Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Novel function of Bleutongue Virus NS3 Protein in Regulation of the MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathway
Kundlacz, Cindy ; Pourcelot, Marie ; Fablet, Aurore ; Amaral Da Silva Moraes, Rayane ; Leger, Thibaut ; Morlet, Bastien ; Viarouge, Cyril ; Sailleau, C. ; Turpaud, Mathilde ; Gorlier, Axel ; Breard, Emmanuel ; Lecollinet, S. ; Rijn, P.A. van; Zientara, Stephan ; Vitour, Damien ; Caignard, Gregory - \ 2019
Journal of Virology 93 (2019)16. - ISSN 0022-538X - 17 p.
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus transmitted by blood-feeding midges to a wide range of wild and domestic ruminants. In this report, we showed that BTV, through its nonstructural protein NS3 (BTV-NS3), is able to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway, as assessed by phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and the translation initiation factor eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). By combining immunoprecipitation of BTV-NS3 and mass spectrometry analysis from both BTV-infected and NS3-transfected cells, we identified the serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf (BRAF), a crucial player in the MAPK/ERK pathway, as a new cellular interactor of BTV-NS3. BRAF silencing led to a significant decrease in the MAPK/ERK activation by BTV, supporting a model wherein BTV-NS3 interacts with BRAF to activate this signaling cascade. This positive regulation acts independently of the role of BTV-NS3 in counteracting the induction of the alpha/beta interferon response. Furthermore, the intrinsic ability of BTV-NS3 to bind BRAF and activate the MAPK/ERK pathway is conserved throughout multiple serotypes/strains but appears to be specific to BTV compared to other members of Orbivirus genus. Inhibition of MAPK/ERK pathway with U0126 reduced viral titers, suggesting that BTV manipulates this pathway for its own replication. Altogether, our data provide molecular mechanisms that unravel a new essential function of NS3 during BTV infection.
High-resolution melting PCR analysis for rapid genotyping of Burkholderia mallei
Girault, G. ; Wattiau, P. ; Saqib, M. ; Martin, B. ; Vorimore, F. ; Singha, H. ; Engelsma, M. ; Roest, H.J. ; Spicic, S. ; Grunow, R. ; Vicari, N. ; Keersmaecker, S.C.J. De; Roosens, N.H.C. ; Fabbi, M. ; Tripathi, B.N. ; Zientara, S. ; Madani, N. ; Laroucau, K. - \ 2018
Infection, Genetics and Evolution 63 (2018). - ISSN 1567-1348 - p. 1 - 4.
Burkholderia mallei - Genotyping - HRM

Burkholderia (B.) mallei is the causative agent of glanders. A previous work conducted on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) extracted from the whole genome sequences of 45 B. mallei isolates identified 3 lineages for this species. In this study, we designed a high-resolution melting (HRM) method for the screening of 15 phylogenetically informative SNPs within the genome of B. mallei that subtype the species into 3 lineages and 12 branches/sub-branches/groups. The present results demonstrate that SNP-based genotyping represent an interesting approach for the molecular epidemiology analysis of B. mallei.

