Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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    GO-FRESH: Valorisatie kansrijke oplossingen voor een robuuste zoetwatervoorziening : Rendabel en duurzaam watergebruik in een zilte omgeving
    Veraart, J.A. ; Oude Essink, G. ; Pauw, P. ; Baaren, E. van; Zuurbier, K. ; Louw, P. de; MacAteer, E. ; Schoot, M. van der; Groot, N. ; Cappon, H. ; Waterloo, M. ; Hu-a-ng, K. ; Groen, M. - \ 2018
    Deltares - 187 p.
    GO-FRESH: Valorisatie kansrijke oplossingen voor een robuuste zoetwatervoorziening
    Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Baaren, E.S. ; Zuurbier, K.G. ; Velstra, J. ; Veraart, J.A. - \ 2014
    Utrecht : Kennis voor Klimaat - ISBN 9789492100122 - 84
    klimaatverandering - watervoorziening - zoet water - geohydrologie - wateropslag - ondergrond - zeeland - climatic change - water supply - fresh water - geohydrology - water storage - subsoil - zeeland
    Een consortium onderzoekt in hoeverre lokale maatregelen de zoetwaterbeschikbaarheid voor de landbouw kunnen vergroten in gebieden die onafhankelijk zijn van het hoofdwatersysteem. Hierbij wordt de ondergrond gebruikt voor opslag van zoet water in periodes van wateroverschot, om het water vervolgens te gebruiken in droge tijden. Het betreft een Kennis voor Klimaat project in de Zuidwestelijke Delta.
    Balancing supply and demand of fresh water under increasing drought and salinisation in the Netherlands
    Jeuken, A. ; Beek, E. ; Duinen, R. ; Veen, A. van der; Bocalon, A. ; Delsman, J. ; Pauw, P.S. ; Oude Essink, G. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Stofberg, S.F. ; Zuurbier, K. ; Stuyfzand, P. ; Appelman, W. ; Creusen, R. ; Paalman, M. ; Katschnig, D. ; Rozema, J. ; Mens, M. ; Kwakkel, J. ; Thissen, W. ; Veraart, J.A. ; Tolk, L. ; Vries, A. de - \ 2012
    Utrecht : Knowledge for Climate - 42
    watervoorziening - zoet water - klimaatverandering - droogte - verzilting - water supply - fresh water - climatic change - drought - salinization
    The latest climate impact assessments show that climate change will cause an increasing mismatch between demand and supply of fresh water in many densely populated deltas around the world. Recent studies for the Netherlands show that the current water supply strategy is not climate proof in the long-run. Therefore, a future ‘climate proof’ fresh water supply is national priority on the Dutch water policy agenda
    Sustainability and certification in the biofuels sector: some critical observations
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2010
    biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidscriteria - certificering - overheidsbeleid - biobased economy - biofuels - sustainability - sustainability criteria - certification - government policy
    The society at large demand sustainable production of products often defined in terms of the planet, profit and people categories. Many industrial sectors started to internalize sustainability in their company processes. Public policies underscored these initiatives by giving incentives to raise awareness, support initiatives and disseminate the value of sustainability. In the last decade initiatives came to life to connect confidence, trust and sustainability in the agri- fuel- and food industry. One of the more interesting attempts are Round Tables for sustainable production of palm oil, forest exploitation, biofuels, sugar or soybean. However, are the results positive. Some of these initiatives seem more successful than others. The question is why? How can one interpret these initiatives in terms of performance, structure and governance mechanisms? Based on a comparison of several of these initiatives, conclusions are drawn and hypotheses defined. More in particular, the observations focus on network development, weaknesses in the governance structures, ambivalence in the public domain and the resulting societal confusion.
    Prólogo
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2009
    In: La Nueva economia y negocios agroalimentarios / Ordonez, H.A., Buenos Aires : Universidad de Buenos Aires - ISBN 9789502911427 - p. XXVII - XXVII.
    Innovation trends in the European agribusiness: some experiences in the European livestock industry
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2009
    In: Proceedings of Zootec 2009, the XIX Congreso Brasileiro de Zootecnia, São Paulo, Brazil, Mai 18-22, 2009. - - p. 190 - 195.
    Efficiëntie van Led-belichting bij roos
    Sterk, F. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. ; Swinkels, G.L.A.M. ; Warmenhoven, M.G. ; Steenhuizen, J.W. ; Zuurbier, R. ; Dueck, T.A. - \ 2009
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw 304)
    rosa - verlichting - kunstmatige verlichting - tuinbouw - lichtsterkte - fotosynthese - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - rosa - lighting - artificial lighting - horticulture - light intensity - photosynthesis - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology
    Teelt onder LED en SON-T boven- en tussenbelichting zijn met elkaar vergeleken. Lichtintensiteit van de LED bovenbelichting leverde tussen januari en maart een hogere productie per mol PAR op, zowel in aantal takken, als in het totaal gewicht van de takken. Het verschil werd kleiner naarmate het natuurlijk licht toenam. Het indivuduele takgewicht (gewicht per tak) was verhoogd onder SON-T-boven met LED-tussenbelichting. Loosvorming kwam minder voor onder LED-belichting.
    A Non-naive Explanation of Trust
    Zylbersztajn, D. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2009
    In: Advances in supply chain analysis in agri-food systems / Zylbersztajn, D., Omta, S.W.F, Sao Paulo : Editora Singular - ISBN 9788586626524 - p. 17 - 30.
    The road to institutional scientific collaboration in chains and networks
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2009
    In: Advances in supply chain analysis in agri-food systems / Zylbersztajn, D., Omta, S.W.F., Sao Paulo : Editora Singular - ISBN 9788586626524 - p. 89 - 102.
    Verruigt de Boschplaat? 52 jaar vegetatie-ontwikkeling op een onbeweide kwelder
    Sykora, K.V. ; Martens, R. ; Zuurbier, A. ; Roozen, T. - \ 2009
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 6 (2009)5. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 25 - 28.
    vegetatie - kustgebieden - kweldergronden - nederlandse waddeneilanden - vegetation - coastal areas - salt marsh soils - dutch wadden islands
    De Nederlandse kwelders zijn van zeer grote internationale betekenis. Dit geldt zeker voor de Boschplaat op Terschelling die in 1970 de status van Europees Natuurreservaat kreeg. Tot 1929 bestond de Boschplaat uit een onbegroeide zandplaat met daarop vijf door kreken gescheiden duincomplexen. Bij storm was het gebied toegankelijk voor de Noordzee. Daaraan kwam tussen 1931 en 1937 een einde door de geleidelijke aanleg van de bijna 8 km kilometer lange ‘stuifdijk’, een kunstmatige zeereep. Daardoor kon alleen de Waddenzee dit gebied bij hoogwater nog overspoelen en er slib afzetten waardoor een uitgestrekt kweldersysteem ontstond. Afgezien van een klein deel werd het gebied niet beweid. Aan de hand van permanente transecten is te zien hoe de vegetatie zich na een halve eeuw heeft ontwikkeld, zoals bv. kweldergras, slijkgras, zeealsem, zeekweek en zandhaver
    Why are current world food prices so high?
    Banse, M.A.H. ; Nowicki, P.L. ; Meijl, H. van - \ 2008
    In: Sugar cane ethanol contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment / Zuurbier, P., Vooren, J. van de, Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860906 - p. 227 - 247.
    Introduction to sugarcane ethanol contributions to climate change migration and the environment
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Vooren, J.G. van de - \ 2008
    In: Sugarcane Ethanol - Contributions to climate change migration and the environment / Zuurbier, Peter, van de Vooren, Jos, Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860906 - p. 19 - 27.
    Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Vooren, J.G. van de - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860906 - 255
    milieubeleid - klimaatverandering - suiker - suikerriet - milieu - ethanol - landgebruik - landbouwproductie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - transport - economische impact - milieueconomie - bioethanol - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - environmental policy - climatic change - sugar - sugarcane - environment - ethanol - land use - agricultural production - sustainability - transport - economic impact - environmental economics - bioethanol - biobased economy - biofuels
    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages to people, the environment and the economy. Not surprisingly, governments currently enact powerful incentives for the development and exploitation of bio ethanol. However, every inch we come closer to this achievement, evokes more skepticism. Many questions are raised relating to whether sugar cane is really a sustainable solution. Still much is unknown about the net release of carbon dioxide and what the impacts of sugar cane expansion are on green house gas emissions. This book looks at the scientific base of the debate on sugar cane bioethanol. Authors from Europe, Brazil and the USA capture many aspects of what is known and address assumptions while not denying that still much is unknown. It covers impacts on climate change, land use, sustainability and market demands. This publication discusses public policy impacts, technology developments, the fuel-food dilemma and the millennium development goals.
    Viable value chains and pro-poor development
    Vellema, S. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Joosten, F.J. - \ 2008
    Quality and safety standards in the food industry, developments and challenges
    Trienekens, J.H. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2008
    International Journal of Production Economics 113 (2008)1. - ISSN 0925-5273 - p. 107 - 122.
    developing-countries - assurance - exports
    Consumer concerns related to food safety scandals and globalization of food production have resulted in a global and interconnected system for the production and distribution of food. In the last decade many public and private standards on food safety and quality have been developed as a result of these developments. Currently, there is proliferation of standards worldwide. One effect is that, in particular, companies from developing countries and emerging economies have problems to comply with these standards. Another important effect is increasing marginal costs of certification and accreditation, which also puts pressure on company profits in industrialized countries. The combined impacts of these effects ask for strategies to revalue the cost/effectiveness of the certification and accreditation system.
    Sustainability of feedstock for bio-diesel
    Bindraban, P.S. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2007
    Food chains and networks for development: lessons and outlook
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Ruben, R. ; Nijhoff, G.H. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2006
    In: Agro-Food Chains and Networks for Development / Ruven, R., Slingerland, M., Nijhof, H., Dordrecht : Springer (Wageningen UR Frontis series 14) - ISBN 9781402045929 - p. 219 - 232.
    Do food quality assurance systems demand complex governance structures?
    Ordonez, H.A. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Senesi, S.I. ; Palau, H. - \ 2006
    - 13 p.
    In recent years, several agrifood crises broke out in various countries of Europe, in the US, Japan, Canada and also in Argentina. Consumers are consequently much more concerned now about what they eat. In view of such events, consumers in wealthy industrialized countries began to demand food origin and quality assurance. In order to respond to the new situation, companies have designed certifications to assure food quality and safety. As quality certifications are incorporated to foods, the specificity of the assets rises, and market is not the best option to govern the transactions. Based on this theory, it is possible to ask, ¿Do food quality assurance systems demand complex governance structures?¿ This paper describes three certifications ¿Organics, GAP and Hereford Beef¿ in Argentina, identifying institutional, organizational, technological and market aspects and the main governance structures in these systems. The conclusion is that, although the theory indicates that more complex governance structures ¿such as hybrid forms¿ are required, of the three certifications studied, only Hereford Beef develops contracts or netchains with producers and stakeholders, while the others do not generate these complex and formal forms of governance structures
    Global supply change and the role of smallholders
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2005
    - 4 p.
    Overheidsimpuls voor biobrandstof
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Broens, D.F. - \ 2005
    Het Financieele Dagblad (2005).
    Focus on Food Insecurity and Vulnerability: A Review on The UN System Commen Country Assessments and World Bank Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers
    Bindraban, P.S. ; Aalbers, H.L. ; Moll, H.A.J. ; Brouwer, I.D. ; Dorp, M. van; Houtman, C.B. ; Brouwer, M.L. ; Zuurbier, M.M.M. ; Hagenaars, E.C.M. - \ 2003
    Rome, Italy : FAO - 58 p.
    Interactions between turbulent wind flow and saltation sand transport
    Sterk, G. ; Boxel, J. van; Zuurbier, R. - \ 2002
    In: Proceedings of ICAR 5/GCTE-SEN Joint Conference, Lubbock, Texas, U.S.A., Lubbock, Texas, 2002 / Lee, J.A., Zobeck, T.M., - p. 63 - 65.
    Determination of area-averaged sensible heat fluxes with a large aperture scintillometer over a heterogeneous surface - Flevoland field experiment
    Meijninger, W.M.L. ; Hartogensis, O.K. ; Kohsiek, W. ; Hoedjes, J.C.B. ; Zuurbier, R.M. ; DeBruin, H.A.R. - \ 2002
    Boundary-Layer Meteorology 105 (2002). - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 37 - 62.
    To test the applicability of the scintillation method over a heterogeneous area an experiment was carried out in the summer of 1998 in Flevoland (The Netherlands). In the patchy area only four crops were grown namely sugar beet, potatoes, wheat and onions. From eddy covariance measurements it was found that the heterogeneity was mainly caused by differences in thermal properties. No variations in the aerodynamics roughness length were observed. Two large aperture scintillometers were installed at a height of 11.6 and 20.4 m. A good resemblance was found between the sensible heat fluxes derived from both LAS instruments and the area-averaged fluxes obtained from the in-situ eddy covariance measurements. The slight underestimation of the lower LAS could be assessed using a blending height model and an analytical footprint model. The results also indicated that when scintillometer measurements are made below the blending height the violation to Monin–Obukhov Similarity Theory is small and that reasonable fluxes can be obtained from path-averaged structure parameters
    Determination of area averaged water vapour fluxes with large aperture and radio wave scintillometers over a heterogeneous surface - Flevoland field experiment
    Meijninger, W.M.L. ; Green, A.E. ; Hartogensis, O.K. ; Kohsiek, W. ; Hoedjes, J.C.B. ; Zuurbier, R.M. ; DeBruin, H.A.R. - \ 2002
    Boundary-Layer Meteorology 105 (2002). - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 63 - 83.
    A large aperture scintillometer (LAS) and radio wave scintillometer (RWS) were installed over a heterogeneous area to test the applicability of the scintillation method. The heterogeneity in the area, which consisted of many plots, was mainly caused by differences in thermal properties of the crops; the variations in the aerodynamic roughness length were small. The water vapour fluxes derived from the combined LAS-RWS system, also known as the two-wavelength method, agreed fairly well with the aggregated water vapour fluxes derived from in-situ eddy covariance measurements. The water vapour fluxes derived from a stand-alone LAS are also presented. It was found that a single LAS and an estimate of the area averaged available energy (using a simple parameterisation scheme) can provide also reasonable area-averaged water vapour fluxes.
    Large aperture scintillometer used over a homogeneous irrigated area, partly affected by regional advection
    Hoedjes, J.C.B. ; Zuurbier, R.M. ; Watts, J.C. - \ 2002
    Boundary-Layer Meteorology 105 (2002). - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 99 - 117.
    Scintillometer measurements were collected over an irrigated wheat field in a semi-arid region in northwest Mexico. Conditions were unstable in the morning and stable during the afternoon, while latent heat fluxes remained high throughout the day. Regional advection was observed during near-neutral conditions. Monin–Obukhov similarity relationships for the structure parameter of temperature were verified in both unstable and stable conditions, but were violated close to near-neutral conditions. We found that, using additional measurements of radiation, soil heat flux and windspeed, areally averages of both sensible and latent heat fluxes can be reliably predicted by large aperture scintillometer measurements, as long as the net radiation is greater than zero.
    A model for the distribution channels planning process
    Neves, M.F. ; Zuurbier, P. ; Campomar, M.C. - \ 2001
    Journal of business & industrial marketing 16 (2001)7. - ISSN 0885-8624 - p. 518 - 539.
