Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Characterizing the changes of bovine milk serum proteins after simulated industrial processing
    Liu, Yaowei ; Zhang, Wenjin ; Zhang, Lina ; Hettinga, Kasper ; Zhou, Peng - \ 2020
    Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 133 (2020). - ISSN 0023-6438
    ELISA - Lactoferrin - LC-MS/MS - Proteomics - Thermal treatments

    This study investigated the changes and lactose glycosylation of milk serum proteins under simulated industrial processing conditions, including raw milk (R), holder pasteurization (L), high temperature short time pasteurization (H), extended shelf life (E), ultra-high temperature sterilization (U) and spray-drying (S). Through label-free proteomics, 433 proteins were identified in the samples. Several immune-related proteins, such as lactoferrin, complement C3, lactadherin, cystain, and lactoperoxidase, decreased in abundance after severe thermal treatments, while the abundance of caseins increased. No immunoglobulins and xanthine oxidase could be detected in milk after E, U or S treatments while 30%–60% of immunoglobulins was retained after pasteurizations. In detail, lactoferrin showed a better retention in H treatment while IgG showed a better retention in L treatment. UPLC-MS results showed that a slight lactose glycosylation occurred to α-LA and β-LG after severe thermal treatments (E, U and S). In addition, the results of LC-MS/MS based proteomics were verified by determining the lactoferrin and IgG content using ELISA. The observations here would update current information on the changes of milk proteins during traditional thermal processing and help to optimize current dairy processing.

    Phosphorus acquisition and yield gain in intercropping: empirical studies and meta-analyses
    Li, Chunjie - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E. Hoffland; Th.W. Kuyper, co-promotor(en): W. van der Werf; F.S. Zhang. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463954778 - 213
    Intercropping enables a sustainable intensification of agriculture
    Werf, Wopke van der; Li, Chunjie ; Cong, Wen Feng ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2020
    Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering 7 (2020)3. - ISSN 2095-7505 - p. 254 - 256.
    Structural basis for diamide modulation of ryanodine receptor
    Ma, Ruifang ; Haji-Ghassemi, Omid ; Ma, Dan ; Jiang, Heng ; Lin, Lianyun ; Yao, Li ; Samurkas, Arthur ; Li, Yuxin ; Wang, Yiwen ; Cao, Peng ; Wu, Shian ; Zhang, Yan ; Murayama, Takashi ; Moussian, Bernard ; Petegem, Filip Van; Yuchi, Zhiguang - \ 2020
    Nature Chemical Biology (2020). - ISSN 1552-4450

    The diamide insecticide class is one of the top-selling insecticides globally. They are used to control a wide range of pests by targeting their ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Here, we report the highest-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of RyR1 in the open state, in complex with the anthranilic diamide chlorantraniliprole (CHL). The 3.2-Å local resolution map facilitates unambiguous assignment of the CHL binding site. The molecule induces a conformational change by affecting the S4–S5 linker, triggering channel opening. The binding site is further corroborated by mutagenesis data, which reveal how diamide insecticides are selective to the Lepidoptera group of insects over honeybee or mammalian RyRs. Our data reveal that several pests have developed resistance via two mechanisms, steric hindrance and loss of contact. Our results provide a foundation for the development of highly selective pesticides aimed at overcoming resistance and therapeutic molecules to treat human myopathies. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

    Feature-based molecular networking in the GNPS analysis environment
    Nothias, Louis Félix ; Petras, Daniel ; Schmid, Robin ; Dührkop, Kai ; Rainer, Johannes ; Sarvepalli, Abinesh ; Protsyuk, Ivan ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Tsugawa, Hiroshi ; Fleischauer, Markus ; Aicheler, Fabian ; Aksenov, Alexander A. ; Alka, Oliver ; Allard, Pierre Marie ; Barsch, Aiko ; Cachet, Xavier ; Caraballo-Rodriguez, Andres Mauricio ; Silva, Ricardo R. Da; Dang, Tam ; Garg, Neha ; Gauglitz, Julia M. ; Gurevich, Alexey ; Isaac, Giorgis ; Jarmusch, Alan K. ; Kameník, Zdeněk ; Kang, Kyo Bin ; Kessler, Nikolas ; Koester, Irina ; Korf, Ansgar ; Gouellec, Audrey Le; Ludwig, Marcus ; Martin H, Christian ; McCall, Laura Isobel ; McSayles, Jonathan ; Meyer, Sven W. ; Mohimani, Hosein ; Morsy, Mustafa ; Moyne, Oriane ; Neumann, Steffen ; Neuweger, Heiko ; Nguyen, Ngoc Hung ; Nothias-Esposito, Melissa ; Paolini, Julien ; Phelan, Vanessa V. ; Pluskal, Tomáš ; Quinn, Robert A. ; Rogers, Simon ; Shrestha, Bindesh ; Tripathi, Anupriya ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Vargas, Fernando ; Weldon, Kelly C. ; Witting, Michael ; Yang, Heejung ; Zhang, Zheng ; Zubeil, Florian ; Kohlbacher, Oliver ; Böcker, Sebastian ; Alexandrov, Theodore ; Bandeira, Nuno ; Wang, Mingxun ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. - \ 2020
    Nature Methods : techniques for life scientists and chemists 17 (2020)9. - ISSN 1548-7091 - p. 905 - 908.

    Molecular networking has become a key method to visualize and annotate the chemical space in non-targeted mass spectrometry data. We present feature-based molecular networking (FBMN) as an analysis method in the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) infrastructure that builds on chromatographic feature detection and alignment tools. FBMN enables quantitative analysis and resolution of isomers, including from ion mobility spectrometry.

    Height-diameter allometric relationships for seedlings and trees across China
    Zhang, Wei Ping ; Zhao, Lei ; Larjavaara, Markku ; Morris, E.C. ; Sterck, Frank J. ; Wang, Gen Xuan - \ 2020
    Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology 108 (2020). - ISSN 1146-609X
    Allometric exponent - Canopy species - Gymnosperm - Scaling relationships - Seedling - Understory species

    Height–diameter allometric (H-D) relationships play an important role in the light capture and stability of a tree, and it is poorly understood whether the relationships changes with growth stages or functional groups along a large scale environmental gradients. We present a comparative study of H-D relationships of 6810 seedlings and 19,707 trees from about 1000 species in 9 different sites across China. We showed that allometric exponents for seedlings and trees differ between different sites and do not represent a single, constant theoretical value (e.g. 2/3, 1/2 or 1). Seedlings had greater exponents than trees in most sites. The exponents varied between canopy and understory trees in 5 sites, while were indistinguishable from each other in the remaining 4 sites. Canopy-tree seedlings had smaller exponents than understory-tree seedlings in 3 sites but had indistinguishable exponents in the other 6 sites. Gymnosperm trees had exponents greater than or indistinguishable from angiosperm trees. Elevation alone, or together with mean temperature of the warmest month explained variation of tree allometries for canopy-tree and understory-tree seedlings. The exponents of canopy trees decreased with mean annual precipitation. Our results do not support the predictions from metabolic scaling theory or biomechanical models that height–diameter allometries are invariant. Our study provides insight into how ontogeny, adult stature, phyletic affiliations and environmental limitations affect height–diameter allometric relationships at biogeographical scales.

    Pantothenic acid requirement of male White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age
    Tang, J. ; Zhang, B. ; Xue, M. ; Shi, W.B. ; Wu, Y.B. ; Feng, Y.L. ; Huang, W. ; Zhou, Z.K. ; Xie, M. ; Hou, S.S. - \ 2020
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 269 (2020). - ISSN 0377-8401
    Duck - Growth performance - Pantothenic acid - Requirement

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary pantothenic acid levels on growth performance, carcass traits, and pantothenic acid status of male White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age, and to evaluate the requirement of this B-vitamin for starter ducks. Different levels pantothenic acid (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 20 mg/kg) were supplemented to corn-soy isolate protein basal diet to produce 7 dietary treatments with different analyzed total pantothenic acid levels (4.65, 6.80, 8.39, 9.98, 12.04, 13.70, and 22.50 mg/kg). A total of 448 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks were allotted to 7 dietary treatments with 8 replicate pens of 8 birds per pen. At 21 days of age, body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), gain to feed ratio (G/F), liver pantothenic acid content, as well as percentage yield of breast meat, leg meat, and abdominal fat were examined. The growth depression, exudate on eyelids, dermatosis, poor feathering, and 100 % of mortality were observed in the ducks fed the basal diet without pantothenic acid supplementation, and these adverse effects were ameliorated by pantothenic acid supplementation. The starter ducks on the diet containing 6.80 mg/kg of pantothenic acid had a lower parameter profile of body weight, ADG, ADFI, G/F, breast meat yield, abdominal fat yield, and liver pantothenic acid content compared to the birds fed the diets with higher levels of pantothenic acid (P < 0.05). And these criteria showed a linear or quadratic response to increasing dietary pantothenic acid levels (P < 0.05). The pantothenic acid requirements (based on dietary total pantothenic acid) of starter male White Pekin ducks for body weight, ADG, ADFI, G/F, and liver pantothenic acid content were 8.95, 8.95, 8.59, 9.56, and 10.22 mg/kg based on broken-line regression, while were 10.04, 10.05, 9.18, 11.01, and 11.24 mg/kg based on quadratic broken-line regression, respectively.

    Short communication: Short-time freezing does not alter the sensory properties or the physical stability of ultra-high-temperature hydrolyzed-lactose milk
    Bottiroli, R. ; Zhang, C. ; Aprea, E. ; Fogliano, V. ; Hettinga, K. ; Gasperi, F. - \ 2020
    Journal of Dairy Science (2020). - ISSN 0022-0302
    aroma compound - freezing - hydrolyzed-lactose milk - physical stability - sensory property

    In this study, the effect of milk freezing was studied, focusing on the changes in 1% and 3% fat UHT hydrolyzed-lactose milk after slow- (−20°C) and fast-rate freezing (−80°C) for 72 h. Changes on the sensory properties were first assessed by discriminant analysis (triangle test), and then by volatile organic compounds and color analysis. The milk emulsion stability was characterized by optical centrifugation, particle size analysis, and confocal microscopy. The sensory panel was not able to distinguish the milk subjected to freezing from the control (72 h at 20°C). The volatile organic compounds and color analysis demonstrated that both freezing rates did not cause any significant changes in the milk aroma or color characteristics. The results of physical properties confirmed that short-time freezing did not lead to a distinct destabilization, except for a slight increase in the mean particle diameter at −80°C. Taking all the results together, UHT hydrolyzed-lactose milk was not significantly altered during the operation of freezing and thawing and, therefore, short-time freezing at both −20°C and −80°C can be used for milk storage without altering the product.