Data collection for risk assessments on animal health (DACRAH) : Final report
Dórea, Fernanda C. ; Swanenburg, M. ; Roermund, H.J.W. van; Horigan, Verity ; Vos-de Jong, C.J. de; Gale, P. ; Lilja, T. ; Comin, Arianna ; Bahuon, Céline ; Zientara, Stephan ; Young, Beth ; Vial, Flavie ; Kosmider, Rowena ; Lindberg, A. - \ 2017
EFSA (EFSA supporting information 2017:EN-1171)
Turnover rate of NS3 proteins modulates bluetongue virus replication kinetics in a host-specific manner
Ftaich, Najate ; Ciancia, Claire ; Viarouge, Cyril ; Barry, Gerald ; Ratinier, Maxime ; Rijn, P.A. van; Breard, Emmanuel ; Vitour, Damien ; Zientara, Stephan ; Palmarini, Massimo ; Terzian, Christophe ; Arnaud, Frédérick - \ 2015
Journal of Virology 89 (2015)20. - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 10467 - 10481.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus transmitted to livestock by midges of the Culicoides family and is the etiological agent of a hemorrhagic disease in sheep and other ruminants. In mammalian cells, BTV particles are released primarily by virus-induced cell lysis, while in insect cells they bud from the plasma membrane and establish a persistent infection. BTV possesses a ten-segmented double-stranded RNA genome, and NS3 proteins are encoded by segment 10 (Seg-10). The viral nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) plays a key role in mediating BTV egress as well as in impeding the in vitro synthesis of type I interferon in mammalian cells. In this study, we asked whether genetically distant NS3 proteins can alter BTV-host interactions. Using a reverse genetics approach, we showed that, depending on the NS3 considered, BTV replication kinetics varied in mammals but not in insects. In particular, one of the NS3 proteins analyzed harbored a proline at position 24 that leads to its rapid intracellular decay in ovine but not in Culicoides cells and to the attenuation of BTV virulence in a mouse model of disease. Overall, our data reveal that the genetic variability of Seg-10/NS3 differentially modulates BTV replication kinetics in a host-specific manner and highlight the role of the host-specific variation in NS3 protein turnover rate.

European interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) real-time RT-PCR detection in experimental and field samples: The method of extraction is critical for SBV RNA detection in semen
Schulz, C. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Ponsart, C. ; Cay, A.B. ; Steinbach, F. ; Zientara, S. ; Beer, M. ; Hoffmann, B. - \ 2015
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 27 (2015)4. - ISSN 1040-6387 - p. 422 - 430.
Molecular methods for the detection of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) RNA were rapidly developed after the emergence of this novel orthobunyavirus in Europe. The SBV epizootic wave has declined, but infectious SBV in SBV RNA–positive semen remains a possible risk for the distribution of SBV. However, the abilities of SBV molecular detection methods used at European laboratories have not yet been assessed, to our knowledge. The performances of extraction and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) methods used at 27 German and 17 other European laboratories for SBV RNA detection in the matrices of whole blood, serum, tissue homogenate, RNA eluates, and bovine semen were evaluated in 2 interlaboratory trials with special emphasis on semen extraction methods. For reliable detection of viral genome in bovine semen samples, highly effective extraction methods are essential to cope with the potential inhibitory effects of semen components on PCR results. All methods used by the 44 laboratories were sufficiently robust to detect SBV RNA with high diagnostic sensitivity (100%) and specificity (95.8%) in all matrices, except semen. The trials demonstrated that the published recommended semen extraction methods (Hoffmann et al. 2013) and a combination of TRIzol LS with an alternative extraction kit have a considerably higher diagnostic sensitivity to detect SBV RNA in semen up to a detection limit of Cq ≤35 compared to other extraction methods used. A thorough validation of extraction methods with standardized semen batches is essential before their use for SBV RNA detection in bovine semen.
Limited interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus antibody detection in serum samples.
Poel, W.H.M. van der; Cay, B. ; Zientara, S. ; Steinbach, F. ; Valarcher, J.F. ; Botner, A. ; Mars, M.H. ; Hakze-van der Honing, R.W. van der; Schirrmeier, H. ; Beer, M. - \ 2014
Veterinary Record 174 (2014). - ISSN 0042-4900 - 3 p.
Eight veterinary institutes in seven different countries in Europe participated in a limited interlaboratory comparison trial to evaluate laboratory performances of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) antibody detection in serum. Seven different sheep sera and three different cattle sera were circulated, and all participating institutes were asked to test these sera using SBV antibody detection assay(s) in place in their laboratories. All laboratories within the trial performed a virus neutralisation test (VNT) as well as one or two ELISAs on all samples, and swiftly detected SBV antibodies using these assays. VNT was more sensitive in detecting SBV antibodies than several of the used ELISA assays. Based on the test results, one cattle and one sheep SBV antibody-positive serum were selected to serve as reference sera, which now can be supplied to other laboratories on request.