    Research of existing literature reveals some models (sequence of steps) for companies that want to plan distribution channels. None of these models uses strong contributions from transaction cost economics, bringing a possibility to elaborate on a "distribution channels planning model", with these contributions and organizing the steps according to a sequence that would be useful for companies when reviewing the distribution process. This sequence was refined through in-depth interviews with companies. Presents the final version of our model incorporating the results from the interviews.
    Development of (re)design options in supply chains
    Trienekens, J.H. ; Beulens, A.J.M. ; Beek, P. van - \ 2000
    In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Chain Management in Agribusiness and Food Industry : International Conference on Chain Management in Agribusiness and Food Industry, Wageningen 2000 / Trienekens, J.H., Zuurbier, P.J.P., Wageningen : Wageningen Pers - p. 109 - 121.
    Development of the supply chain quality management-model
    Spiegel, M. van der; Ziggers, G.W. - \ 2000
    In: Chain management in agribusiness and the food industry : proceedings of the fourth international conference, Wageningen, 25-26 May 2000 / J.H. Trienekens, P.J.P. Zuurbier (ed.). - Wageningen : Wageningen Pers, 2000 - p. 8 p. - 8 p..
    Agricultural production as a dynamic, manageable and integrated chain element
    Elings, A. ; Booij, R. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2000
    In: Chain management in agribusiness and the food industry. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference Wageningen, 25-26 May 2000. 2000, 575-579; Wageningen Pers; Wageningen; Netherlands 90-74134-82-3
    New storing and handling methods improve produce quality in the potato handling chain
    Scheer, A. ; Molema, G.J. ; Lokhorst, C. - \ 2000
    In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Chain Management in Agribusiness and the Food Industry, Wageningen (NL), 25-26 May / Trienekens, J.H., Zuurbier, P.J.P., - p. 637 - 644.
    A model of supply chain characteristics: applied to success factors in the design of a operational performance indicator system in time critical supply chain
    Heijden, C.H.T.M. van der; Soethoudt, J.M. - \ 2000
    In: Chain management in agribusiness and the food industry : proceedings of the fourth international conference, edited by J. H. Trienekens and P. J. P. Zuurbier. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers
    Chain management in agribusiness and the food industry
    Trienekens, J.H. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Wageningen Pers - ISBN 9789074134828 - 666
    landbouwindustrie - voedselindustrie - voedselketens - bedrijfsvoering - onderzoek - innovaties - ketenmanagement - logistiek - bedrijfseconomie - productieprocessen - agribusiness - food industry - food chains - management - research - innovations - supply chain management - logistics - business management - production processes
    A non-naive explanation of trust
    Zylberstajn, D. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2000
    In: Proceedings of the IAMA conference May 1999, Florence, Italy. - [S.l.] : [s.n.], 2000 - p. 50 - 60.
    Cooperative restructuring in a global environment
    Bremmers, H.J. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2000
    In: Proceedings of the IAMA conference May 1999, Florence,Italy
    On designing governance structures for supply chains
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Hagelaar, J.L.F. - \ 2000
    In: Chain management of agribusiness and the food industry : Chain management of the agribsiness and the food industry, Wageningen, 25-26 May 2000 / Trienekens, J.H., P.J.P. Zuurbier. - Wageningen : Wageningen pers, 2000. - ISBN 90 74134 82 3 - p. 455 - 465.
    From a Dutch auction to new institutional arrangement : The Greenery
    Polman, N.B.P. ; Slangen, L.H.G. - \ 2000
    In: Chain management in agribusiness and the food industry : Fourth International Conference on Chain Management, Wageningen, 2000 / Trienekens, J.H., Zuurbier, P.J.P., Wageningen : Wageningen Press - ISBN 9789074134828 - p. 225 - 233.
    Analysing governance structure of international supply chains
    Overboom, M.A. - \ 2000
    In: Chain management in agribusiness and the food industry : Chain management in agribusiness and the foodindustry, Wageningen, 25-26 May 2000 / Trienekens, J.H., Zuurbier, P.J.P., Wageningen : Wageningen Pers - ISBN 9789074134828 - p. 77 - 87.
    A model for the distribution channels planning process
    Neves, M.F. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Camomar, M.C. - \ 2000
    In: Chain management in the agribusiness and the food industry : Cain management in the agribusiness and the food industry, Wageningen, 25-26 May 2000 / Trienekens, J.H., P.J.P. Zuurbier. - Wageningen : Wageningen pers, 2000. - ISBN 9090 74134 82 3 - p. 245 - 257.
    Vertical strategy detection in a multi-product channel
    Kuiper, W.E. - \ 2000
    In: Chain Management in Agribusiness and the Food Industry, Wageningen, 25-26 May 2000 / Trienekens, J.H., Zuurbier, P.J.P., Wageningen : Wageningen Pers - ISBN 9789074134828 - p. 487 - 495.
    Food for Thought
    Hofstede, G.J. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2000
    In: Proceedings of the fourth International Conference on Chain Management in Agribusiness and the Food Industry / Trienekens, J.H., Zuurbier, P.J.P., Wageningen : Wageningen Press - p. 41 - 45.
    Multicriteria analysis of co-operative performance in chains
    Bremmers, H.J. - \ 2000
    In: Chain management in agribusiness and the foodindustry : Chainmanagement in agrbusiness and the foodindustry, Wageningen, 2000 / Trienekens, J.H., Zuurbier, P.J.P., Wageningen : Wageningen Pers - ISBN 9789074134828 - p. 215 - 224.
    Kwaliteitszorg in ketens
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Ziggers, G.W. - \ 1999
    In: Werkende ketens : management, kwaliteit, logistiek en ICT in de agro-industriele sector Houten : Keesing Noodervliet - ISBN 9789072072511 - p. 35 - 38.
    Kennismanagement en ICT in de agrarische productie : naar nieuwe paradigma's
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1999
    In: ICT Teelt: kennisoverdracht van de toekomst?
    A mile to go : the fresh produce industry in France, the US and the Netherlands
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1999
    Journal of Food Distribution Research 30 (1999). - ISSN 0047-245X - p. 20 - 30.
    O mercado de alimentos e bebidas na uniao Europeia
    Fava, N.M. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Flaar, P. ; Thome e Castro, L. - \ 1999
    In: Precios Agricolos Marco de 1999 149 (1999) xiv - p. 9 - 14.
    Supply chain management for pigs; joint cost optimization under risk
    Huirne, R.B.M. ; Hardaker, J.B. - \ 1998
    In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Chain Management in Agri- and Food Busines (eds. Ziggers, G.W, Trienekens, J.H. and Zuurbier, P.J.P.), Ede, The Netherlands - p. 577 - 586.
    Modeling choice behavior of marketing channel members for the services provided by financial derivatives exchanges.
    Pennings, J.M.E. ; Meulenberg, M.T.G. - \ 1998
    In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Chain Management in Agribusiness and the Food Industry, Ede. - - p. 597 - 607.
    Vertical price leadership within a channel: a cointegration study.
    Kuiper, W.E. ; Meulenberg, M.T.G. - \ 1998
    In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Chain Management in Agribusiness and the Food Industry, Ede, The Netherlands.. - - p. 637 - 646.
    The strawberry chain.
    Hofstede, G.J. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Ziggers, G.W. - \ 1998
    In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Chain Management in Agri- and Food Business, Wageningen, The Netherlands. G.W. Ziggers, J.H. Trienekens and P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.) - p. 75 - 85.
    Employability in relatie tot ketenontwikkelingen.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1998
    Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 31 (1998). - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 81 - 86.
    Nutri 2000: haalbaarheidsstudie naar de productie van koelverse kant-en-klaarmaaltijden in Noord Nederland.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Migchels, N.G. - \ 1998
    Wageningen : LUW - 86
    voorbereide voedingsmiddelen - voorgekookt voedsel - gemaksvoedsel - productie - markten - haalbaarheidsstudies - nederland - prepared foods - precooked foods - convenience foods - production - markets - feasibility studies - netherlands
    Ketensamenwerking en kwaliteitszorg in de agribusiness en voedingsindustrie.
    Ziggers, G.W. ; Trienekens, J. ; Zuurbier, P. - \ 1998
    In: Handboek Integrale Kwaliteitszorg
    Ondernemerschap in de agribusiness: concepten en cases.
    Bos, J.M. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1998
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen, Departement Economie en Management - 140
    ondernemerschap - landbouwindustrie - entrepreneurship - agribusiness
    Vertical coordination in the fresh produce industry.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1998
    In: IAMA Conference, Punte de l' Este. (1998)
    Supply chain management in the fruit and vegetable industry: a comparative study of supply chain strategies in France, the United States of America and the Netherlands.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1998
    Wageningen : Wageningen Agricultural University
    Vertical coordination in an international context.
    Sauvee, L. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1998
    In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Chain Management in Agri- and Food Business, Wageningen, The Netherlands. G.W. Ziggers, J.H. Trienekens and P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.) - p. 113 - 130.
    3rd International Conference on Chain Management in Agribusiness and the Food Industry, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ziggers, G.W. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1998
    Wageningen : Unknown Publisher
    Strategy typology and chain-cooperation.
    Migchels, N.G. - \ 1998
    In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Chain Management in Agri- and Food Business, Wageningen, The Netherlands. G.W. Ziggers, J.H. Trienekens and P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.) - p. 309 - 320.
    Chain entry-strategies and chain identity.
    Hagelaar, G. ; Horbeek, A. ; Spee, R. ; Don, H. - \ 1998
    In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Chain Management in Agri- and Food Business, Wageningen, The Netherlands. G.W. Ziggers, J.H. Trienekens and P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.) - p. 463 - 476.
    Knowledge in chains of organizational processes.
    Breukel, A. - \ 1998
    In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Chain Management in Agri- and Food Business, Wageningen, The Netherlands. G.W. Ziggers, J.H. Trienekens and P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.) - p. 283 - 294.
    Chain reference information models: surveying the scope.
    Dorp, C.A. van; Beulens, A.J.M. ; Beers, G. - \ 1998
    In: 3rd International Conference on Chain Management in Agribusiness and the Food Industry, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Ziggers, G.W.; J.H. Trienekens; P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.) - p. 321 - 331.
    Chain science as an emerging discipline.
    Beers, G. ; Beulens, A.J.M. ; Dalen, J.C. van - \ 1998
    In: 3rd International Conference on Chain Management in Agribusiness and the Food Industry, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Ziggers, G.W.; J.H. Trienekens; P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.) - p. 295 - 308.
    Redesigning food supply chains: an integral logistical approach.
    Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der; Beulens, A.J.M. ; Beek, P. van - \ 1998
    In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Chain Management in Agri-and Foodbusiness, Wageningen, The Netherlands. G.W. Ziggers, J.H. Trienekens and P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.) - p. 377 - 390.
    Optimization of environmental sampling using interactive GIS.
    Groenigen, J.W. van; Stein, A. ; Zuurbier, R. - \ 1997
    Soil Technology 10 (1997). - ISSN 0933-3630 - p. 83 - 97.
    geografische informatiesystemen - lood - bodem - geostatistiek - geographical information systems - lead - soil - geostatistics
    An interactive sampling procedure is proposed to optimize environmental risk assessment. Subsequent sampling stages were used as quantitative pre-information. With this pre-information probability maps were made using indicator kriging to direct subsequent sampling. In this way, optimal use of the remaining sampling stages was guaranteed. Interactive sampling was applied to a lead-pollution in the Dutch city of Schoonhoven. Environmental risks were quantified by the probability of exceeding the intervention level. The data and sampling schemes were stored in a GIS. Using six conditional simulations of stochastic fields, interactive sampling schemes were compared to conventional sampling schemes by calculating type I and type II errors. The interactive schemes had much lower type I errors than the conventional schemes, and comparable type II errors. Moreover, the interactive sampling schemes left a smaller fraction of the not-sanitated area polluted than the conventional ones did. They predicted almost 70% of the area correctly, as compared to 55% by conventional schemes.
    Chain redesign in a political perspective.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Hagelaar, J.L.F. - \ 1997
    In: Paper Vertical relationships and coordination in the food system, Piacenza (1997)
    Agri-chain management.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1997
    Unknown Publisher
    Strategien im Agrar-markt: das Hollandische beispiel.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1997
    Unknown Publisher
    Samenwerking in de keten; kwaliteitzorg in de agribusiness en voedingsindustrie.
    Ziggers, G.W. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1997
    Sigma : tijdschrift voor excellent ondernemen 42 (1997)2. - ISSN 0166-6967 - p. 4 - 9.
    Analysing farmer-coop relations: an adjusted Tranaction Cost approach.
    Bremmers, H.J. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1997
    Unknown Publisher
    Globalisation in the dairy industry.
    Bremmers, H.J. ; Zuurbier, P. - \ 1997
    In: Globalisation of the Food Industry, Conf. Reading, R.J. Loader et al. (eds.). Center for food economics research, Dept. of Agric. and Food Economics, Univ. of Reading - p. 445 - 463.
    Price formation in dual chains in the Dutch flower trade
    Broens, Douwe-Frits - \ 1996
    In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on chain management in agri- and foodbusiness / Trienekens, J.H., Zuurbier, P.J.P., Wageningen : Department of Management Studies. Wageningen Agric. Univ. - p. 501 - 510.
    Towards a methodology for chain analysis
    Roozen, H.R.G. - \ 1996
    In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on chain management in agri- and foodbusiness / Trienekens, J.H., Zuurbier, P.J.P., Wageningen : - p. 629 - 630.
    Strategic logistic concepts for vegetables and fruit chain-network
    Eenink, A.H. - \ 1996
    In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on chain management in agri- and foodbusiness / Trienekens, J.H., Zuurbier, P.J.P., Wageningen : Department of Management Studies. Wageningen Agric. Univ. - p. 369 - 371.
    The project involves the development of a new strategic logistic concept for
    the Dutch vegetables and fruit sector. Design and performance of the
    chain1 for vegetables and fruit will be improved according to this concept.
    Logistic activities of individual links within the 'from the soil to the table'
    chain are to be attuned to each other. The first test-applications concern
    the Mushroom product group, to be followed by wider application
    Use of molecular and biochemical methods for identification of plant varieties throughout the agri-chain
    Smulders, M.J.M. ; Booy, I. ; Vosman, B. - \ 1996
    In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Chain Management in Agri- and Food Business eds.: J.H. Trienekens & P.J.P. Zuurbier. Department of Management studies Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands, May 1996. page 591-600
    Modelling quality perception in the distribution chain: a case study for tulip bulbs
    Wilkinson, E.C. ; Polderdijk, J.J. - \ 1996
    In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Chain Management, Ede, NL, May 30-31, Ed J.H. Trienekens & P.J.P. Zuurbier - p. 571 - 577.
    Vertical cooperation in agricultural production marketing chains, with special reference to product differentiation in pork.
    Ouden, M. den; Dijkhuizen, A.A. ; Huirne, R.B.M. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1996
    Agribusiness 12 (1996). - ISSN 0742-4477 - p. 277 - 290.
    The role of gender in farming household decision-making in Yaan, south-western China
    Huajie, C. - \ 1996
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. Niehof; P.J.P. Zuurbier. - S.l. : Huajie Chen - ISBN 9789054855613 - 108
    huishoudens - arbeid (werk) - arbeidsverdeling - huishoudelijk werk - familiebedrijven, landbouw - sociale structuur - geslacht (sex) - besluitvorming - vrouwen - China - geslacht (gender) - feminisme - vrouwenemancipatie - gelijke behandeling van de vrouw - households - labour - division of labour - housework - family farms - social structure - sex - decision making - women - China - gender - feminism - emancipation of women - female equality