    Modelling urban meteorology with increasing refinements for the complex morphology of a typical Chinese city (Xi'an)
    Zhang, Xi ; Steeneveld, Gert Jan ; Zhou, Dian ; Ronda, Reinder J. ; Duan, Chengjiang ; Koopmans, Sytse ; Holtslag, Albert A.M. - \ 2020
    Building and Environment 182 (2020). - ISSN 0360-1323
    National urban database and access portal tool (NUDAPT) approach - Single-layer urban canopy model (SLUCM) - Urban canopy parameters (UCPs) - Urban heat island (UHI) - Weather research and forecasting model (WRF)

    Urban areas are vulnerable to intensive heatwave periods. In order to understand heat stress in cities, the single-layer urban canopy model (SLUCM) coupled with the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) have been widely used to quantify and forecast the urban climate. However, the model performance in WRF/SLUCM is limited by the coarse classification of urban canopy parameters (UCPs), and further improvements may require great effort. Therefore, this study was a new attempt at organizing the gridded UCPs in the ‘National Urban Database and Access Portal Tool (NUDAPT) approach’ and exploring its application in the WRF/SLUCM model in four simulations with contrasting UCP configurations. The model performances were evaluated for a heatwave period in 2018 in the typical Chinese city of Xi'an, using a near-surface observational network consisting of 39 meteorological stations in various urban spatial categories. We found that the increased accuracy in UCPs brought about gradual and overall improvements in the urban heat island effect (UHI) and air temperature (Ta), and had relatively slight effects on absolute humidity (ρν) and wind speed (WP). Furthermore, the station-to-station bias analyses indicated that optimization efficiency varied among urban spatial categories. Areas with an open form or areas densely covered with vegetation showed constant sensitivity to the increasing refinements of UCPs. Input of the gridded and multi-dimensional descriptions of urban canyon geometry contributed to more accurate results in dense urban areas and areas with mixed and inhomogeneous morphology.

    Assessing the combined toxicity effects of three neonicotinoid pesticide mixtures on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and lepidopteran Sf-9 cells
    Cheng, Lin ; Lu, Yangyang ; Zhao, Zhihui ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Zhang, Qicai ; Liu, Xing ; Song, Wei ; Guan, Shuhui ; Song, Weiguo ; Rao, Qinxiong - \ 2020
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 145 (2020). - ISSN 0278-6915
    Combined toxicity - Human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH - Lepidopteran (Spodoptera frugiperda) cell line Sf-9 - Mixtures - Neonicotinoid pesticides

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used in plant protection against pests worldwide. Generally, more than one neonicotinoids are detected in plants and foods, and such mixtures may show combined toxicity and increase the risk for both insects and higher organisms. In this study, the combined toxicity of imidacloprid (IM), acetamiprid (AC) and thiamethoxam (TH) was investigated using human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH) and lepidopteran cell line (Sf-9). Results showed that binary and ternary mixtures could enhance the inhibition of growth of both SK-N-SH and Sf-9 cells at low doses. In SK-N-SH cells, based on CompuSyn software analysis, all the mixtures of IM+AC, IM+TH, AC+TH and IM+AC+TH showed synergistic effects at concentrations < 50 mg/L, but IM+AC, IM+TH showed antagonistic effects at higher concentrations. For Sf-9 cells, all mixtures revealed synergistic effects at low concentrations (< 0.1 mg/L) except IM+AC, showing antagonism at higher concentrations (> 0.5 mg/L). The toxicity thresholds of mixtures denoted by BMDL10 values were all lower than those for single pesticides and the combined BMDL10 value of AC+TH was the lowest one. It is concluded that the co-occurrence of several neonicotinoid insecticides may enhance their toxicity and aggravate the health risk for both insects and human.

    Novel advances in biotransformation and bioactivation research-2019 year in review
    Khojasteh, S.C. ; Driscoll, James P. ; Jackson, Klarissa D. ; Miller, Grover P. ; Mitra, Kaushik ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Zhang, Donglu - \ 2020
    Drug Metabolism Reviews 52 (2020)3. - ISSN 0360-2532 - p. 333 - 365.
    Biotransformation; bioactivation; reaction mechanism

    Biotransformation is one of the main mechanisms used by the body to eliminate drugs. As drug molecules become more complicated, the involvement of drug metabolizing enzymes increases beyond those that are typically studied, such as the cytochrome P450 enzymes. In this review, we try to capture the many outstanding articles that were published in the past year in the field of biotransformation (see Table 1). We have divided the articles into two categories of (1) metabolites and drug metabolizing enzymes, and (2) bioactivation and safety.  This annual review is the fifth of its kind since 2016 (Baillie et al. 2016; Khojasteh et al. 2017, 2018, 2019). This effort in itself also continues to evolve. We have followed the same format we used in previous years in terms of the selection of articles and the authoring of each section. I am pleased of the continued support of Rietjens, Miller, Zhang, Driscoll and Mitra to this review. We would like to welcome Klarissa D. Jackson as a new author for this year's issue. We strive to maintain a balance of authors from academic and industry settings.  We would be pleased to hear your opinions of our commentary, and we extend an invitation to anyone who would like to contribute to a future edition of this review. Cyrus Khojasteh, on behalf of the authors.

    A soil colour map of China
    Liu, Feng ; Rossiter, David G. ; Zhang, Gan-Lin ; Li, De-Cheng - \ 2020
    Geoderma 379 (2020). - ISSN 0016-7061
    Colour space - Digital soil mapping - Predictive soil mapping

    Soil colour can indicate soil physical, chemical and biological properties and processes, and is an important indicator for soil classification, soil quality evaluation and soil management. It varies in both horizontal and vertical dimensions, and thus regional maps of soil colour can reveal spatial patterns of these properties, processes, and indicators. However, although soil regions are sometimes named for their dominant soil colour, it is directly measured only at “point” support, i.e., during soil profile description, whereas it is desirable to know soil colour over the entire soilscape. To achieve this for China we used predictive soil mapping methods to produce soil colour maps (dry and moist colours) at 1 km2 grid cell size and over multiple depths from a consistent dataset of approximately 4 600 full profile descriptions taken as part of a national survey to define soil series in Chinese Soil Taxonomy, and a set of environmental covariates covering the national territory. The covariates characterized soil forming factors including climate, parent materials, terrain, vegetation, land surface water and thermal conditions. Soil colour descriptions in the Munsell system were extracted from the genetic horizon descriptions at the selected depths and converted to the sRGB and L*a*b* colour spaces. Dry and moist colour separates were not well-correlated in either space (r<0.76). Random forest models were constructed in both spaces, for dry and moist colours separately. Models in sRGB space were moderately successful (R2≈0.43,RMSE≈26/255) at 5 cm, with success decreasing with depth. Models smoothed the colour space and thus did not predict the more extreme values or chromas, nor the rarer hues. Models in L*a*b* space were less successful. The fitted sRGB models were used to produce predictive maps over all of China. Regional patterns as well as local detail are clearly shown. Solar radiation, wind exposure, regolith thickness, and Landsat TM bands 7 and 5 contributed most to the predictions, followed by elevation, mean annual precipitation, terrain wetness index, air temperature seasonality, precipitation standard deviation and standard deviation of NDVI. These suggest pedological processes acting on the development of soil colours, including weathering of parent materials, oxidation-reduction chemistry and biochemistry of the decomposing of organic matter. This study shows that predictive methods from points using suitable covariates are an alternative to spatial predictions over map units from their representative profiles.

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin accumulation among 129 wheat cultivars from different ecological regions in China
    Yan, Z. ; Zhang, H. ; Lee, T.A.J. Van Der; Waalwijk, C. ; Diepeningen, A.D. Van; Deng, Y. ; Feng, J. ; Liu, T. ; Chen, W. - \ 2020
    World Mycotoxin Journal 13 (2020)2. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 189 - 199.
    Disease index - Fusarium head blight - Resistance - Toxin - Wheat

    A total of 129 wheat cultivars collected from local breeders in four ecological regions in China was evaluated for Fusarium head blight resistance after natural infection under epidemic conditions. The disease index was scored and seven toxins concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The disease index ranged from 6.3 to 80.9% and a strong correlation was found between the regions from which the cultivars originate and disease index. The middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River Region showed the highest disease resistance, followed by the upper reaches of the Yangtze River Region. FHB resistance of cultivars from northern and southern Huanghuai Region was lowest and all cultivars in these regions are highly or moderately susceptible. Disease index was significantly correlated with toxin accumulation on nation scale, but no clear correlation was found within most ecological regions. The toxin accumulation was also not well correlated with resistant levels. As the incidence of FHB has increased dramatically over the last decade, improved FHB resistance in cultivars is urgently needed. We recommend that besides scoring for disease index also mycotoxin accumulation in cultivars is incorporated in breeding procedures and the evaluation of cultivars.