Scientific Opinion concerning a Multifactorial approach on the use of animal and non-animal-based measures to assess the welfare of pigs
Authie, E. ; Berg, C. ; Bøtner, A. ; Browman, H. ; Capua, I. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Depner, K. ; Domingo, M. ; Edwards, S. ; Fourichon, C. ; Koenen, F. ; More, S. ; Raj, M.A.B. ; Sihvonen, L. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Stegeman, J.A. ; Thulke, H.H. ; Vågsholm, I. ; Velarde, A. ; Willeberg, P. ; Zientara, S. - \ 2014
EFSA Journal 12 (2014)5. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 101 p.
Pigs have a need for manipulable materials to satisfy a range of behavioural needs, which can be different in different classes of pig. When these needs are not met, a range of adverse welfare consequences result, one of these being an increased risk for tail-biting in weaners and rearing pigs. The ability to control the risk of tail- biting is essential when aiming to avoid tail-docking. Based on available scientific information this Opinion identifies the multiple interactions between risk factors, welfare consequences and animal and non-animal-based measures on the two subjects requested (i) the absence of functional manipulable materials, for pigs at different stages in life and (ii) tail-biting, for weaners and rearing pigs only. An attempt is made to quantify the relationships between the identified interactions by carrying out a statistical analysis of information from available databases, those being an international dataset collected using the Welfare Quality® protocol, which was not designed to evaluate risk factors for tail-biting and therefore, it had limitations in fitness for this analysis, and a large Finnish dataset with undocked pigs. Based on the current state of knowledge, the AHAW Panel proposes two simple tool-boxes for on farm use to assess (i) the functionality of the supplied manipulable material and (ii) the presence and strength of risk factors for tail biting. Both proposed tool-boxes include a combination of the most important resource-based and animal-based measures. Further development and validation of decision–support tools for customised farm assessment is strongly recommended and a proposal for harmonised data collection across the range of European farming circumstances is presented. A series of further recommendations are made by the AHAW Panel.
Scientific Opinion on the use of low atmosphere pressure system (LAPS) for stunning poultry
Authie, E. ; Berg, C. ; Bøtner, A. ; Browman, H. ; Capua, I. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Depner, K. ; Domingo, M. ; Edwards, S. ; Fourichon, C. ; Koenen, F. ; More, S. ; Raj, M.A.B. ; Sihvonen, L. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Stegeman, J.A. ; Thulke, H.H. ; Vågsholm, I. ; Velarde, A. ; Willeberg, P. ; Zientara, S. - \ 2014
EFSA Journal 12 (2014)1. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 27 p.
The EFSA's Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the use of a low atmosphere pressure system (LAPS) for stunning poultry. Four documents were provided by the European Commission (EC) as the basis for an assessment of the extent to which the LAPS is able to provide a level of animal welfare at least equivalent to that ensured by the current allowed methods for stunning poultry. The LAPS is described as rendering poultry unconscious by gradually reducing oxygen tension in the atmosphere leading to progressive hypoxia in the birds. In order to be allowed in the EU, new stunning methods must ensure 1) absence of pain, distress and suffering until the onset of unconsciousness, and 2) that the animal remains unconscious until death. The submitted studies were peer-reviewed by the AHAW Panel as outlined in its “Guidance on the assessment criteria for studies evaluating the effectiveness of stunning intervention regarding animal protection at the time of killing”. It is unclear from the submitted documents whether the rate of decompression used in LAPS induces unconsciousness and death without causing avoidable pain and suffering in poultry. The assessed studies did not pass the eligibility assessment and, therefore, no further assessment was undertaken.