    Het onderzoek waarvan de resultaten in dit proefschrift worden beschreven heeft als belangrijkste doelstelling licht te werpen op de rol van vrouwen in besluitvorming met betrekking tot bedrijfsbeslissingen in agrarische gezinsbedrijven in Yaan, Zuidwest China. Tevens beoogt deze studie een bescheiden bijdrage te leveren aan de ontwikkeling van de rurale sociologie in de Volksrepubliek China. De onderzoekster hoopt dat de onderzoeksresultaten kunnen worden gebruikt door agrarische voorlichters en planners en aldus zullen bijdragen aan plattelandsontwikkeling in China.

    In het eerste gedeelte van het proefschrift wordt in de hoofdstukken 2 t/m 4 de sociologische literatuur over gender, agrarische huishoudens, macht, en besluitvorming besproken en worden hypothesen uit de literatuur afgeleid. Deze hypothesen hebben betrekking op de relatie tussen enerzijds de verdeling van macht tussen mannen en vrouwen en anderzijds de rol van mannen en vrouwen in besluitvorming met betrekking tot de agrarische bedrijfsvoering. Voor een analyse van de factor macht werd gekeken naar de toegang van mannen en vrouwen tot machtsbronnen (resource theory). De factor besluitvorming werd toegespitst op de vraag welke beslissingen door wie worden genomen. Het besluitvormingsproces werd hierbij buiten beschouwing gelaten.