    The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data
    Pastorello, Gilberto ; Trotta, Carlo ; Canfora, Eleonora ; Chu, Housen ; Christianson, Danielle ; Cheah, You Wei ; Poindexter, Cristina ; Chen, Jiquan ; Elbashandy, Abdelrahman ; Humphrey, Marty ; Isaac, Peter ; Polidori, Diego ; Ribeca, Alessio ; Ingen, Catharine van; Zhang, Leiming ; Amiro, Brian ; Ammann, Christof ; Arain, M.A. ; Ardö, Jonas ; Arkebauer, Timothy ; Arndt, Stefan K. ; Arriga, Nicola ; Aubinet, Marc ; Aurela, Mika ; Baldocchi, Dennis ; Barr, Alan ; Beamesderfer, Eric ; Marchesini, Luca Belelli ; Bergeron, Onil ; Beringer, Jason ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Berveiller, Daniel ; Billesbach, Dave ; Black, Thomas Andrew ; Blanken, Peter D. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Boike, Julia ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Bonal, Damien ; Bonnefond, Jean Marc ; Bowling, David R. ; Bracho, Rosvel ; Brodeur, Jason ; Brümmer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Burban, Benoit ; Burns, Sean P. ; Buysse, Pauline ; Cale, Peter ; Cavagna, Mauro ; Cellier, Pierre ; Chen, Shiping ; Chini, Isaac ; Christensen, Torben R. ; Cleverly, James ; Collalti, Alessio ; Consalvo, Claudia ; Cook, Bruce D. ; Cook, David ; Coursolle, Carole ; Cremonese, Edoardo ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Andrea, Ettore D'; Rocha, Humberto da; Dai, Xiaoqin ; Davis, Kenneth J. ; Cinti, Bruno De; Grandcourt, Agnes de; Ligne, Anne De; Oliveira, Raimundo C. De; Delpierre, Nicolas ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Bella, Carlos Marcelo Di; Tommasi, Paul di; Dolman, Han ; Domingo, Francisco ; Dong, Gang ; Dore, Sabina ; Duce, Pierpaolo ; Dufrêne, Eric ; Dunn, Allison ; Dušek, Jiří ; Eamus, Derek ; Eichelmann, Uwe ; ElKhidir, Hatim Abdalla M. ; Eugster, Werner ; Ewenz, Cacilia M. ; Ewers, Brent ; Famulari, Daniela ; Fares, Silvano ; Feigenwinter, Iris ; Feitz, Andrew ; Fensholt, Rasmus ; Filippa, Gianluca ; Fischer, Marc ; Frank, John ; Galvagno, Marta ; Gharun, Mana ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Gielen, Bert ; Gioli, Beniamino ; Gitelson, Anatoly ; Goded, Ignacio ; Goeckede, Mathias ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Gough, Christopher M. ; Goulden, Michael L. ; Graf, Alexander ; Griebel, Anne ; Gruening, Carsten ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Hammerle, Albin ; Han, Shijie ; Han, Xingguo ; Hansen, Birger Ulf ; Hanson, Chad ; Hatakka, Juha ; He, Yongtao ; Hehn, Markus ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Hinko-Najera, Nina ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Hutley, Lindsay ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Ikawa, Hiroki ; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin ; Janouš, Dalibor ; Jans, Wilma ; Jassal, Rachhpal ; Jiang, Shicheng ; Kato, Tomomichi ; Khomik, Myroslava ; Klatt, Janina ; Knohl, Alexander ; Knox, Sara ; Kobayashi, Hideki ; Koerber, Georgia ; Kolle, Olaf ; Kosugi, Yoshiko ; Kotani, Ayumi ; Kowalski, Andrew ; Kruijt, Bart ; Kurbatova, Julia ; Kutsch, Werner L. ; Kwon, Hyojung ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Laurila, Tuomas ; Law, Bev ; Leuning, Ray ; Li, Yingnian ; Liddell, Michael ; Limousin, Jean Marc ; Lion, Marryanna ; Liska, Adam J. ; Lohila, Annalea ; López-Ballesteros, Ana ; López-Blanco, Efrén ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Loustau, Denis ; Lucas-Moffat, Antje ; Lüers, Johannes ; Ma, Siyan ; Macfarlane, Craig ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Maier, Regine ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Manca, Giovanni ; Marcolla, Barbara ; Margolis, Hank A. ; Marras, Serena ; Massman, William ; Mastepanov, Mikhail ; Matamala, Roser ; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala ; Mazzenga, Francesco ; McCaughey, Harry ; McHugh, Ian ; McMillan, Andrew M.S. ; Merbold, Lutz ; Meyer, Wayne ; Meyers, Tilden ; Miller, Scott D. ; Minerbi, Stefano ; Moderow, Uta ; Monson, Russell K. ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Moore, Caitlin E. ; Moors, Eddy ; Moreaux, Virginie ; Moureaux, Christine ; Munger, J.W. ; Nakai, Taro ; Neirynck, Johan ; Nesic, Zoran ; Nicolini, Giacomo ; Noormets, Asko ; Northwood, Matthew ; Nosetto, Marcelo ; Nouvellon, Yann ; Novick, Kimberly ; Oechel, Walter ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Ourcival, Jean Marc ; Papuga, Shirley A. ; Parmentier, Frans Jan ; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie ; Pavelka, Marian ; Peichl, Matthias ; Pendall, Elise ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Pirk, Norbert ; Posse, Gabriela ; Powell, Thomas ; Prasse, Heiko ; Prober, Suzanne M. ; Rambal, Serge ; Rannik, Üllar ; Raz-Yaseef, Naama ; Reed, David ; Dios, Victor Resco de; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia ; Reverter, Borja R. ; Roland, Marilyn ; Sabbatini, Simone ; Sachs, Torsten ; Saleska, Scott R. ; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P. ; Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia M. ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Schmidt, Marius ; Schneider, Karl ; Schrader, Frederik ; Schroder, Ivan ; Scott, Russell L. ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Serrano-Ortíz, Penélope ; Shao, Changliang ; Shi, Peili ; Shironya, Ivan ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Silberstein, Richard ; Sirca, Costantino ; Spano, Donatella ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Stevens, Robert M. ; Sturtevant, Cove ; Suyker, Andy ; Tagesson, Torbern ; Takanashi, Satoru ; Tang, Yanhong ; Tapper, Nigel ; Thom, Jonathan ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Tomassucci, Michele ; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka ; Urbanski, Shawn ; Valentini, Riccardo ; Molen, Michiel van der; Gorsel, Eva van; Huissteden, Ko van; Varlagin, Andrej ; Verfaillie, Joseph ; Vesala, Timo ; Vincke, Caroline ; Vitale, Domenico ; Vygodskaya, Natalia ; Walker, Jeffrey P. ; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth ; Wang, Huimin ; Weber, Robin ; Westermann, Sebastian ; Wille, Christian ; Wofsy, Steven ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Woodgate, William ; Li, Yuelin ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Zhang, Junhui ; Zhou, Guoyi ; Zona, Donatella ; Agarwal, Deb ; Biraud, Sebastien ; Torn, Margaret ; Papale, Dario - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463 - 1 p.

    The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.

    Characteristics of circular rna expression profiles of porcine granulosa cells in healthy and atretic antral follicles
    Meng, Li ; Teerds, Katja ; Tao, Jian ; Wei, Hengxi ; Jaklofsky, Marcel ; Zhao, Zhihong ; Liang, Yaodi ; Li, Li ; Wang, Chi Chiu ; Zhang, Shouquan - \ 2020
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21 (2020)15. - ISSN 1661-6596 - p. 1 - 25.
    Antral follicular atresia - CircRNA expression profiles - Granulosa cell apoptosis

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are thought to play essential roles in multiple biological processes, including apoptosis, an important process in antral follicle atresia. We aimed to investigate the potential involvement of circRNAs in granulosa cell apoptosis and thus antral follicle atresia. CircRNA expression profiles were generated from porcine granulosa cells isolated from healthy antral (HA) and atretic antral (AA) follicles. Over 9632 circRNAs were identified, of which 62 circRNAs were differentially expressed (DE-circRNAs). Back-splicing, RNase R resistance, and stability of DE-circRNAs were validated, and miRNA binding sites and related target genes were predicted. Two exonic circRNAs with low false discovery rate (FDR) high fold change, miRNA binding sites, and relevant biological functions—circ_CBFA2T2 and circ_KIF16B—were selected for further characterization. qRT-PCR and linear regression analysis confirmed expression and correlation of the targeted genes—the antioxidant gene GCLC (potential target of circ_CBFA2T2) and the apoptotic gene TP53 (potential target of circ_KIF16B). Increased mRNA content of TP53 in granulosa cells of AA follicles was further confirmed by strong immunostaining of both p53 and its downstream target pleckstrin homology like domain family a member 3 (PHLDA3) in AA follicles compared to negligible staining in granulosa cells of HA follicles. Therefore, we concluded that aberrantly expressed circRNAs presumably play a potential role in antral follicular atresia.

    Examining Health of Wetlands with Multiple Ecosystem Services as Targets in China’s Coastal Regions
    Zhou, Yangming ; Dou, Yuehan ; Yu, Xiubo ; Zhang, Li ; Huang, Chong ; Wang, Yuyu ; Li, Xiaowei ; Li, He ; Jia, Yifei ; Bakker, Martha ; Carsjens, Gerrit Jan ; Zhou, Yan ; Duan, Houlang - \ 2020
    Chinese Geographical Science 30 (2020)4. - ISSN 1002-0063 - p. 600 - 613.
    coastal zones - ecosystem services - Wetland Health Index (WHI) - wetland utilization

    Coastal zones are key interconnectors of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Due to the degradation and fragmentation of coastal wetlands, there is an urgent need to develop assessment methodology to compare the health of wetland ecosystems at different spatial scales. This will help efficiently develop and implement protections using easy-to-access ecosystem health data. This study aims to understand the spatial distribution of coastal and inland wetland health for China’s coastal regions. A Wetland Health Index (WHI) was developed to provide a basis for policy and decision making. Four utilization models—Long Term Model, Open Model, Nature Reserve Model, and Protected and Economic Model—were defined in the context of China’s coastal regions to specifically examine wetland health. Results show that the average WHI score was 63.6 with the range of 44.8–84.3 for 35 National Nature Reserves (NNRs), and the southern NNRs generally performed better than the northern NNRs. The wetlands in the southern provinces/municipalities are relatively healthier than their northern counterparts. The competent authority has slight influence on WHI scores but duration of conservation establishment does not show a clear correlation. With increasing economic activity, the differences in health conditions (WHI scores) of China’s coastal regions also increase. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or economic intensification does not relate to WHI scores. Appropriate trade-offs between wetland management and economic development could contribute to improve health conditions, conservation and utilization of coastal and inland wetlands.

    A systems analysis of microplastic pollution in Laizhou Bay, China
    Teng, Jia ; Zhao, Jianmin ; Zhang, C. ; Cheng, Bo ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Wu, Di ; Gao, Meng ; Sun, Xiyan ; Wang, Qing - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 745 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Microplastic contamination is attracting increasing attention worldwide. In this study, the patterns of microplastic contamination in surface water and sediment from 58 sites, and living fish from 31 sites were investigated in a semi-closed bay (Laizhou Bay, China). Microplastics in Laizhou Bay were pervasively distributed, particularly in the form of fibers. Microplastic abundance exhibited no significant differences among regions in either surface waters or sediments, indicating multiple sources of microplastics pollution in the bay. Spatial hotspot (Getis-Ord Gi*) analysis demonstrated that microplastic pollution was mainly concentrated in the Laizhou-Weifang area, which in turn was mainly affected by ocean current dynamics. Although the spatial distribution of microplastics in sediments was different from surface water, it was also affected by geology, hydrogeology, and anthropogenic activities. The most common polymer in the surface waters was polyethylene terephthalate (PET), while cellophane (CP) was the most frequently observed polymer in sediment, suggesting different sinking behaviors of these microplastics. The proportion of low-density microplastics (PE and PP) in surface water was approximately 19.9%, but these microplastics accounted for only approximately 1.7% in the sediment, suggesting that low-density microplastic particles preferentially migrate to open sea. There were significant differences in shape, size and polymer type of the microplastics among surface water, sediment and biota (p < 0.05). Cluster analysis suggested that the Gudong, Yellow River Estuary and Laizhou-Weifang regions are three sources of microplastics, which might originate from river input, plastic recycling and marine raft aquaculture. Furthermore, microplastic particle diversity was greater in sediment at offshore sites, suggesting that these sites receive microplastics from multiple sources. Our results characterize the microplastic pollution pattern, clarify the possible transfer mechanisms between different environmental media, and will provide important information for risk evaluation and pollution control in this area.
    Salt stress and fluctuating light have separate effects on photosynthetic acclimation, but interactively affect biomass
    Zhang, Yuqi ; Kaiser, Elias ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. ; Yang, Qichang ; Li, Tao - \ 2020
    Plant, Cell & Environment 43 (2020)9. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 2192 - 2206.
    fluctuating light - light acclimation - photosynthesis - salt stress - stomatal conductance - tomato

    In nature, soil salinity and fluctuating light (FL) often occur concomitantly. However, it is unknown whether salt stress interacts with FL on leaf photosynthesis, architecture, biochemistry, pigmentation, mineral concentrations, as well as whole-plant biomass. To elucidate this, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings were grown under constant light (C, 200 μmol m−2 s−1) or FL (5–650 μmol m−2 s−1), in combination with no (0 mM NaCl) or moderate (80 mM NaCl) salinity, for 14 days, at identical photoperiods and daily light integrals. FL and salt stress had separate effects on leaf anatomy, biochemistry and photosynthetic capacity: FL reduced leaf thickness as well as nitrogen, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents per unit leaf area, but rarely affected steady-state and dynamic photosynthetic properties along with abundance of key proteins in the electron transport chain. Salt stress, meanwhile, mainly disorganized chloroplast grana stacking, reduced stomatal density, size and aperture as well as photosynthetic capacity. Plant biomass was affected interactively by light regime and salt stress: FL reduced biomass in salt stressed plants by 17%, but it did not affect biomass of non-stressed plants. Our results stress the importance of considering FL when inferring effects of salt-stress on photosynthesis and productivity under fluctuating light intensities.