Spatio-temporal risk of initial spread of African Horse Sickness into France
Faverjon, A. ; Leblond, A. ; Hendrikx, P. ; Baleghien, T. ; Zientara, S. ; Vos-de Jong, C.J. de; Koeijer, A.A. de - \ 2013
Scientific Opinion on monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for sheep and goats
Authie, E. ; Berg, C. ; Bøtner, A. ; Browman, H. ; Capua, I. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Depner, K. ; Domingo, M. ; Edwards, S. ; Fourichon, C. ; Koenen, F. ; More, S. ; Raj, M.A.B. ; Sihvonen, L. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Stegeman, J.A. ; Thulke, H.H. ; Vågsholm, I. ; Velarde, A. ; Willeberg, P. ; Zientara, S. - \ 2013
EFSA Journal 11 (2013)12. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 65 p.
This scientific opinion proposes toolboxes of welfare indicators for developing monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for sheep and goats stunned with the head-only electrical method or slaughtered without stunning. In particular, the opinion proposes welfare indicators together with their corresponding outcomes of consciousness, unconsciousness or death. In the case of slaughter with head-only electrical stunning, the opinion proposes a toolbox to assess consciousness at three key stages of monitoring: (a) after electrical stunning and during shackling and hoisting, (b) during neck cutting and (c) during bleeding. For slaughter without stunning, another toolbox is proposed for (a) assessing unconsciousness before releasing the animals from restraint, and (b) confirming death before carcass dressing begins. Various activities—including a systematic literature review, an online survey and stakeholders‘ and hearing experts‘ meetings—were conducted to gather information about the sensitivity, specificity and feasibility of the indicators. On the basis of such information, a methodology was developed to select the most appropriate indicators to be used in the monitoring procedures. The frequency of checking differs according to the role of each person with responsibility for ensuring animal welfare. The personnel performing stunning, shackling, hoisting and/or bleeding will have to check all the animals and confirm that they are not conscious following stunning or before releasing from the restraint. For the animal welfare officer, who has the overall responsibility for animal welfare, a mathematical model for the sampling protocols is proposed, giving some allowance to set the sample size of animals to be checked at a given throughput rate (total number of animals slaughtered in the slaughterhouses) and threshold failure rate (number of potential failures—proportion of animals that are conscious after stunning). Finally, different risk factors and scenarios are proposed to define a =normal‘ or a =reinforced‘ monitoring protocol, according to the needs of the slaughterhouse.
Scientific Opinion on monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for poultry
Authie, E. ; Berg, C. ; Bøtner, A. ; Browman, H. ; Capua, I. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Depner, K. ; Domingo, M. ; Edwards, S. ; Fourichon, C. ; Koenen, F. ; More, S. ; Raj, M.A.B. ; Sihvonen, L. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Stegeman, J.A. ; Thulke, H.H. ; Vågsholm, I. ; Velarde, A. ; Willeberg, P. ; Zientara, S. - \ 2013
EFSA Journal 11 (2013)12. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 65 p.
This scientific opinion proposes toolboxes of welfare indicators, and their corresponding outcomes of consciousness, unconsciousness or death, for developing monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for poultry stunned using electrical waterbaths and gas mixtures or slaughtered without stunning. For waterbath stunning, the opinion proposes a toolbox of indicators for assessing consciousness in poultry at two key stages of monitoring: (a) between the exit from the waterbath stunner and neck cutting and (b) during bleeding. For gas stunning, the opinion proposes a toolbox of indicators for assessing consciousness in poultry at two key stages of monitoring: (a) during shackling and (b) during bleeding. For slaughter without stunning, a toolbox is proposed for confirming death prior to entering scald tanks. Various activities—including a systematic literature review, an online survey and stakeholders‘ and hearing experts‘ meetings—were conducted to gather information about the specificity, sensitivity and feasibility of the indicators. On the basis of such information, a methodology was developed to select the most appropriate indicators to be used in the monitoring procedures. The frequency of checking differs according to the role of each person with responsibility for ensuring poultry welfare. The personnel will have to check all the birds and confirm that they are not conscious following stunning with electrical waterbaths or gas mixtures and that they are dead before entering scald tanks. For the animal welfare officer, a mathematical model for the sampling protocols is proposed, giving some allowance to set the sample size of birds that he/she needs to check at a given throughput rate (total number of birds slaughtered in the slaughterhouses) and threshold failure rate (number of potential failures—birds that are conscious after stunning). Finally, different risk factors and scenarios are proposed to define a =normal‘ or a =reinforced‘ monitoring protocol, according to the needs of the slaughterhouse.