    In hoofdstuk 5 wordt meer specifiek naar de kenmerken van het agrarische gezinsbedrijf in Zuidwest China gekeken. Het chinese overheidsbeleid dat mannen en vrouwen een rurale of een stedelijke registratie toekent, bepaalt in hoge mate de arbeidsverdeling tussen mannen en vrouwen in agrarische huishoudens en gezinsbedrijven. De partner met een stedelijke registratie zal i.h.a. proberen om werk en een bron van inkomsten te zoeken in de stad en zal de bedrijfsvoering van de boerderij aan zijn of haar echtgenote of echtgenoot overlaten. Om deze reden moesten de classificaties van agrarische gezinsbedrijven zoals die in de literatuur te vinden zijn, worden aangepast aan de chinese situatie. In het onderzoek werden vijf typen van agrarische gezinsbedrijven onderscheiden:
    (1) een agrarisch gezinsbedrijf dat vrijwel geheel door de man wordt geleid, omdat hij geen echtgenote (meer) heeft of omdat zijn echtgenote op basis van een stedelijke registratie elders werkt en merendeels elders woont (2,5%);
    (2) een agrarisch gezinsbedrijf waarin de rollen vergeleken bij type 1 precies omgedraaid zijn (35,2%);
    (3) een agrarisch gezinsbedrijf waarin beide partners op het bedrijf wonen maar waarin de vrouw het grootste deel van het werk en de bedrijfsvoering voor haar rekening neemt (26,3%);
    (4) een agrarisch gezinsbedrijf waarin vergeleken bij type 3 de rollen omgedraaid zijn en de man de bedrijfsvoerder is (7.3%);
    (5) een agrarisch gezinsbedrijf waarin sprake is van een gezamenlijke bedrijfsvoering en beide partners op het bedrijf wonen en werken (28,7%).