    Estimation of nitrogen supply for winter wheat production through a long-term field trial in China
    Huang, Shaohui ; Ding, Wencheng ; Yang, Junfang ; Zhang, Jiajia ; Ullah, Sami ; Xu, Xinpeng ; Liu, Yingxia ; Yang, Yunma ; Liu, Mengchao ; He, Ping ; Jia, Liangliang - \ 2020
    Journal of Environmental Management 270 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4797
    Nitrogen use efficiency - Relative yield - Total nitrogen supply - Winter wheat

    Excessive synthetic nitrogen (N) applications, high mineral N accumulation and low N use efficiency (NUE) are current issues in intensively cultivated winter wheat production system impeding the sustainable development of agriculture in China. To solve these problems, soil accumulated N in the top 1 m of the soil profile before sowing (Nsoil), returned straw-N from the previous maize crop (Nstraw) and fertilizer N application (Nfertilizer) should be comprehensively considered N supply sources in N management. As such, the objective of this research was to determine the optimal total N supply (TNsupply) level needed to meet crop requirements while minimizing environmental impacts. A 9-year on-farm experiment was conducted in accordance with a split-plot design involving two different fertilizer management systems (main treatments) and three N application strategies (sub treatments). Extensive TNsupply levels (ranging from 61 kg ha−1 to 813 kg ha−1) were detected, and relative yield (RY), N input and N output in response to the TNsupply were measured. The relationships between TNsupply and RY, N input, and N output strongly fit linear-plateau, linear, and linear-plateau models, respectively. The minimum TNsupply levels needed to achieve the maximum RY and N output were 325 and 392 kg ha−1, respectively. On the basis of N supply capacity, the TNsupply was removed from the growing system by 61% (N input). As the N input increased past 209 kg ha−1, the NUE declined, at which point the TNsupply reached 433 kg ha−1. Therefore, the suitable TNsupply should range from 325 kg ha−1 (ensuring a total N supply for high yield and N uptake) to 433 kg ha−1 (obtaining a relatively higher NUE and less N loss to the environment). The TNsupply was highlighted to be an indicator for use in N management recommendations. Considering the average high N accumulation in winter wheat production systems, N management should essentially take into account the consumption of Nsoil, the levels of Nstraw and the minimum application of Nfertilizer to obtain high yields while minimizing environmental impacts under suitable TNsupply levels.

    Increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency of spring maize in Northeast China through ecological intensification management
    Xu, Rui ; Xu, Rui ; Xu, Xin Peng ; Hou, Yun Peng ; Zhang, Jia Jia ; Huang, Shao Hui ; Ding, Wen Cheng ; Liu, Ying Xia ; He, Ping - \ 2020
    Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers 26 (2020)3. - ISSN 1008-505X - p. 461 - 471.
    Ecological intensive nutrient management - Nitrogen balance - Nitrogen use efficiency - Spring maize

    [Objectives] In view of the problems in ecological environment and sustainable agricultural development caused by excessive and unreasonable fertilizer application in spring maize production in China, the effects of ecological intensive nutrient management on spring maize yield, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen balance in Northeast China were studied in order to make full use of resources, increase production efficiency and ensure national food security scientifically and rationally. [Methods] A long-term experiment was conducted from 2009 to 2017 in Gongzhuling City, Jilin Province. Two factors of split plot were designed in the experiment. The main plot was two fertilization managements: the ecological intensive nutrient management (EI) and farmer practice management (FP). The sub-plot was three N application methods, including no N application treatment (N0), N application in two of three years (N2/3) and in three years (N3/3). In EI treatment, P2O575 kg/hm2, K2O 90 kg/hm2, S 30 kg/hm2, Zn 5 kg/hm2and 1/4 of N (180 kg/hm2in 2009-2014, 200 kg/hm2in 2015-2017) applied as basal, 1/2 N top dressed at jointing stage and 1/4 N at tassel stage. In the treatment of FP, N 251 kg/hm2, P2O5145 kg/hm2and K2O 100 kg/hm2were applied once as basal. The yield, N uptake and accumulation of maize and the balance of soil N were investigated. [Results] In N0 treatment, the yield and N uptake showed a downward trend since 2010. In N2/3 treatment, the yield and N uptake decreased in the year without N application, and increased to the level of N3/3 treatment in the case of N application in the following year. In EI treatment, the average yield of N3/3 treatment was 11505 kg/hm2in 9 years, while that of FP treatment was significantly lower, which was 10764 kg/hm2. Compared with FP treatment, EI treatment significantly increased nitrogen agronomic efficiency (AEN), recovery efficiency (REN) and partial factor productivity (PFPN) by 47.4%, 39.6% and 43.8%, respectively. The residual N and apparent loss of N in EI treatment were 49.2% and 63.9% lower than those in FP treatment, respectively. [Conclusions] Ecological intensive nutrient management, including right fertilization rate and time, and suitable cultivar and plant density, is proved to be effective in increasing spring maize yield and N utilization, reducing residue and apparent loss of N in soil. The experiment also confirms that continuous appropriate N fertilizer application is essential for high and stable yield of maize in Northeast China.

    Lymphoid tissue in teleost gills : Variations on a theme
    Rességuier, Julien ; Dalum, Alf S. ; Pasquier, Louis Du; Zhang, Yaqing ; Koppang, Erling Olaf ; Boudinot, Pierre ; Wiegertjes, Geert F. - \ 2020
    Biology - open access biological sciences journal 9 (2020)6. - ISSN 2079-7737 - p. 1 - 14.
    Evolution - Fish - Gills - Ilt - Zap70

    In bony fish, the gill filaments are essential for gas exchanges, but also are vulnerable to infection by water‐borne microorganisms. Omnipresent across fish, gill‐associated lymphoid tissues (GIALT) regulate interactions with local microbiota and halt infection by pathogens. A special GIALT structure has recently been found in Salmonids, the interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT). However, the structural variation of GIALT across bony fish remains largely unknown. Here, we show how this critical zone of interaction evolved across fishes. By labeling a conserved T‐cell epitope on tissue sections, we find that several basal groups of teleosts possess typical ILT, while modern teleosts have lymphoepithelium of different shape and size at the base of primary gill filaments. Within Cypriniformes, neither body size variation between two related species, zebrafish and common carp, nor morphotype variation, did have a drastic effect on the structure of ILT. Thereby this study is the first to describe the presence of ILT in zebrafish. The ILT variability across fish orders seems to represent different evolutionary solutions to balancing trade‐offs between multiple adaptations of jaws and pharyngeal region, and immune responses. Our data point to a wide structural variation in gill immunity between basal groups and modern teleosts.

    Neighbourhood-dependent root distributions and the consequences on root separation in arid ecosystems
    Chen, Bin J.W. ; Xu, Chi ; Liu, Mao Song ; Huang, Zheng Y.X. ; Zhang, Ming Juan ; Tang, Jian ; Anten, Niels P.R. - \ 2020
    Journal of Ecology 108 (2020)4. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 1635 - 1648.
    dryland - growth form - niche partitioning - plant–plant interactions - root competition - root distribution - root separation - species coexistence

    Interspecific root separation is an important example of spatial niche differentiation that drives species coexistence in many ecosystems. Particularly under water-stressed conditions, it is believed to be an inevitable outcome of species interactions. However, evidence for and against this idea has been found. So far, studies aiming at reconciling the debate have mainly focused on abiotic determinants. It remains unclear if and to what extent root separation depends on the type and growth form of interacting plants. We conducted a detailed field study in three adjacently located (with pairwise distances <500 m) arid patchy communities where a common tussock grass species Achnatherum splendens grew in association with either a tree Elaeagnus angustifolia, a shrub Nitraria tangutorum or a perennial forb species Sophora alopecuroides. In each community, roots and soils were sampled along the soil layers from five depths (0–10, 10–30, 30–60, 60–100 and 100–150 cm) in the patches and in the adjacent bare ground outside the patches. Significant vertical interspecific root separation occurred in the species-association patches of tree-grass and forb-grass communities, but not in the shrub-grass community. As the neighbour changed going from trees to shrubs and to forbs, rooting profiles of the grass Achnatherum became progressively deeper, with progressively less roots allocated in the upmost 10 cm soil layer and more in the subsequent two layers. After controlling for the differences in soil water and nutrient conditions among the three communities, the effects of neighbour type on grass rooting profiles remained robust. Synthesis. We found that the root distributions of plants in the dryland strongly depend on the type of neighbour plants, which can, at least partially, determine the extent of interspecific root separation at the community scale. Our work poses new questions about plasticity in root distribution and helps to better understand species interactions and coexistence under stressful conditions.