Scientific Opinion on monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for pigs
Authie, E. ; Berg, C. ; Bøtner, A. ; Browman, H. ; Capua, I. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Depner, K. ; Domingo, M. ; Edwards, S. ; Fourichon, C. ; Koenen, F. ; More, S. ; Raj, M.A.B. ; Sihvonen, L. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Stegeman, J.A. ; Thulke, H.H. ; Vågsholm, I. ; Velarde, A. ; Willeberg, P. ; Zientara, S. - \ 2013
EFSA Journal 11 (2013)12. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 62 p.
This scientific opinion proposes toolboxes of welfare indicators for developing monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for pigs stunned with the head-only electrical method or carbon dioxide at high concentration. In particular, the opinion proposes welfare indicators together with their corresponding outcomes of consciousness, unconsciousness or death. The opinion proposes a toolbox of indicators and the outcomes to be used to assess consciousness in pigs at three key stages of monitoring: (a) after stunning and during shackling and hoisting, (b) during sticking and (c) during bleeding. Various activities—including a systematic literature review, an online survey and stakeholders‘ and hearing experts‘ meetings—were conducted to gather information about specificity, sensitivity and feasibility of the indicators that are to be included in the toolboxes for monitoring welfare. On the basis of information gathered during these activities, a methodology was developed to select the most appropriate indicators that could be used in the monitoring procedures. The frequency of checking differs according to the role of each person with responsibility for ensuring animal welfare at slaughter. The personnel performing stunning, shackling, hoisting and/or bleeding will have to check all the animals and confirm that they are not conscious following stunning. For the animal welfare officer, who has the overall responsibility for animal welfare, a mathematical model for the sampling protocols is proposed, giving some allowance to set the sample size of animals that he/she needs to check at a given throughput rate (total number of animals slaughtered in the slaughterhouses) and tolerance level (number of potential failures—animals that are conscious after stunning; animals that are not unconscious or not dead after slaughter without stunning). The model can also be applied to estimate threshold failure rate at a chosen throughput rate and sample size. Finally, different risk factors and scenarios are proposed to define a =normal‘ or a =reinforced‘ monitoring protocol, according to the needs of the slaughterhouse.
Guidance on the assessment criteria for studies evaluating the effectiveness of stunning interventions regarding animal protection at the time of killing
Authie, E. ; Berg, C. ; Bøtner, A. ; Browman, H. ; Capua, I. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Depner, K. ; Domingo, M. ; Edwards, S. ; Fourichon, C. ; Koenen, F. ; More, S. ; Raj, M.A.B. ; Sihvonen, L. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Stegeman, J.A. ; Thulke, H.H. ; Vågsholm, I. ; Velarde, A. ; Willeberg, P. ; Zientara, S. - \ 2013
EFSA Journal 11 (2013)12. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 41 p.
This guidance defines the assessment process and the criteria that will be applied by the Animal Health and Welfare Panel to studies on known new or modified legal stunning interventions to determine their suitability for further assessment. The criteria that need to be fulfilled are eligibility criteria, reporting quality criteria and methodological quality criteria. The eligibility criteria are based upon the legislation and previously published scientific data. They focus on the intervention and the outcomes of interest, i.e. immediate onset of unconsciousness and insensibility or absence of avoidable pain, distress and suffering until the loss of consciousness and sensibility, and duration of the unconsciousness and insensibility (until death). If a study fulfils the eligibility criteria, it will be assessed regarding a set of reporting quality criteria that are based on the REFLECT and the STROBE statements. As a final step in this first assessment phase, the methodological quality of the submitted study will be assessed. If the criteria regarding eligibility, reporting quality and methodological quality are fulfilled, a full assessment of the animal welfare implications of the proposed alternative stunning intervention, including both pre-stunning and stunning phases, and an evaluation of the quality, strength and external validity of the evidence presented would be carried out at the next level of the assessment. In the case that the criteria regarding eligibility and reporting quality and methodological quality are not fulfilled, the assessment report of the panel will highlight the shortcomings and indicate where improvements are required before the study can be assessed further. In addition to the assessment criteria, the guidance also specifies general aspects applicable to studies on stunning interventions that should be considered when studying the effectiveness of stunning interventions.