    In hoofdstuk 6 wordt het theoretisch kader voor het onderzoek samengevat. Er worden tien onafhankelijke variabelen geformuleerd waarvan in het onderzoek werd getoetst of zij de rol van vrouwen in besluitvorming beïnvloeden. Deze zijn: niveau van onderwijs, sekse van de kinderen, het hebben van een speciale status in de lokale gemeenschap, toegang hebben tot bronnen van agrarische informatie, geloof in het vermogen van vrouwen om een bedrijf te leiden, leeftijd, agrarische ervaring, aandeel in het werk op het bedrijf, proportionele bijdrage aan het huishoudinkomen, en hoogte van het individuele inkomen. Sekse van de interviewer werd als controle variabele gebruikt. Aan het einde van het eerste deel van het proefschrift wordt in een diagram (pagina 33) het theoretisch kader schematisch samengevat.

    In het tweede gedeelte van het proefschrift worden de resultaten van het onderzoek gepresenteerd. In hoofdstuk 7 worden gegevens verstrekt over de wijze waarop het empirisch onderzoek werd uitgevoerd en over de statistische analyse die werd toegepast. De hypothetische invloed van de tien onafhankelijke variabelen werd per type agrarisch gezinsbedrijf getoetst voor beslissingen met betrekking tot agrarische bedrijfsvoering op de volgende terreinen: aanschaf van agrarisch gereedschap, pest control , aankoop van kunstmest, selectie van zaaigoed, landbouwmethoden, keuze van type vee, keuze van pluimvee, veevoer, zorg voor de gezondheid van het vee, gebruik van externe arbeidskrachten, verkoop van vee en veeproducten, verkoop van pluimvee en pluimveeproducten, vermarkten van gewassen. De rol in de besluitvorming van respectievelijk mannen en vrouwen wordt samengevat in hun besluitvormingsindex. De totale steekproef van de survey waarin de hypothesen empirisch werden getoetst bedroeg 1018 huishoudens.