    Light from below matters: Quantifying the consequences of responses to far‐red light reflected upwards for plant performance in heterogeneous canopies
    Zhang, Ningyi ; Westreenen, Arian Van; He, Lizhong ; Evers, Jochem B. ; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. - \ 2020
    Plant, Cell & Environment (2020). - ISSN 0140-7791
    In vegetation stands, plants receive red to far‐red ratio (R:FR) signals of varying strength from all directions. However, plant responses to variations in R:FR reflected from below have been largely ignored despite their potential consequences for plant performance. Using a heterogeneous rose canopy, which consists of bent shoots down in the canopy and vertically growing upright shoots, we quantified upward far‐red reflection by bent shoots and its consequences for upright shoot architecture. With a three‐dimensional plant model, we assessed consequences of responses to R:FR from below for plant photosynthesis. Bent shoots reflected substantially more far‐red than red light, causing reduced R:FR in light reflected upwards. Leaf inclination angles increased in upright shoots which received low R:FR reflected from below. The increased leaf angle led to an increase in simulated plant photosynthesis only when this low R:FR was reflected off their own bent shoots and not when it reflected off neighbour bent shoots. We conclude that plant response to R:FR from below is an under‐explored phenomenon which may have contrasting consequences for plant performance depending on the type of vegetation or crop system. The responses are beneficial for performance only when R:FR is reflected by lower foliage of the same plants.
    Sel1L-Hrd1 ER-associated degradation maintains β cell identity via TGF-β signaling
    Shrestha, Neha ; Liu, Tongyu ; Ji, Yewei ; Reinert, Rachel B. ; Torres, Mauricio ; Li, Xin ; Zhang, Maria ; Tang, Chih-Hang Anthony ; Hu, Chih-Chi Andrew ; Liu, Chengyang ; Naji, Ali ; Liu, Ming ; Lin, Jiandie D. ; Kersten, Sander ; Arvan, Peter ; Qi, Ling - \ 2020
    The Journal of Clinical Investigation 130 (2020)7. - ISSN 0021-9738 - p. 3499 - 3510.
    β Cell apoptosis and dedifferentiation are 2 hotly debated mechanisms underlying β cell loss in type 2 diabetes; however, the molecular drivers underlying such events remain largely unclear. Here, we performed a side-by-side comparison of mice carrying β cell-specific deletion of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) and autophagy. We reported that, while autophagy was necessary for β cell survival, the highly conserved Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD protein complex was required for the maintenance of β cell maturation and identity. Using single-cell RNA-Seq, we demonstrated that Sel1L deficiency was not associated with β cell loss, but rather loss of β cell identity. Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD controlled β cell identity via TGF-β signaling, in part by mediating the degradation of TGF-β receptor 1. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling in Sel1L-deficient β cells augmented the expression of β cell maturation markers and increased the total insulin content. Our data revealed distinct pathogenic effects of 2 major proteolytic pathways in β cells, providing a framework for therapies targeting distinct mechanisms of protein quality control
    ER-associated degradation is required for the maintenance of β cell identity via TGFβ signaling
    Shrestha, Neha ; Liu, T. ; Ji, Yewei ; Reinert, Rachel B. ; Torres, Mauricio ; Zhang, M. ; Tang, C.A. ; Hu, C.A. ; Liu, Chengyang ; Naji, Ali ; Lin, Jiandie D. ; Kersten, Sander ; Arvan, Peter ; Qi, Ling ; Hooiveld, Guido - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    Mus musculus - GSE143757 - PRJNA601502
    β cell apoptosis and dedifferentiation are two hotly-debated mechanisms underlying β cell loss in type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the molecular drivers underlying such events remain largely unclear. Here, by performing a side-by-side comparison of mice carrying β cell-specific deletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) and autophagy, we report that while autophagy appears necessary for β cell survival, the highly conserved Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD protein complex is required for the maintenance of β cell maturation and identity. Notably, SEL1L expression is significantly reduced in human T2D islets compared to healthy human islets. At the single cell level, we demonstrate that Sel1L deficiency is not associated with β cell loss, but rather loss of β cell identity. Mechanistically, we find that Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD controls β cell identity via TGFβ signaling, in part by mediating the degradation of TGF-β receptor 1 (TGFβRI). Inhibition of TGFβ signaling in Sel1L-deficient β cells augments the expression of β cell maturation markers and increases the total insulin content. Our data reveal profound but distinct pathogenic effects of two major proteolytic pathways in β cells, providing a new framework for therapies targeting distinct mechanisms of protein quality control
    Replication Data for: The stove, dome, and umbrella effects of pollutant aerosol on the planetary boundary layer: a large-eddy simulation and observations in Beijing
    Ma, Yongjing ; Ye, Jianhuai ; Xin, Jinyuan ; Zhang, Wenyu ; Vila-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi ; Zhao, Dandan ; Dai, Lindong ; Ma, Yongxiang ; Wu, Xiaoyan ; Xia, Xiangao ; Tang, Guiqian ; Shen, Pengke ; Lei, Yali ; Martin, Scot T. - \ 2020
    Harvard University
    Dataset for campaign observations and LES input file for the reference case.
    The Stove, Dome, and Umbrella Effects of Atmospheric Aerosol on the Development of the Planetary Boundary Layer in Hazy Regions
    Ma, Yongjing ; Ye, Jianhuai ; Xin, Jinyuan ; Zhang, Wenyu ; Vilà‐Guerau de Arellano, Jordi ; Wang, Shigong ; Zhao, Dandan ; Dai, Lindong ; Ma, Yongxiang ; Wu, Xiaoyan ; Xia, Xiangao ; Tang, Guiqian ; Wang, Yuesi ; Shen, Pengke ; Lei, Yali ; Martin, Scot T. - \ 2020
    Geophysical Research Letters 47 (2020)13. - ISSN 0094-8276
    Atmospheric aerosol plays critical roles in suppressing planetary boundary layer (PBL) and deteriorating air quality. However, comprehensive understanding on how aerosol optical properties (absorption and scattering) affect PBL remains lacking. Utilizing a large‐eddy simulation model incorporated with in situ observations, we demonstrate distinct impacts of absorption aerosol on PBL development when it is present below (stove effect and promotion) or above morning residual layer (dome effect and strong inhibition) and similar inhibition umbrella effects of scattering aerosol on PBL regardless of its vertical locations. There exists a transition height, above which absorption aerosol is more effective in suppressing PBL and below which scattering aerosol dominates the suppression. This height is highly related to the height of morning residual layer. Aerosol stove, dome, and umbrella effects enrich our knowledge on aerosol‐PBL interactions and the latter two can be interpreted as “double inhibitions” in promoting haze episodes in the North China Plain.
    Effect of dietary fiber fermentation on short-chain fatty acid production and microbial composition in vitro
    Bai, Yu ; Zhao, Jin Biao ; Tao, Shi Yu ; Zhou, Xing Jian ; Pi, Yu ; Gerrits, Walter J.J. ; Johnston, Lee J. ; Zhang, Shi Yi ; Yang, Hong Jian ; Liu, Ling ; Zhang, Shuai ; Wang, Jun Jun - \ 2020
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 100 (2020)11. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 4282 - 4291.
    fiber-rich co-products - gas production - in vitro fermentation - microbial community - short chain fatty acid

    BACKGROUND: The efficient utilization of fiber-rich co-products is important for optimizing feed resource utilization and animal health. This study was conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of fiber-rich co-products, which had equal quantities of total dietary fiber (TDF), at different time points using batch in vitro methods. It considered their gas production, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and microbial composition. RESULTS: The fermentation of wheat bran (WB) and oat bran (OB) showed higher and faster (P < 0.05) gas and SCFA production than corn bran (CB), sugar beet pulp (SBP), and soybean hulls (SH). The α-diversity was higher in the CB, SBP, and SH groups than in the WB and OB groups (P < 0.05). At the phylum level, OB and WB fermentation showed lower (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Actinobacteria than the CB, SBP, and SH groups. At the genus level, OB and WB fermentation increased the Enterococcus population in comparison with the CB, SBP, and SH groups, whereas CB and SBP fermentation improved the relative abundance of the Christensenellaceae R-7 group more than the WB, OB, and SH groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Overall, WB and OB were rapidly fermented by fecal microbiota, in contrast with SBP, SH, and CB. Fermentation of different fiber-rich co-products with an equal TDF content gives different responses in terms of microbial composition and SCFA production due to variations in their physicochemical properties and molecular structure.

    Population Genomic Analysis Reveals a Highly Conserved Mitochondrial Genome in Fusarium asiaticum
    Yang, Meixin ; Zhang, Hao ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Waalwijk, C. ; Diepeningen, A.D. van; Feng, Jie ; Brankovics, Balázs ; Chen, Wanquan - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Microbiology 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-302X
    Fusarium asiaticum is one of the pivotal members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat, barley and rice in large parts of Asia. Besides resulting in yield losses, FHB also causes the accumulation of mycotoxins such as nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON). The aim of this study was to conduct population studies on F. asiaticum from Southern China through mitochondrial genome analyses. All strains were isolated from wheat or rice from several geographic areas in seven provinces in Southern China. Based on geographic location and host, 210 isolates were selected for next generation sequencing, and their mitogenomes were assembled by GRAbB and annotated to explore the mitochondrial genome variability of F. asiaticum. The F. asiaticum mitogenome proves extremely conserved and variation is mainly caused by absence/presence of introns harboring homing endonuclease genes. These variations could be utilized to develop molecular markers for track and trace of migrations within and between populations. This study illustrates how mitochondrial introns can be used as markers for population genetic analysis. SNP analysis demonstrate the occurrence of mitochondrial recombination in F. asiaticum as was previously found for F. oxysporum and implied for F. graminearum. Furthermore, varying degrees of genetic diversity and recombination showed a high association with different geographic regions as well as with cropping systems. The mitogenome of F. graminearum showed a much higher SNP diversity while the interspecies intron variation showed no evidence of gene flow between the two closely related and sexual compatible species
    Fertilization changes soil microbiome functioning, especially phagotrophic protists
    Zhao, Zhi Bo ; He, Ji Zheng ; Quan, Zhi ; Wu, Chuan Fa ; Sheng, Rong ; Zhang, Li Mei ; Geisen, Stefan - \ 2020
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 148 (2020). - ISSN 0038-0717
    Fertilization - High-throughput sequencing - Microbiome functioning - Nitrogen - Phagotrophic protists

    The soil microbiome determines crop production and drives nutrient cycling, functions that are altered by fertilization. Yet, we have only begun to understand the effects of fertilization on taxonomic changes on soil microorganisms, while impacts on functional groups across the microbiome and therefore potential soil functioning have never been assessed. Here, using a range of methods including high-throughput sequencing, we identified 77 functional parameters of the main microbiome groups including bacteria, fungi, and protists in three common agricultural soil types in China (black, fluvo-aquic, and red soil), which were fertilized in the same way over two years. We show that fertilization most strongly and generally throughout soil types reduced the relative abundance of the main microbial predators, phagotrophic protists, by 31%. Ten functional groups within the microbiome showed soil type-specific responses to fertilization. For example, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and predatory/exoparasitic bacteria were reduced by fertilization in the acidic black and the red soils, while, no other microbial functional group than phagotrophic protists was suppressed by fertilization in the alkaline fluvo-aquic soil. The significant reductions in microbial functional groups especially in acidic soils could be explained by nitrogen enrichment, increased soil acidification and potential biotic links between the functional groups within the microbiome. Together, we show that the fertilization-induced abiotic changes alter microbial functions that depend on the soil and environmental conditions. Particularly the most profound changes on the group of microbial predators might subsequently affect other soil functions performed by bacteria and fungi.

    Impacts of nitrogen fertilizer type and application rate on soil acidification rate under a wheat-maize double cropping system
    Hao, Tianxiang ; Zhu, Qichao ; Zeng, Mufan ; Shen, Jianbo ; Shi, Xiaojun ; Liu, Xuejun ; Zhang, Fusuo ; Vries, Wim de - \ 2020
    Journal of Environmental Management 270 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4797
    Ammonium chloride - Cropland - Soil acidification - Soil pH - Urea

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer-induced soil acidification in Chinese croplands is well-known, but insight in the impacts of different N fertilizer management approaches (fertilizer type and rate) on soil acidification rates is very limited. Here, we conducted a field experiment on a moderate acid soil to quantify soil acidification rates in response to N fertilization by different fertilizer types and N rates through monitoring the fate of elements (mainly nutrients) related to H+ production and consumption. Two N fertilizer types (urea and NH4Cl) and three N rates (control, optimized and conventional, 0/120/240 kg N ha−1 for wheat, 0/160/320 kg N ha−1 for maize) were included. Nitrogen addition led to an average H+ production of 4.0, 8.7, 11.4, 29.7 and 52.6 keq ha−1 yr−1, respectively, for the control, optimized urea, conventional urea, optimized NH4Cl and conventional NH4Cl plots. This was accompanied with a decline in soil base saturation of 1–10% and in soil pH of 0.1–0.7 units in the topsoil (0–20 cm). Removal of base cations by crop harvesting and N transformations contributed ~70% and ~20% to the H+ production in the urea treated plots, being ~20% and ~75% in the NH4Cl treated plots, respectively. The large NH4+ input via fertilization in the NH4Cl treated plots strongly enhanced the H+ production induced by N transformations. The low contribution of N transformations to the H+ production in the urea treated plots was due to the limited NO3 leaching, induced by the high N losses to air caused by denitrification. Increased N addition by urea, however, strongly increased H+ production by enhanced plant uptake of base cations, mainly due to a large potassium uptake in straw. Our results highlight the important role of optimizing fertilizer form and N rate as well as straw return to the field in alleviating soil acidification.

