3. - ISSN 1057-7408 - p. 302 - 312.
social-influence - herd behavior - consumer - product - scarcity - need - self - restrictions - information - conformity
Consumers generally prefer scarce products, which has been related to their exclusiveness. Currently scarce products, however, are not necessarily exclusive, but could be scarce because many other consumers previously bought them. We propose that consumers also prefer scarce products in this situation, which an appeal to uniqueness cannot explain. Three experiments support our predictions and reveal that scarcity effects even occur when consumers only see traces of others' behavior through emptied shelf space. Furthermore, this bandwagon effect disappears when uniqueness is threatened due to others in close spatial distance. .
BIO-IMPULS: innovatie in de biologische aardappelketen
Tiemens-Hulscher, M. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Sukkel, W. ; Zeelenberg, A. ; Brinks, H. - \ 2009
BioKennis bericht Akkerbouw & vollegrondsgroenten 2009 (2009)25. - 4
biologische landbouw - aardappelen - innovaties - phytophthora infestans - rassen (planten) - akkerbouw - ketenmanagement - biologische plantenveredeling - resistentieveredeling - organic farming - potatoes - innovations - phytophthora infestans - varieties - arable farming - supply chain management - organic plant breeding - resistance breeding
In 2008 is het project BIO-IMPULS gestart om de biologische aardappelteelt in Nederland te verbeteren. BIO-IMPULS richt zich op innovaties in de gehele aardappelketen, van veredeling, teeltoptimalisatie (gewasbescherming, teeltvervroeging, bemesting, oogst en bewaring) en de markintroductie van nieuwe rassen en producten tot voorlichting en kennisoverdracht
|Schuld motiveert “prosociaal” gedrag ten nadele van derden
Hooge, I.E. de; Nelissen, R.M.A. ; Breugelmans, S.M. ; Zeelenberg, M. - \ 2008
Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie (2008). - ISSN 2211-9256 - p. 145 - 156.