    In hoofdstuk 8 wordt gekeken naar de mate waarin er sprake is van gender -specificiteit van beslissingen. Het blijkt dat met betrekking tot negen van de dertien soorten beslissingen er voor alle typen gezinsbedrijven sprake is van een uitgesproken rol van of mannen of vrouwen bij het nemen van die beslissingen. In drie van de vijf typen gezinsbedrijven nemen de vrouwen de beslissingen als het gaat over de selectie van zaaigoed, het vermarkten van gewassen, de keuze van pluimvee, de verkoop van pluimvee en pluimveeproducten, het voer voor het vee, en de zorg voor de gezondheid van het vee. In het agrarisch gezinsbedrijf van het tweede type (zie boven) neemt de vrouw alle beslissingen waar in het onderzoek naar gevraagd werd. De beslissingen die het meest gezamenlijk worden genomen zijn die over de aanschaf van (groot) vee. Dit heeft vermoedelijk te maken met de hogere bedragen die hiermee gemoeid zijn. De resultaten van dit gedeelte van het onderzoek worden samengevat in de tabellen 8.2. en 8.3. (pagina's 44 en 45).

    In hoofdstuk 9 wordt de invloed van de onafhankelijke variabelen getoetst voor de verschillende typen agrarische gezinsbedrijven. Het blijkt dat de invloed van deze variabelen in de meeste gevallen verschilt al naar gelang het type agrarisch gezinsbedrijf. Tevens blijken een aantal op basis van de literatuur veronderstelde verbanden niet empirisch aantoonbaar. In tabel 9.6. (pagina's 71 en 72) worden de resultaten van de toetsingsprocedure samengevat.

    In hoofdstuk 10 worden de in hoofdstuk 9 gepresenteerde resultaten besproken. Deze bespreking wordt hier met betrekking tot een aantal van de onderzochte variabelen samengevat. Voor het gehele overzicht wordt de lezer verwezen naar hoofdstuk 10.

    De rol van de variabele niveau van onderwijs is niet eenduidig. De invloed van deze variabele wordt in sterke mate bepaald door het type gezinsbedrijf en door het relatieve verschil in onderwijsniveau tussen man en vrouw. In de agrarische gezinsbedrijven van de types 2,3, en 4 neemt de vrouw meer beslissingen naarmate zij meer onderwijs heeft genoten. Dit positieve verband is tevens sterker naarmate het niveau van onderwijs van de echtgenoot lager is. Als de echtgenoot meer onderwijs heeft genoten bestaat er een negatief verband. De verklaring is dat onderwijs een toegang vormt tot het vinden van werk en een bron van inkomsten buiten de landbouw. Aan de partner die dat niet heeft wordt de bedrijfsvoering van de boerderij, inclusief het nemen van beslissingen hierover, overgelaten.

    Ook de rol van de factor leeftijd is niet zoals men op basis van de literatuur zou verwachten. De hypothese van een positief verband tussen leeftijd en aandeel in besluitvorming wordt alleen bevestigd voor de gezinsbedrijven van type 5, waarin man en vrouw beiden op de boerderij wonen en samen in het bedrijf werken. Voor de overige typen lijkt het al of niet hebben van werk en inkomsten buiten de landbouw van een van de partners belangrijker te zijn dan leeftijd.

    De veronderstelling dat vrouwen een lager aandeel in besluitvorming hebben naarmate het huishoudinkomen lager is wordt bevestigd voor gezinsbedrijven van type 5. Voor deze huishoudens geldt de observatie van Huang (1990) dat vrouwen in arme huishoudens alleen werkkracht bijdragen en vrouwen in rijkere huishoudens beslissingen nemen. Ook met betrekking tot de welstand van huishoudens speelt het al of niet hebben van werk en een bron van inkomsten buiten de landbouw een rol. Deze factor is in hoge mate bepalend voor welke partner het bedrijf leidt en de beslissingen neemt.

    De sekse van kind(eren) blijkt in vier van de vijf typen gezinsbedrijven de besluitvorming te beïnvloeden. Vrouwen die een zoon hebben nemen meer beslissingen.

    In hoofdstuk 11 worden de onderzoeksresultaten in een breder kader geplaatst en worden de implicaties ervan voor rurale planning en landbouwvoorlichting besproken. De belangrijkste conclusie is dat de toepassing van resource theory, waarin het hebben van toegang tot machtsbronnen de verklaring vormt van het hebben van macht en het kunnen nemen van beslissingen, niet alleen afhankelijk is van de culturele context (zoals reeds op basis van de literatuurstudie kon worden geconcludeerd), maar ook van het type agrarisch gezinsbedrijf en het daarmee samenvallende agrarische huishouden. Het is dus voor effectieve planning en voorlichting van groot belang om een stratificatie te maken van de agrarische gezinsbedrijven in de betreffende regio en de farm managers van de bedrijven te identificeren. Terwijl uit dit onderzoek blijkt dat vrouwen meer agrarische beslissingen nemen dan mannen, wordt er in het beleid en in de praktijk van de voorlichting nog steeds van uitgegaan dat de man als gezinshoofd in agrarische gezinsbedrijven tevens het bedrijf leidt en de beslissingen neemt. In meer dan de helft van de gevallen blijkt niet de man maar de vrouw de bedrijfsleider (farm manager) te zijn.

    Het onderzoek heeft ook het belang van het hebben van werk en een bron van inkomsten buiten de landbouw voor agrarische besluitvorming aangetoond. Werken in de landbouw heeft in China een lage status en leidt in het algemeen niet tot welstand. Het hoog scoren in het nemen van agrarische beslissingen van de vrouw betekent in veel gevallen dat de man buiten de landbouw werkt en de bedrijfsvoering aan zijn vrouw overlaat. Het nemen van veel beslissingen door de vrouw is in dit geval niet indicatief voor het hebben van een machtspositie maar weerspiegelt specifieke omstandigheden.

    Tot slot moet worden opgemerkt dat het belang voor vrouwen dat nog steeds wordt gehecht aan het hebben van zoon(s) niet bevorderlijk is voor de emancipatie van vrouwen en voor de erkenning van de belangrijke rol die zij in de landbouw spelen. Het één-kind-beleid van de chinese overheid impliceert voor vrouwen die alleen een dochter hebben een zwakke machtspositie en een relatief geringe rol in agrarische besluitvorming. Onderwijs vormt een belangrijk instrument om deze patstelling te doorbreken.

    Factors influencing smallholder cocoa production : a management analysis of behavioural decision-making processes of technology adoption and application
    Taher, S. - \ 1996
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.A. Renkema; L.O. Fresco; P.J.P. Zuurbier. - S.l. : Taher - ISBN 9789054855309 - 159
    theobroma cacao - cacao - kleine landbouwbedrijven - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - innovaties - besluitvorming - bedrijfsvoering - operationeel onderzoek - simulatie - werkschema - lineair programmeren - celebes - theobroma cacao - cocoa - small farms - farm management - innovations - decision making - management - operations research - simulation - work flow - linear programming - sulawesi

    The objectives of the study were to expand present knowledge on the technology adoption and application rates for production inputs and fermentation processing related to farmers' decision- making, and to formulate an optimal technology application policy, particularly for smallholder cocoa farmers. To achieve these objectives it is necessary to understand factors that are associated with farmers' decision-making in adopting and applying these technologies and problems related to them. Given the two objectives, the study develops and tests (1) a model that assesses factors which explain cocoa farmers' technology adoption and application, and (2) a model that presents the optimization of cocoa fanners' activities both at the cocoa farmer and regional level.