    Protein A-mesoporous silica composites for chromatographic purification of immunoglobulin G
    Huang, Si ; Cheng, Si Yuan ; Zhang, Shu Yuan ; Yan, Yi Lun ; Cai, Song Liang ; Li, Xin Le ; Zheng, Sheng Run ; Fan, Jun ; Zhang, Wei Guang - \ 2020
    New Journal of Chemistry 44 (2020)19. - ISSN 1144-0546 - p. 7884 - 7890.

    The development of a robust and efficient stationary phase for chromatographic biopharmaceutical purification is of prime importance but remains challenging. Herein, we have developed a series of protein A-mesoporous silica composites for the first time by covalently coupling protein A with the tagged carbonyl imidazole moieties in the column, which constitutes a facile and efficient route for the preparation of protein A immunoaffinity materials. The resultant composites are employed as the stationary phase for chromatographic purification of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The effect of silica's pore size and coupled protein A on the antibody purification is systematically investigated. When the pore size of silica increased from 100 to 1000 Å, the amount of coupled protein A decreased, and the surface coverage on the silica significantly improved, accompanied by an increase in the amount of purified rabbit IgG. With an increasing coupled protein A, the surface coverage increased at first and decreased subsequently, which shows a similar trend to the amount of purified IgG and specific activity. When practically implemented for purifying several immunoglobulins that are central for commercial ELISA Kits, the protein A-mesoporous silica composite exhibited superior performance compared to the GE-Mabselcetxtra rProtein A column, particularly in the purification of immunoglobulin M (IgM), which cannot be realized by the GE-Mabselcetxtra rProtein A column. This study sheds new light on the rational development of protein-affinity chromatography for biopharmaceutical purification.

    Late-spring frost risk between 1959 and 2017 decreased in North America but increased in Europe and Asia
    Zohner, Constantin M. ; Mo, Lidong ; Renner, Susanne S. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Vitasse, Yann ; Benito, Blas M. ; Ordonez, Alejandro ; Baumgarten, Frederik ; Bastin, Jean François ; Sebald, Veronica ; Reich, Peter B. ; Liang, Jingjing ; Nabuurs, Gert Jan ; De-Migueln, Sergio ; Alberti, Giorgio ; Antón-Fernández, Clara ; Balazy, Radomir ; Brändli, Urs Beat ; Chen, Han Y.H. ; Chisholm, Chelsea ; Cienciala, Emil ; Dayanandan, Selvadurai ; Fayle, Tom M. ; Frizzera, Lorenzo ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M. ; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan ; Jucker, Tommaso ; Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian ; Khan, Mohammed Latif ; Kim, Hyun Seok ; Korjus, Henn ; Johannsen, Vivian Kvist ; Laarmann, Diana ; Langn, Mait ; Zawila-Niedzwiecki, Tomasz ; Niklaus, Pascal A. ; Paquette, Alain ; Pretzsch, Hans ; Saikia, Purabi ; Schall, Peter ; Seben, Vladimír ; Svoboda, Miroslav ; Tikhonova, Elena ; Viana, Helder ; Zhang, Chunyu ; Zhao, Xiuhai ; Crowther, Thomas W. - \ 2020
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117 (2020)22. - ISSN 0027-8424
    Climate change - Freezing damage - Late frost - Phenology - Spring leaf-out

    Late-spring frosts (LSFs) affect the performance of plants and animals across the world's temperate and boreal zones, but despite their ecological and economic impact on agriculture and forestry, the geographic distribution and evolutionary impact of these frost events are poorly understood. Here, we analyze LSFs between 1959 and 2017 and the resistance strategies of Northern Hemisphere woody species to infer trees' adaptations for minimizing frost damage to their leaves and to forecast forest vulnerability under the ongoing changes in frost frequencies. Trait values on leaf-out and leaf-freezing resistance come from up to 1,500 temperate and boreal woody species cultivated in common gardens. We find that areas in which LSFs are common, such as eastern North America, harbor tree species with cautious (late-leafing) leaf-out strategies. Areas in which LSFs used to be unlikely, such as broad-leaved forests and shrublands in Europe and Asia, instead harbor opportunistic tree species (quickly reacting to warming air temperatures). LSFs in the latter regions are currently increasing, and given species' innate resistance strategies, we estimate that ∼35% of the European and ∼26% of the Asian temperate forest area, but only ∼10% of the North American, will experience increasing late-frost damage in the future. Our findings reveal region-specific changes in the spring-frost risk that can inform decision-making in land management, forestry, agriculture, and insurance policy.

    Chain conformation and physicochemical properties of polysaccharide (glucuronoxylomannan) from Fruit Bodies of Tremella fuciformis
    Xu, Xiaoqi ; Chen, Aijun ; Ge, Xinyan ; Li, Sha ; Zhang, Tao ; Xu, Hong - \ 2020
    Carbohydrate Polymers 245 (2020). - ISSN 0144-8617
    Chain conformation - Glucuronoxylomannan - Moisture absorption and retention capacity - Rheological properties - Tremella fuciformis - Wormlike cylinder model

    Based on its potential bioactivities and sustainable source, polysaccharide (glucuronoxylomannan) from fruit bodies of Tremella fuciformis (TFP) aroused attention in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. The present study aimed at revealing its chain conformational and physicochemical properties. By using HPSEC-MALLS-Visc-RI measurement, worm-like cylinder model calculation and AFM observation, we manifested that TFP existed as flexible chains in 0.15 M NaCl (pH 7.4) solution, with the persistence length of 9.20 nm and chain diameter of 0.97 nm. Meanwhile, TFP solution exhibited shear-thinning behavior with C* at 5.3 mg mL−1, owning the feature of entangled polysaccharide. TFP solution changed from liquid-like to solid-like behavior as frequency increases, and the crossover points shifted to lower frequencies with concentration increasing. Besides, the strong moisture retention ability of TFP was evaluated. These characteristics indicated that TFP could be utilized to design microstructure system and applied as stabilizer or moisture holding ingredient in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic system.

    Gut dysbacteriosis and intestinal disease: mechanism and treatment
    Meng, X. ; Zhang, G. ; Cao, H. ; Yu, D. ; Fang, X. ; Vos, W.M. de; Wu, H. - \ 2020
    Journal of Applied Microbiology (2020). - ISSN 1364-5072
    gut microbiome - immune response - intestinal diseases - prebiotics - probiotics

    The gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating bioactive metabolites, enzymes or small molecules that can impact host physiology. Gut dysbacteriosis is associated with many intestinal diseases including (but not limited to) inflammatory bowel disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis-IBD, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic constipation, osmotic diarrhoea and colorectal cancer. The potential pathogenic mechanism of gut dysbacteriosis associated with intestinal diseases includes the alteration of composition of gut microbiota as well as the gut microbiota–derived signalling molecules. The many correlations between the latter and the susceptibility for intestinal diseases has placed a spotlight on the gut microbiome as a potential novel target for therapeutics. Currently, faecal microbial transplantation, dietary interventions, use of probiotics, prebiotics and drugs are the major therapeutic tools utilized to impact dysbacteriosis and associated intestinal diseases. In this review, we systematically summarized the role of intestinal microbiome in the occurrence and development of intestinal diseases. The potential mechanism of the complex interplay between gut dysbacteriosis and intestinal diseases, and the treatment methods are also highlighted.

    Steering protein and salt ad- and desorption by an electrical switch applied to polymer-coated electrodes
    Fritz, P.A. ; Zhang, P. ; Bruschinski, Tom ; Sahin, S. ; Smet, L.C.P.M. de; Chan-Park, M.B. ; Boom, R.M. ; Schroën, C.G.P.H. - \ 2020
    Separation and Purification Technology 250 (2020). - ISSN 1383-5866
    Although solid-phase chromatography is a well-established method for protein separation, chemically intensive and often costly regeneration steps are needed to make reuse of the adsorbent possible. Here, we demonstrate the use of electrochemical principles as sustainable alternative. We make use of spontaneous adsorption of proteins to solid electrodes and reverse this process by applying an electric potential to regenerate the interface. This allows for adsorption of proteins to take place at 0 V difference between the electrodes, due to electrostatic interactions between the protein and the electrode surface. The desorption is then triggered by applying a potential difference (−1.2 V) between the electrodes.

    It is demonstrated that the incorporation of negatively charged polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) or positively charged polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDMAC) in or on top of the respective activated carbon electrodes increases the amount of exchanged protein from 1 to 10 mg g−1, as compared to simple activated carbon electrodes. Interestingly, salt ad- and desorption occurs in opposite cycles compared to protein ad- and desorption, resulting in simultaneous concentration and desalting of the protein when 0 V is applied. On top of that, we also found that an enrichment in β-lactoglobulin could be achieved starting from whey protein isolate. These results clearly demonstrate that electrochemical technologies can be used not only for protein separation (including removal of salt), but also for protein fractionation, while not requiring solvent use.
    Publisher Correction: MEMOTE for standardized genome-scale metabolic model testing
    Lieven, Christian ; Beber, Moritz E. ; Olivier, Brett G. ; Bergmann, Frank T. ; Ataman, Meric ; Babaei, Parizad ; Bartell, Jennifer A. ; Blank, Lars M. ; Chauhan, Siddharth ; Correia, Kevin ; Diener, Christian ; Dräger, Andreas ; Ebert, Birgitta E. ; Edirisinghe, Janaka N. ; Faria, José P. ; Feist, Adam M. ; Fengos, Georgios ; Fleming, Ronan M.T. ; García-Jiménez, Beatriz ; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily ; Helvoirt, Wout van; Henry, Christopher S. ; Hermjakob, Henning ; Herrgård, Markus J. ; Kaafarani, Ali ; Kim, Hyun Uk ; King, Zachary ; Klamt, Steffen ; Klipp, Edda ; Koehorst, Jasper J. ; König, Matthias ; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan ; Lee, Dong Yup ; Lee, Sang Yup ; Lee, Sunjae ; Lewis, Nathan E. ; Liu, Filipe ; Ma, Hongwu ; Machado, Daniel ; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan ; Maia, Paulo ; Mardinoglu, Adil ; Medlock, Gregory L. ; Monk, Jonathan M. ; Nielsen, Jens ; Nielsen, Lars Keld ; Nogales, Juan ; Nookaew, Intawat ; Palsson, Bernhard O. ; Papin, Jason A. ; Patil, Kiran R. ; Poolman, Mark ; Price, Nathan D. ; Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo ; Richelle, Anne ; Rocha, Isabel ; Sánchez, Benjamín J. ; Schaap, Peter J. ; Malik Sheriff, Rahuman S. ; Shoaie, Saeed ; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus ; Teusink, Bas ; Vilaça, Paulo ; Vik, Jon Olav ; Wodke, Judith A.H. ; Xavier, Joana C. ; Yuan, Qianqian ; Zakhartsev, Maksim ; Zhang, Cheng - \ 2020
    Nature Biotechnology 38 (2020)4. - ISSN 1087-0156 - 1 p.