Scientific Opinion on monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for bovines
Authie, E. ; Berg, C. ; Bøtner, A. ; Browman, H. ; Capua, I. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Depner, K. ; Domingo, M. ; Edwards, S. ; Fourichon, C. ; Koenen, F. ; More, S. ; Raj, M.A.B. ; Sihvonen, L. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Stegeman, J.A. ; Thulke, H.H. ; Vågsholm, I. ; Velarde, A. ; Willeberg, P. ; Zientara, S. - \ 2013
EFSA Journal 11 (2013)12. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 65 p.
This scientific opinion proposes toolboxes of welfare indicators for developing monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for bovines stunned with penetrative captive bolt or slaughtered without stunning. In particular, the opinion proposes welfare indicators together with their corresponding outcomes of consciousness, unconsciousness or death. In the case of slaughter with captive bolt stunning, the opinion proposes a toolbox of indicators and the outcomes to be used to assess consciousness in bovine animals at three key stages of monitoring: (a) after stunning and during shackling and hoisting; (b) during neck cutting or sticking; and (c) during bleeding. For slaughter of bovines without stunning, a set of indicators and outcomes are proposed in another toolbox to be used for (a) assessing unconsciousness, before releasing bovines from restraint; and (b) confirming death before carcass dressing begins. Various activities—including a systematic literature review, an online survey and stakeholders’ and hearing experts’ meetings—were conducted to gather information about the specificity, sensitivity and feasibility of the indicators that can be included in the toolboxes. The frequency of checking differs according to the role of each person responsible for ensuring animal welfare. Personnel performing stunning, shackling, hoisting and/or bleeding will have to check all the animals and confirm that they are not conscious following stunning or before release from the restraint. For the animal welfare officer, who has the overall responsibility for animal welfare, a mathematical model for the sampling protocols is proposed, giving some allowance to set the sample size of animals that he/she needs to check at a given throughput rate (total number of animals slaughtered in the slaughterhouse) and tolerance level (number of potential failures). Finally, different risk factors and scenarios are proposed to define a ‘normal’ or a ‘reinforced’ monitoring protocol, according to the needs of the slaughterhouse.
Spatio-temporal quantitative risk assessment of introducing African horse sickness into Western Europe
Faverjon, C. ; Leblond, A. ; Hendrikx, P. ; Balenghien, T. ; Zientara, S. ; Vos, C.J. de; Koeijer, A.A. de - \ 2013
Activity of the AtMRP3 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants is increased by cadmium, nickel, arsenic, cobalt and lead but not by zinc and iron
Zientara, K. ; Wawrzynska, A. ; Lukomska, J. ; Lopez Moya, J.R. ; Liszewska, F. ; Assuncao, A.G.L. ; Aarts, M.G.M. ; Sirko, A. - \ 2009
Journal of Biotechnology 139 (2009)3. - ISSN 0168-1656 - p. 258 - 263.