    This research was carried out in South-Sulawesi, Indonesia. This choice was motivated by the fact that (1) on the whole, cocoa in this region is grown by smallholder farms; South-Sulawesi is the region which makes most significant contribution to national cocoa production; (2) this region is the main cocoa producer in the area providing about 32 percent of the national cocoa production; and (3) this region was one of the earliest cocoa regions to be developed. At the sub-region level two villages, Noling and Buntu Batu , with similar enviromnental conditions, in the regency of Luwu , were chosen to represent the villages that had adopted cocoa technology to a greater and respectively to a lesser degree. The two villages were the first to develop cocoa in the region and housed multiethnic inhabitants who were the pioneers of cocoa development in the region.

    This study has been carried out on the basis of inductive methodology. This case study explores the diversity and the heterogeneity of farmers' behaviour under specific socioeconomical conditions. The number of farmers chosen as respondents in the study in the two villages was 100, 50 for each village. The model was developed on the basis of two approaches, namely a positive approach in which empirical analysis uses production function methods, and a normative approach in which linear programming models are used as a tool of analysis.

    The models concentrate on the specific issue of cocoa smallholder farmers and their problems in adopting and applying certain available technology which focuses the investigation on certain elements in the model. The issues considered are all aspects related to farm and farmer characteristics, conditions and problems that constrain the cocoa farmers in achieving their objectives. The first element of the model developed is the objectives' function which is specified in terms of technology adoption and application by cocoa farmers. The second element of the model is data that relate to factors that may explain the variation in the use of technologies. The third element of the model is the set of independent variables that are treated as given variables within the cocoa farmer's operations. It is assumed that farmers' behavioural decision-making is determined by the farmers' strategies as controllable factors. The farmers' strategies embody the farmer and farming factors. The technology adoption model of study includes six specific factors, which are grouped into four main groups: farmer community, farmer's characteristics, farmer's household and farm characteristics as independent variables. The technology application model includes all production inputs used, land, labour and chemical production inputs as independent variables. The latest element of
    the model is the dependent variable. Four technology adoption variables, which are fertilizer, pesticide, herbicide and fermentation adoption are included as dependent variables in the model of technology adoption of the study, and farm gross output is included as dependent variable in the model of technology application.

    The results of the analyses showed that the main factors explaining technology adoption and application are the origin of farmers, the number of neighbours known intimately, the number of family workforce members, years in education, annual crop area exploited and farm gross output. These factors affect different technology adoption and application at different levels:

    Origin of farmer. This affects fertilizer and herbicide application negatively and has insignificant correlation with technology application. The migrant farmers who mostly housed in the first village are significantly lesser adopted fertilizer and herbicide. This occurs since most of cocoa area exploited by farmers from the first village is located at a more distant site from the village, on the upland areas, which are although usually less fertile than the plots located close to the village; however, the lack of infrastructure in this region contributes to the limited adoption on fertilizer. The indigenous farmers who mostly have a larger area than the migrant farmers have adopted herbicide more than the migrant farmers, in their effort to minimize the use of labour for weed control.

    The number of neighbours known intimately. This affects fertilizer adoption negatively and fermentation adoption positively. Fertilizer is more adopted by the farmer families with smaller number of acquaintances, which are usually those who came later in the region and have smaller farms. This is different with fermentation adoption. Fermentation has been more adopted by farmers with more neighbours than by farmers with smaller social networks. The farmers who usually have wider relationship with other farmers have better access to the source of information about market development, including the cocoa price development over time. Farmers with information about the market have a better chance to obtain a higher price for their fermented cocoa. The price factor is the main determinant in the farmer decision to ferment their cocoa. The number of neighbour family knowing intimately has also a significant correlation with technical efficiency of cocoa production. Farmers with better access to the source of technical information have more knowledge of technology application.

    Years in education. This influences pesticide adoption and technical efficiency positively. Literate farmers are more likely to adopt pesticide than illiterate farmers. Farmers with higher education levels are generally the younger fanners who started their cocoa farming business recently, who usually exploit distant plots, that usually have lower levels of soil fertility and have a smaller farming area. To increase production they have to adopt pesticide.

    Number of family workforce members. This influences fertilizer and pesticide adoption negatively and has a significant correlation with technology application. Farmers with a lower number of family workers have adopted more fertilizer and pesticide than those with a larger number of family workers. The former are the farmers who exploit a smaller number of cocoa hectares and/or younger farmers who usually attempt to exploit their plot intensively by using fertilizer and pesticide in order to increase cocoa production on their limited farm area. The result also imply a negative relationship between the number of family and technology adoptions in the case of fertilizer and pesticide adoption, and a positive relationship between years in education and pesticide application; however, no relationship could be found between the age of farmers and technology adoption, and relationships between the distance of plots from the village and technology adoptions. Once technology is adopted, the level of technology application which is represented by technical efficiency has significant correlation with the number of family workforce members.

    Annual crop area exploited. This factor does not affect technology adoption. Annual crop area exploited influences technology application positively; farmers who successfully expand their farms with wet paddy areas use more production inputs and apply more fermentation than the farmers without paddy crop plots. This is understandable since in general wet paddy area in the region has been exploited intensively by regularly applying production inputs in high doses, an unavoidable practice if the food requirements of the farmer's family are to be met. The farmers who also exploit the annual crop area have more ability in operating their farm than the farmers without paddy plots. The farmers who have fulfilled their basic family food requirements from their own farm have a better opportunity for spending their budget for purchasing production inputs.

    Farm gross output. Farm gross output has a positive relationship with pesticide adoption and technology application. The larger farmers tend to adopt more pesticide than the smaller farmers. Farm gross output in a previous year has also a positive and significant correlation with the technical efficiency of cocoa production. The higher the gross output of the previous year, the higher the ability to purchase production inputs and apply fermentation.

    The second, normative model used in the study is a linear programming model that focuses on the farm level activities based on different kinds of technologies. The farm condition is assumed to be stable, risk and time dimensions are not included in the model. Three main situations of farm activities are differentiated based on the contribution of the source of farmer income. Cocoa is cultivated as a single crop, cocoa and other perennial crops are cultivated as mixcrops on the same plots, cocoa plots are combined with annual plots, and cocoa and other crops are supplemented by off-farm activities. The main objective of farm households is to achieve an optimal farm gross margin that can be realized through the optimization of the gross margin of several crops described and off- farm activities. The technology used is divided into pre-harvest and post-harvest technology. Three levels of preharvest technology are used as the basis of analysis, extensive with no application of external inputs, intensive with a high level of inputs and semi-intensive with an intermediate level of inputs. Two levels of post-harvest technology are used, non-application and application of fermentation, which imply the direct and indirect sale of unfermented and fermented cocoa. A part of the family workforce works as a salaried workforce at other farms during the cocoa harvest and at other peak season periods; i.e. off-farm activity. Farms are subject to various constraints: the farm size exploited, the suitability of land used for different crops, the available family workforce and the seasonal peak requirement of labour for each activity.

    The result of the optimization analysis shows that the best optimal farm solution is achieved in the farm situation with the most diversified activities. This is the case in the farm situation with mixed cropping of cocoa, wet paddy plots and off-farm activities. In this situation the farm gross margin obtained for each level of farm size is always higher than other types of farm systems. This achievement is possible since the optimal farm plan is generated by (1) making optimal use of the land available by application of crops' technology, both by a best single technology and the most appropriate combination of various technologies, (2) an optimal implementation of cocoa-processing technology through fermentation application, (3) an optimal employment of family workforce for both on-farm and off-farm activities. The best optimal gross margin obtained for a sole cocoa plantation is achieved on a farm size of 3 hectares with intensive cocoa treatment. For cocoa intercropping, the best result is obtained by intensive cocoa combined with hiring labour from outside farms.