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    Genome-wide identification of small G protein ROPs and their potential roles in Solanaceous family
    Yang, Shuqing ; Yan, Ningning ; Bouwmeester, Klaas ; Na, Ren ; Zhang, Zhiwei ; Zhao, Jun - \ 2020
    Gene 753 (2020). - ISSN 0378-1119
    Genome-wide screening - Phylogenetic analysis - Plant growth and development - Plant immunity - Small GTPase ROPs - Solanaceous family

    Small GTPases function as molecular switches to active or inactive signaling cascades via binding or hydrolyzing GTP. A type of plant specific small GTPases, the ROPs are known to be involved in plant growth, development and immunity. We determined whether ROPs are conserved in Solanaceous species and whether they are involved in plant growth, development and resistance against Phytophthora capsisi. In genome-wide screening, a total of 66 ROPs in six Solanaceous species (SolROPs) were identified, including 16 ROPs in Solanum tuberosum L. (potato), 9 in Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), 5 in Solanum melongena L. (eggplant), 9 in Capsicum annuum L. (pepper), 13 in Nicotiana benthamiana Domin and 14 in Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 11 AtROPs and 66 SolROPs fall into five distinct clades (I-V) and hence a novel and systematic gene nomenclature was proposed. In addition, a comprehensive expression analysis was performed by making use of an online database. This revealed that ROP genes are differentially expressed during plant growth and development. Moreover, gene expression of SlROP-II.1 in S. lycopersicum could be significantly induced by P. capsici. Subsequently, SlROP-II.1 and its homologues in N. benthamiana and C. annuum (NbROP-II.1 and CaROP-II.1) were selected for functional analysis using virus-induced gene silencing. Infection assays with P. capsici on silenced plants revealed that SlROP-II.1, NbROP-II.1 and CaROP-II.1 play a role in P. capsici resistance, suggesting conserved function of ROP-II clade across different Solanaceous species. In addition, NbROP-II.1 is also involved in regulating plant growth and development. This study signified the diversity of Solanaceous ROPs and their potential roles in plant growth, development and immunity.

    Substantial differences occur between canopy and ambient climate : Quantification of interactions in a greenhouse-canopy system
    Westreenen, A. van; Zhang, N. ; Douma, J.C. ; Evers, J.B. ; Anten, N.P.R. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. - \ 2020
    PLoS ONE 15 (2020)5. - ISSN 1932-6203 - p. e0233210 - e0233210.

    Organ temperature and variation therein plays a key role in plant functioning and its responses to e.g. climate change. There is a strong feedback between organ, especially leaf, temperature and the climate within the canopy (canopy climate), which in turn interacts with the climate outside the canopy (ambient climate). For greenhouses, the determinants of this interplay and how they drive differences between canopy and ambient climate are poorly understood. Yet, as many experiments on both regular greenhouse crops and field crops are done in greenhouses, this is crucial to know. Therefore, we designed an experiment to quantify the differences between ambient and canopy climate and leaf temperature. A path analysis was performed to quantify the interactions between components of the greenhouse canopy-climate system. We found that with high radiation the canopy climate can be up to 5°C cooler than the ambient climate, while for cloudy days this was only 2°C. Canopy relative humidity (RH) was up to 25% higher compared to ambient RH. We showed that radiation is very important for these climate differences, but that this effect could be partly counteracted by turning off supplementary light (i.e. due to its indirect effects e.g. changing light distribution). Leaf temperature was substantially different, both higher and lower, from the canopy air temperature. This difference was determined by leaf area index (LAI), temperature of the heating pipe and the use of supplementary light, which all strongly influence radiation, either shortwave or thermal radiation. The difference between leaf and ambient air temperature could be decreased by decreasing the LAI or increasing the temperature of the heating pipe.

    Improvement in municipal wastewater treatment alters lake nitrogen to phosphorus ratios in populated regions
    Tong, Yindong ; Wang, Mengzhu ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Liu, Xueyan ; Paerl, Hans W. ; Elser, James J. ; Sardans, Jordi ; Couture, Raoul Marie ; Larssen, Thorjørn ; Hu, Hongying ; Dong, Xin ; He, Wei ; Zhang, Wei ; Wang, Xuejun ; Zhang, Yang ; Liu, Yi ; Zeng, Siyu ; Kong, Xiangzhen ; Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Lin, Yan - \ 2020
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117 (2020)21. - ISSN 0027-8424
    Anthropogenic source - Aquatic ecosystem - Nutrient balance - Wastewater treatment - Water quality change

    Large-scale and rapid improvement in wastewater treatment is common practice in developing countries, yet this influence on nutrient regimes in receiving waterbodies is rarely examined at broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we present a study linking decadal nutrient monitoring data in lakes with the corresponding estimates of five major anthropogenic nutrient discharges in their surrounding watersheds over time. Within a continuous monitoring dataset covering the period 2008 to 2017, we find that due to different rates of change in TN and TP concentrations, 24 of 46 lakes, mostly located in China's populated regions, showed increasing TN/TP mass ratios; only 3 lakes showed a decrease. Quantitative relationships between in-lake nutrient concentrations (and their ratios) and anthropogenic nutrient discharges in the surrounding watersheds indicate that increase of lake TN/TP ratios is associated with the rapid improvement in municipal wastewater treatment. Due to the higher removal efficiency of TP compared with TN, TN/TP mass ratios in total municipal wastewater discharge have continued to increase from a median of 10.7 (95% confidence interval, 7.6 to 15.1) in 2008 to 17.7 (95% confidence interval, 13.2 to 27.2) in 2017. Improving municipal wastewater collection and treatment worldwide is an important target within the 17 sustainable development goals set by the United Nations. Given potential ecological impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem function of altered nutrient ratios in wastewater discharge, our results suggest that long-term strategies for domestic wastewater management should not merely focus on total reductions of nutrient discharges but also consider their stoichiometric balance.

    Agriculture green development : A model for China and the world
    Shen, Jianbo ; Zhu, Qichao ; Jiao, Xiaoqiang ; Ying, Hao ; Wang, Hongliang ; Wen, Xin ; Xu, Wen ; Li, Tingyu ; Cong, Wenfeng ; Liu, Xuejun ; Hou, Yong ; Cui, Zhenling ; Oenema, Oene ; Davies, William J. ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2020
    Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2095-7505 - p. 5 - 13.
    Agriculture green development - Food security - Interdisciplinary innovations - Resource use efficiency - Sustainable development - Sustainable intensification - Whole industry chain

    Realizing sustainable development has become a global priority. This holds, in particular, for agriculture. Recently, the United Nations launched the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and the Nineteenth National People's Congress has delivered a national strategy for sustainable development in China-realizing green development. The overall objective of Agriculture Green Development (AGD) is to coordinate "green" with "development" to realize the transformation of current agriculture with high resource consumption and high environmental costs into a green agriculture and countryside with high productivity, high resource use efficiency and low environmental impact. This is a formidable task, requiring joint efforts of government, farmers, industry, educators and researchers. The innovative concept for AGD will focus on reconstructing the whole crop-animal production and food production-consumption system, with the emphasis on high thresholds for environmental standards and food quality as well as enhanced human well-being. This paper addresses the significance, challenges, framework, pathways and potential solutions for realizing AGD in China, and highlights the potential changes that will lead to a more sustainable agriculture in the future. Proposals include interdisciplinary innovations, whole food chain improvement and regional solutions. The implementation of AGD in China will provide important implications for the countries in developmental transition, and contribute to global sustainable development.

    Prevalence of milk fraud in the Chinese market and its relationship with fraud vulnerabilities in the chain
    Yang, Yuzheng ; Zhang, Liebing ; Hettinga, Kasper A. ; Erasmus, Sara W. ; Ruth, Saskia M. Van - \ 2020
    Foods 9 (2020)6. - ISSN 2304-8158
    China - Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy - Fraud vulnerability - Milk adulteration - Milk composition - One-class classifications

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) processed milk samples suspected of being adulterated on the Chinese market and, subsequently, relate their geographical origin to the earlier determined fraud vulnerability. A total of 52 UHT milk samples purchased from the Chinese market were measured to detect possible anomalies. The milk compositional features were determined by standardized Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and the detection limits for common milk adulterations were investigated. The results showed that twelve of the analysed milk samples (23%) were suspected of having quality or fraud-related issues, while one sample of these was highly suspected of being adulterated (diluted with water). Proportionally, more suspected samples were determined among milks produced in the Central- Northern and Eastern areas of China than in those from the North-Western and North-Eastern areas, while those from the South were in between. Combining the earlier collected results on fraud vulnerability in the Chinese milk chains, it appears that increased fraud prevalence relates to poorer business relationships and lack of adequate managerial controls. Since very few opportunities and motivations differ consistently across high and low-prevalence areas, primarily the improvement of control measures can help to mitigate food fraud in the Chinese milk supply chains.

    Salt Tolerance Mechanisms of Plants
    Zelm, Eva Van; Zhang, Yanxia ; Testerink, Christa - \ 2020
    Annual Review of Plant Biology 71 (2020). - ISSN 1543-5008 - p. 403 - 433.
    ABA - auxin - developmental plasticity - ionic stress - osmotic stress - salinity

    Crop loss due to soil salinization is an increasing threat to agriculture worldwide. This review provides an overview of cellular and physiological mechanisms in plant responses to salt. We place cellular responses in a time- and tissue-dependent context in order to link them to observed phases in growth rate that occur in response to stress. Recent advances in phenotyping can now functionally or genetically link cellular signaling responses, ion transport, water management, and gene expression to growth, development, and survival. Halophytes, which are naturally salt-tolerant plants, are highlighted as success stories to learn from. We emphasize that (a) filling the major knowledge gaps in salt-induced signaling pathways, (b) increasing the spatial and temporal resolution of our knowledge of salt stress responses, (c) discovering and considering crop-specific responses, and (d) including halophytes in our comparative studies are all essential in order to take our approaches to increasing crop yields in saline soils to the next level.

    Climate change impacts on agricultural suitability and yield reduction in a Mediterranean region
    Abd-Elmabod, Sameh K. ; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam ; Jordán, Antonio ; Anaya-Romero, Mariá ; Phillips, Jonathan D. ; Laurence, Jones ; Zhang, Zhenhua ; Pereira, Paulo ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Ploeg, Martine van der; Rosa, Diego de la - \ 2020
    Geoderma 374 (2020). - ISSN 0016-7061
    Crop yield - Decision support systems - GIS - Global warming - Land suitability

    Climate change impacts are a serious threat to food provisioning, security and the economy. Thus, assessing agricultural suitability and yield reduction under climate change is crucial for sustainable agricultural production. In this study, we used two sub-models of the agro-ecological decision support system MicroLEIS (Terraza and Cervatana) to evaluate the impacts of climate change on land capability and yield reduction or wheat and sunflower as major rainfed crops in different Mediterranean soil types (in Andalucia, Southern Spain). The Terraza sub-model provides an experimental prediction for the bioclimate deficiency and yield reduction, while the Cervatana sub-model predicts the general land use suitability for specific agricultural uses. Sixty-two districts in Southern Spain were modeled and mapped using soil data and the A1B climate scenario (balanced scenario) for three 30-year periods ending in 2040, 2070 and 2100, respectively. Our results showed that the majority of agricultural soils were suitable for wheat production, and less for sunflowers, especially under projected climate change scenarios. Extreme impacts of climate change were observed in the soil types Typic Xerofluvents and Calcic Haploxerepts, where the land capability was reduced from Good and Moderate classes to the Marginal class. This was especially observed in sunflower crops by 2100. Yield reduction of sunflower was much higher than the reduction for wheat, especially under the projected climate periods, where the results for 2100 showed the severest effect on crop yields with about 95% of the sunflower area showing yield reductions. This high variability of the evaluation results demonstrates the importance of using soil factors, climate and crop information in conjunction in decision-making regarding the formulation of site-specific soil use and management strategies.