hyperaccumulator thlaspi-caerulescens - abc transporters - expression differences - genes - transformation - glutathione - lignin
Characterization of the function, regulation and metal-specificity of metal transporters is one of the basic steps needed for the understanding of transport and accumulation of toxic metals and metalloids by plants. In this work GUS was used as a reporter for monitoring the activity of the promoter of the AtMRP3 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene encoding an ABC-transporter, expression of which is induced by heavy metals. The AtMRP3 promoter-GUS fusion expression cassette was introduced into the genome of two model plants, A. thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. The promoter induces GUS activity in the roots as well as in the shoots upon metal exposure. Similar responses of the AtMRP3 promoter to the presence of the selected metals was observed in both plant species. Cadmium, nickel, arsenic, cobalt and lead strongly activated the transcription of the reporter gene, while zinc and iron had no impact. The AtMRP3 promoter thus seems to be a useful new tool in designing plants that can be used for biomonitoring of environmental contaminations
Bekämpfung der Blauzungenkrankheit - Eine neue Herausforderung für Europa
Makoschey, Birgit ; Beer, M. ; Zientara, S. ; Haubruge, E. ; Rinaldi, L. ; Dercksen, D. ; Millemann, Y. ; Rijn, P. van; Clercq, K. De; Oura, C. ; Saegerman, C. ; Domingo, M. ; Sánchez-Vizcaino, J.M. ; Mehlhorn, H. ; Tamba, M. ; Thiry, E. - \ 2008
Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 121 (2008)7-8. - ISSN 0005-9366 - p. 306 - 313.
Sequence analysis of bluetongue virus serotype 8 from the Netherlands 2006 and comparison to other European strains
Maan, S. ; Maan, N.S. ; Ross-Smith, N. ; Batten, C. ; Shaw, A.E. ; Anthony, S. ; Samual, A.R. ; Darpel, K.E. ; Veronesi, E. ; Oura, C.A.L. ; Singh, K.P. ; Nomikou, K. ; Potgieter, A. ; Attoui, H. ; Rooij, E.M.A. van; Rijn, P.A. van; Clercq, K. ; Vandenbussche, F. ; Zientara, S. ; Breard, E. ; Sailleau, C. ; Beer, M. ; Hoffmann, B. ; Mellor, P.S. ; Mertens, P.P.C. - \ 2008
Virology 377 (2008)2. - ISSN 0042-6822 - p. 308 - 318.
epizootic hemorrhagic-disease - complete nucleotide-sequence - republic-of-china - rt-pcr assay - phylogenetic analyses - mediterranean basin - genome segments - capsid protein - gene - vectors
During 2006 the first outbreak of bluetongue ever recorded in northern Europe started in Belgium and the Netherlands, spreading to Luxemburg, Germany and north-east France. The virus overwintered (2006¿2007) reappearing during May¿June 2007 with greatly increased severity in affected areas, spreading further into Germany and France, reaching Denmark, Switzerland, the Czech Republic and the UK. Infected animals were also imported into Poland, Italy, Spain and the UK. An initial isolate from the Netherlands (NET2006/04) was identified as BTV-8 by RT-PCR assays targeting genome segment 2. The full genome of NET2006/04 was sequenced and compared to selected European isolates, South African vaccine strains and other BTV-8 strains, indicating that it originated in sub-Saharan Africa. Although NET2006/04 showed high levels of nucleotide identity with other `western¿ BTV strains, it represents a new introduction and was not derived from the BTV-8 vaccine, although its route of entry into Europe has not been established.
Epidemiological analysis of the 2006 bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic nin North-Western Europe : distribution and dynamics of vector species
Elbers, A.R.W. ; Mintiens, K. ; Gerbier, G. ; Spek, A.N. van der; Meroc, E. ; Zientara, S. ; Rijn, P.A. van - \ 2007
[S.l.] : S.n. - 9
schapenhouderij - veehouderij - bluetonguevirus - infectieziekten - dierziekten - besmetting - epidemiologische onderzoeken - nederland - belgië - frankrijk - sheep farming - livestock farming - bluetongue virus - infectious diseases - animal diseases - contamination - epidemiological surveys - netherlands - belgium - france
For the development of surveillance programs in the aftermath of the epidemic it is important to know what is to be expected on the distribution of infection within livestock herds. Livestock herds are epidemiological units within geographical compartments in a country from which (sentinel) animals are sampled to determine the infection status. Sample size calculations to detect to disease or estimate prevalence of disease are dependent on the a priori prevalence of disease to be expected after introduction into a animal herd. The objective of this investigation was to describe the distribution of laboratory confirmed infection (serology and PCR) in infected cattle and sheep herds in the affected countries France, Belgium and the Netherlands
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