    The conclusions of the study are that in the last two decades the development of the farming system in the region, dominated by cocoa, has changed profoundly. This is due to the land suitability and the dynamic behaviour of indigenous and migrant farmers in adopting and making use of the technology and resources available. Farmers' decisions in adopting cocoa technology are determined by the origin of farmers, the number of neighbours known intimately, the level of education, the number of family workforce and farm gross output factors, while for application technology they were determined by the number of neighbours known intimately, education level, the number of family labour, annual crop area exploited and farm gross output factors. Fertilizer adoption is explained by the origin of farmers, the number of neighbours known intimately and the number of family labour. Pesticide adoption is explained by education level, the number of family labour and farm gross output factors. Herbicide adoption is affected by the factor's origin of farmer. Fermentation adoption is affected by the number of family labour. Technology application is affected by the number of neighbours known intimately, education, the number of family labour, annual crop area exploited and farm gross output factors. The optimization analysis confirms that there is a room to optimize the existing cocoa farmers' practice of the region. Under various constraints of land, labour and crop production treatment, the optimal level of the farm margin may possibly be achieved by making optimal use of the land, introducing a more appropriate application of technology and employing family labour optimally, in both on-farm and off-farm activities.

    Factors that are associated with farmers' decision making in adopting technology, have clarified our insight into farmers' appreciation of cocoa technology adoption. Farmers adopting technology when cultivating cocoa as a perennial crop are looking towards the long term objective and the long term investment, which is the average projected returns over a number of years will be the most significant farmer objective. However, many other aspects still contribute to cocoa development. Firstly , a comprehensive study of appropriate farming system models under the conditions of the region including the ecological evidence for promoting cocoa and perennial crops as a sustainable alternative. Secondly , the positive implications of technological adoption and application both at farmers and regional level need to be clarified to determine the optimal benefits. Thirdly , a study of integrated cocoa development that taking into account all agribusiness aspects is advisable. This study could identify the strong and weak points of the cocoa smallholder's bargaining position.

    Quality costs in intensive African Catfish culture: reduction of off-flavors.
    Hoogland, J.P. ; IJzerman, H.C.A. ; Boon, J.H. ; Graaf, C. de; Wit, W. de - \ 1996
    In: Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Chain Management in Agri- and food business, Ede. J.H. Trienekens, P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.). Agric. Univ. Wageningen - p. 611 - 616.
    A method to detect bottle-neck stages within a marketing channel.
    Kuiper, W.E. ; Meulenberg, M.T.G. ; Verhees, F.J.H.M. - \ 1996
    In: Proceedings 2nd International Conference on Chain management in agri- and food business, Ede. - - p. 387 - 394.
    Transferpricing in chains.
    Bremmers, H.J. ; Hagelaar, G. - \ 1996
    In: Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Chain management in agri- and foodbusiness, J.H. Trienekens, P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.). Dept. Management Studies, Agric. Univ. Wageningen - p. 163 - 173.
    Conditions and constraints for images of chains.
    Hagelaar, G. ; Bremmers, H.J. - \ 1996
    In: Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Chain management in agri- and foodbusiness, J.H. Trienekens, P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.). Dept. Management Studies, Agric. Univ. Wageningen - p. 199 - 213.
    Interdependence in the food chain.
    Migchels, N.G. - \ 1996
    In: Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Chain management in agri- and foodbusiness, J.H. Trienekens, P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.). Dept. Management Studies, Agric. Univ. Wageningen - p. 239 - 253.
    Doelgerichte ontwikkeling van verticale samenwerking door lokale en regionale overheden.
    Hagelaar, G. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1996
    Openbaar Bestuur 6 (1996)9. - ISSN 0925-7322 - p. 18 - 27.
    ECR-Koelvers; samenwerkingsverbanden.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Broekmans, J.E. ; Migchels, N.G. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : Vakgroep Bedrijfskunde, LU - 27 p.
    Managing interorganizational competition.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Berlens, R.A. - \ 1996
    In: Knowledge management, organization competition and methodology / Schreinemakers, J.F., Würzburg : Ergon Verlag - p. 247 - 257.
    Future outlooks for European cooperatives in a dynamic agri- and food environment.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1996
    In: Proc. Seminario Int., PENSA University of Sao Paolo, Brasil - p. 1 - 17.
    Verticale samenwerking.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Ziggers, G.W. - \ 1996
    Deventer : Kluwer Bedrijfsinformatie - ISBN 9789026725579 - 238 p.
    Market structure and vertical co-ordination.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1996
    In: Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Chain management in agri- and foodbusiness, J.H. Trienekens, P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.). Dept. Management Studies, Agric. Univ. Wageningen - p. 307 - 325.
    Logistic control concepts in chain perspective; a framework to structure logistic control
    Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 1996
    In: Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Chain management in agri- and foodbusiness, J.H. Trienekens, P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.). Dept. Management Studies, Agric. Univ. Wageningen - p. 77 - 91.
    Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on chain management in agri- and food business. Ede, May 30-31.
    Trienekens, J.H. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : Department of Management Studies. Wageningen Agric. Univ. - 632 p.
    Costs, benefits and transfer prices in differentiated production-marketing chains for fresh pig meat.
    Ouden, M. den; Huirne, R.B.M. ; Dijkhuizen, A.A. - \ 1996
    In: Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Chain management in agri- and food business. Dept. Management Studies, Wageningen Agric. Univ / Trienekens, J.H., Zuurbier, P.J.P., - p. 173 - 187.
    An economic simulation model to evaluate payment schemes for slaughtering pigs.
    Dijkhuizen, A.A. ; Brakel, C.E.P. van; Houben, E.H.P. ; Huirne, R.B.M. - \ 1996
    In: Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Chain management in agri- and food business. Dept. Management Studies, Wageningen Agric. Univ / Trienekens, J.H., Zuurbier, P.J.P., - p. 189 - 196.
    Contract choice in the livestock industry.
    Karantininis, K.A. - \ 1996
    In: Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Chain management in agri- and food business, J.H. Trienekens, P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.). Ede, The Netherlands - p. 51 - 63.
    Efficient consumer response for fresh/refrigerated products.
    Beulens, A.J.M. - \ 1996
    In: Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Chain management in agri- and food business, J.H. Trienekens, P.J.P. Zuurbier (eds.). Dept. Management Studies, Agric. Univ. Wageningen - p. 373 - 374.
    Inter-firm competence management.
    Beulens, A.J.M. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1996
    In: Knowledge management, organization competence and methodology: advances in knowledge management: vol.1 / Schreinemakers, J.F., Würzburg : Ergon Verlag - p. 247 - 256.
    Calculation and use of inbreeding coefficients for genetic evaluation of United States dairy cattle.
    Wiggans, G.R. ; Vanraden, P.M. ; Zuurbier, J. - \ 1995
    Journal of Dairy Science 78 (1995). - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1584 - 1590.
    The agribusiness concept and strategies.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1995
    In: Seminar Lokakaraya Setengah Hari, Darmaga, IPB Bogor - p. 20 - 31.
    The quest for vegetables: the global seed industry in transition.
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1995
    In: Proceedings IAMA, Parijs - p. 1 - 7.
    Strategic options and modern financial theory.
    Stemne, S. ; Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1994
    In: Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Management of agri-chains, G. Hagelaar (ed.). Agric. Univ. Wageningen - p. 31 - 46.
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