    Metabolic effects of PCSK9 inhibition with Evolocumab in subjects with elevated Lp(a)
    Zhang, Xiang ; Stiekema, Lotte C.A. ; Stroes, Erik S.G. ; Groen, Albert K. - \ 2020
    Lipids in Health and Disease 19 (2020)1. - ISSN 1476-511X
    Evolocumab - Lipoprotein(a) - Metabolomics - PCSK9 antibodies - VLDL

    Background: Epidemiological studies substantiated that subjects with elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] have a markedly increased cardiovascular risk. Inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) lowers both LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as Lp(a), albeit modestly. Effects of PCSK9 inhibition on circulating metabolites such as lipoprotein subclasses, amino acids and fatty acids remain to be characterized. Methods: We performed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics on plasma samples derived from 30 individuals with elevated Lp(a) (> 150 mg/dL). The 30 participants were randomly assigned into two groups, placebo (N = 14) and evolocumab (N = 16). We assessed the effect of 16 weeks of evolocumab 420 mg Q4W treatment on circulating metabolites by running lognormal regression analyses, and compared this to placebo. Subsequently, we assessed the interrelationship between Lp(a) and 14 lipoprotein subclasses in response to treatment with evolocumab, by running multilevel multivariate regression analyses. Results: On average, evolocumab treatment for 16 weeks resulted in a 17% (95% credible interval: 8 to 26%, P < 0.001) reduction of circulating Lp(a), coupled with substantial reduction of VLDL, IDL and LDL particles as well as their lipid contents. Interestingly, increasing concentrations of baseline Lp(a) were associated with larger reduction in triglyceride-rich VLDL particles after evolocumab treatment. Conclusions: Inhibition of PCSK9 with evolocumab markedly reduced VLDL particle concentrations in addition to lowering LDL-C. The extent of reduction in VLDL particles depended on the baseline level of Lp(a). Our findings suggest a marked effect of evolocumab on VLDL metabolism in subjects with elevated Lp(a). Trial registration: Clinical trial registration information is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on April 14, 2016 with the registration number NCT02729025.

    Energy consumption in membrane capacitive deionization and comparison with reverse osmosis
    Porada, S. ; Zhang, Li ; Dykstra, J.E. - \ 2020
    Desalination 488 (2020). - ISSN 0011-9164

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a technique for water desalination by adsorbing ions in charged porous electrodes. In the present experimental and theoretical study, we analyze the performance, in terms of energy consumption, salt rejection and water recovery, of MCDI operated in intermittent flow mode. With this mode, the water recovery of MCDI is increased by reducing the water flow ratio during regeneration. Both experimental and theoretical results show that high values for water recovery and salt rejection can be achieved with a lab-scale MCDI system for feed water with a salinity of 40 mM. Importantly, we find that the energy requirement of MCDI is a factor of 2.0–2.5 higher than of RO. For RO, the energy requirements were calculated with a system-scale model developed by Qin et al. [1]. Furthermore, we show that, based on our theoretical predictions, improved MCDI can reach high salt rejection and water recovery, without an additional energy penalty. In these conditions, the energy consumption of MCDI is lower than of RO. In the present work, we present new insights for a fair performance comparison of MCDI and RO.

    Syndromes of production in intercropping impact yield gains
    Li, Chunjie ; Hoffland, Ellis ; Kuyper, Thomas W. ; Yu, Yang ; Zhang, Chaochun ; Li, Haigang ; Zhang, Fusuo ; Werf, Wopke van der - \ 2020
    Nature Plants 6 (2020)6. - ISSN 2055-026X
    Intercropping, the simultaneous production of multiple crops on the same field, provides opportunities for the sustainable intensification of agriculture if it can provide a greater yield per unit land and fertilizer than sole crops. The worldwide absolute yield gain of intercropping as compared with sole crops has not been analysed. We therefore performed a global meta-analysis to quantify the effect of intercropping on the yield gain, exploring the effects of crop species combinations, temporal and spatial arrangements, and fertilizer input. We found that the absolute yield gains, compared with monocultures, were the greatest for mixtures of maize with short-grain cereals or legumes that had substantial temporal niche differentiation from maize, when grown with high nutrient inputs, and using multirow strips of each species. This approach, commonly practised in China, provided yield gains that were (in an absolute sense) about four times as large as those in another, low-input intercropping strategy, commonly practised outside China. The alternative intercropping strategy consisted of growing mixtures of short-stature crop species, often as full mixtures, with the same growing period and with low to moderate nutrient inputs. Both the low- and high-yield intercropping strategies saved 16–29% of the land and 19–36% of the fertilizer compared with monocultures grown under the same management as the intercrop. The two syndromes of production in intercropping uncovered by this meta-analysis show that intercropping offers opportunities for the sustainable intensification of both high- and low-input agriculture.
    Genomics of Rapid Evolution in Field Crickets
    Pascoal, Sonia ; Risse, Judith ; Zhang, Xiao ; Blaxter, Mark ; Cezard, Timothee ; Challis, Richard J. ; Gharbi, Karim ; Hunt, John ; Kumar, Sujai ; Langan, Emma ; Liu, Xuan ; Rayner, Jack G. ; Ritchie, Michael G. ; Snoek, Basten ; Trivedi, Urmi ; Bailey, Nathan W. - \ 2020
    University of Edinburgh
    PRJEB24786 - ERP106639 - Teleogryllus oceanicus - cricket - genomics
    This study reveals the genomic architecture of a rapidly evolving mutation which segregates as a single-locus, X-linked trait -- flatwing -- in wild Hawaiian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus). Flatwingsilences males by eliminating sound-producing structures on their forewings. Silence protects them from an acoustically-orienting parasitoid fly (Ormia ochracea), but interferes with their ability to attract and court females for mating. Silent crickets spread rapidly on several Hawaiian islands under pressure from the flies, representing one of the fastest rates of evoutionary change documented in the wild. Here we present an annotated genome sequence of T. oceanicus along with a linkage map and QTL analysis of the trait derived from RAD-sequencing of a backcrossed mapping population. RNA-seq was used to probe the functional pathways affected by the mutation during early development, and pleiotropic effects on another signaling trait, cuticular hydrocarbons, were assessed and genetically mapped.
    Reproducible molecular networking of untargeted mass spectrometry data using GNPS
    Aron, Allegra T. ; Gentry, Emily C. ; McPhail, Kerry L. ; Nothias, Louis Félix ; Nothias-Esposito, Mélissa ; Bouslimani, Amina ; Petras, Daniel ; Gauglitz, Julia M. ; Sikora, Nicole ; Vargas, Fernando ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Ernst, Madeleine ; Kang, Kyo Bin ; Aceves, Christine M. ; Caraballo-Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio ; Koester, Irina ; Weldon, Kelly C. ; Bertrand, Samuel ; Roullier, Catherine ; Sun, Kunyang ; Tehan, Richard M. ; Boya P, Cristopher A. ; Christian, Martin H. ; Gutiérrez, Marcelino ; Ulloa, Aldo Moreno ; Tejeda Mora, Javier Andres ; Mojica-Flores, Randy ; Lakey-Beitia, Johant ; Vásquez-Chaves, Victor ; Zhang, Yilue ; Calderón, Angela I. ; Tayler, Nicole ; Keyzers, Robert A. ; Tugizimana, Fidele ; Ndlovu, Nombuso ; Aksenov, Alexander A. ; Jarmusch, Alan K. ; Schmid, Robin ; Truman, Andrew W. ; Bandeira, Nuno ; Wang, Mingxun ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. - \ 2020
    Nature protocols 15 (2020). - ISSN 1754-2189 - p. 1954 - 1991.

    Global Natural Product Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) is an interactive online small molecule–focused tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) data curation and analysis infrastructure. It is intended to provide as much chemical insight as possible into an untargeted MS2 dataset and to connect this chemical insight to the user’s underlying biological questions. This can be performed within one liquid chromatography (LC)-MS2 experiment or at the repository scale. GNPS-MassIVE is a public data repository for untargeted MS2 data with sample information (metadata) and annotated MS2 spectra. These publicly accessible data can be annotated and updated with the GNPS infrastructure keeping a continuous record of all changes. This knowledge is disseminated across all public data; it is a living dataset. Molecular networking—one of the main analysis tools used within the GNPS platform—creates a structured data table that reflects the molecular diversity captured in tandem mass spectrometry experiments by computing the relationships of the MS2 spectra as spectral similarity. This protocol provides step-by-step instructions for creating reproducible, high-quality molecular networks. For training purposes, the reader is led through a 90- to 120-min procedure that starts by recalling an example public dataset and its sample information and proceeds to creating and interpreting a molecular network. Each data analysis job can be shared or cloned to disseminate the knowledge gained, thus propagating information that can lead to the discovery of molecules, metabolic pathways, and ecosystem/community interactions.

    Conifer and broadleaved trees differ in branch allometry but maintain similar functional balances
    Zhang, Lan ; Chen, Yajun ; Hao, Guangyou ; Ma, Keping ; Bongers, Frans ; Sterck, Frank J. - \ 2020
    Tree Physiology 40 (2020)4. - ISSN 0829-318X - p. 511 - 519.
    allometry - canopy - functional balance - wood anatomy - xylem growth

    Conifers and broadleaved trees coexist in temperate forests and are expected to differ in partitioning strategies between leaf and stem. We compare functional balances between water loss and water supply, and between sugar production and sugar transport/storage, and associate these with xylem growth to better understand how they contribute to these life form strategies. We sampled canopy branches from 14 common species in a temperate forest in northeast China and measured xylem area, phloem area, ray area, ray percentage, dry wood density, xylem conductivity and mean xylem growth rate for branch stems, and the leaf area and specific leaf area for leaves, and calculated the leaf-specific conductivity. Conifers and broadleaved trees did not differ significantly in tissue areas, xylem growth rate and the relation between phloem area and leaf area. Conifers had higher xylem area but lower ray area relative to leaf area. For the same xylem conductivity, phloem area and ray parenchyma area did not differ between conifers and broadleaved trees. Xylem growth rate was similar relative to leaf area and phloem area. Our results indicate that conifers tend to develop more xylem area per leaf area and more tracheid area at the cost of ray parenchyma area, probably to compensate for the low water transport ability of tracheid-based xylem. The divergent strategies between conifers and broadleaved tree species in leaf area and xylem area partitioning probably lead to the convergence of partitioning between leaf area and phloem area. Consequently, conifers tend to consume rather than store carbon to achieve a similar xylem expansion per year as coexisting broadleaved trees.

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