Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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Greenery and Work : The positive effects of greenery in urban environments
Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 6 p.
offices - work - climate - health - well-being - stress - stress tolerance - labour - kantoren - werk - klimaat - gezondheid - welzijn - stresstolerantie - arbeid (werk)
Greenery in and around offices and other working environments is good for both the indoor and outdoor climate, and has a positive effect on the health and general well-being of employees and visitors. It aids concentration, helps reduce stress and increases staff productivity. This document provides information on the benefits of greenery in relation to work and well-being, including references to scientific literature. It concludes with some tips on how to ensure the successful and beneficial inclusion of greenery.
Greenery and residential : The positive effects of greenery in urban environments
Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 7 p.
residential areas - housing - plantations - public green areas - gardens - domestic gardens - health indicators - green roofs - green walls - temperature - climate - heat stress - health - woonwijken - huisvesting - beplantingen - openbaar groen - tuinen - tuinen bij het huis - gezondheidsindicatoren - groene daken - groene gevels - temperatuur - klimaat - warmtestress - gezondheid
Greenery in and around houses and apartments is good for the (living) environment in and around the buildings. It has a positive effect on the health and general well-being of residents and visitors. This document provides information on how homes and well-being can benefit from greenery, including references to scientific literature. It concludes with some tips on how to ensure the successful and beneficial inclusion of greenery.
Greenery and Education : The positive effects of greenery in urban environments
Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 7 p.
learning - children - universities - climate - educational institutions - education - social welfare - well-being - health - pupils - students - schools - leren - kinderen - universiteiten - klimaat - onderwijsinstellingen - onderwijs - sociaal welzijn - welzijn - gezondheid - leerlingen - studenten - scholen
Greenery in and around schools and nurseries and on campuses enhances the ambience of educational institutions, both inside and out. It has a positive effect on the health and general well-being of students and staff alike, improving student’s performance and their ability to concentrate, as well as enhancing the social climate. This document provides insights into the benefits of greenery for learning and well-being, including references to scientific literature. It concludes with some tips on how to ensure the successful and beneficial inclusion of greenery.
Groensector staat voor diverse grote uitdagingen
Vliet, Arnold van - \ 2018
entrepreneurship - climate - greening - plantations - innovations
Cities are windier
Droste, Arjan - \ 2018
towns - wind - climate - air quality

Towns and cities are sometimes windier than the surrounding countryside, found researcher Arjan Droste. He calls this surprising phenomenon the wind island effect.

Groen als airco: planten en bomen houden stad van de toekomst koel
Klemm, Wiebke - \ 2018
plantations - indoor climate - climate - temperature - well-being - health
Groen in de stad : Waterhuishouding
Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research - 6 p.
greening - water harvesting - biodiversity - climate - plantations - air quality - drought - health - well-being
Groen in de stad: soortentabel
Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research - 2 p.
greening - urban areas - climate - air quality - water harvesting - projects - biodiversity - trees - plantations
Groen in de stad : Klimaat en temperatuur
Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research - 6 p.
climate - plantations - greening - trees - temperature - air quality - environment - water harvesting - biodiversity
Groen in de stad : Luchtkwaliteit
Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research - 6 p.
greening - plantations - air quality - water harvesting - health - environment - climate
Omgevingswet zet energietransitie op achterstand
Kistenkas, F.H. ; Heide, C.M. van der - \ 2018
Tijdschrift Milieu : Vereniging van milieuprofessionals 24 (2018)7. - p. 14 - 15.
biobased economy - climate - renewable energy - sustainability - energy policy
TerraSea energiezuinig stalconcept voor vleeskuikens
Ellen, H.H. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 2 p.
animal welfare - animal production - poultry - broilers - climate - energy - animal health
Meer groen als wapen tegen de volgende hittegolf
Spijker, Joop ; Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2018
urban heat - green infrastructure
Woningbouw en hittestress in een veranderend klimaat : testbed Den Haag
Koopmans, S. ; Ronda, R.J. ; Steeneveld, G.J. - \ 2018
De Bilt : KNMI (KNMI Intern Rapport IR-2018-03) - 28 p.
heat stress - climate - plantations - temperature - urban areas
Aanleiding voor deze studie is de beleidsopgave van Nederland om tot 2040 nog één miljoen additionele woningen te bouwen (EIB, 2015), waarvan naar verwachting een groot deel zal worden toegevoegd aan de huidige woningvoorraad van de grootste steden in Nederland. De reden hiervoor is dat er ook in Nederland een trek naar de stad gaande (CBS, 2016) is, waarbij naar verwachting de bevolking in de grootste Nederlandse gemeenten sterk toeneemt, terwijl de bevolking in kleine, perifeer gelegen gemeenten juist krimpt. Deze beleidsopgave betekent dat de druk op de bebouwde omgeving steeds meer zal toenemen en heeft onder meer tot gevolg dat steeds meer mensen zullen worden blootgesteld aan het specifieke lokale klimaat in de stad (zie box 1), een uitdaging die steeds urgenter wordt als door een, veranderend klimaat de temperatuur in zowel het rurale gebied als in de stad verder toeneemt.
Plant power
Hermans, Tia - \ 2018
plantations - air quality - health - well-being - labour - offices - care - climate

Een plant op je bureau is gezond, zeggen ze. Het groen zou wonderen doen voor het binnenklimaat en de werklust. Bewijzen zijn er echter nog nauwelijks. Een proef op kantoren en in zorginstellingen moet nu uitsluitsel geven.

Ontwerprichtlijnen klimaatbestendig groen in de stad
Klemm, W. ; Lenzholzer, S. ; Brink, A. van den - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 1 p.
air quality - climate - urban areas - plantations - water harvesting - heat stress - shade
De groene agenda: Ontwerptool Groene Gezonde Stad
Snep, Robbert - \ 2017
urban areas - water harvesting - climate - projects - plants - health - urban parks

De Ontwerptool Groene Gezonde Stad is een tool in ontwikkeling die het effectief gebruik van stadsgroen door planners, ontwerpers, ontwikkelaars, hoveniers en groenvoorzieners ten behoeve van maatschappelijke doelstellingen (gezonde woon-/werk-/leefomgeving) moet stimuleren. De plek die groen nu inneemt in het proces is redelijk achteraan. Het doel is dat planners, ontwerpers, ontwikkelaars, grondeigenaren etc. het groen meenemen in het ontwerpproces. Dan wordt de vraag naar groen en de kwaliteit van groen ook beter. Professionals krijgen met via de tool beter inzicht in waar en welk groen welk gezondheidseffect op welk doelgroep heeft, en worden daarmee uitgenodigd die kennis te benutten in hun plannen en projecten. Dit levert een gezondere stedelijke samenleving op, en maakt dat de economische waarde van het groen duidelijker wordt meegenomen in de besluitvorming over de inrichting en het beheer van de stad.

Ecosysteemdiensten van bomen en groen in de stad
Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
bomen - planten - biodiversiteit - ecosystemen - klimaat - luchtkwaliteit - regenwateropvang - stedelijke gebieden - trees - plants - biodiversity - ecosystems - climate - air quality - water harvesting - urban areas
Groen kost geld en de baten zijn slecht tastbaar. Het project 'Ecosysteemdiensten van boomkwekerijproducten' ontwikkelt instrumenten om de voordelen van groen beter te laten meewegen bij het nemen van beslissingen. Voordelen: verkoeling, luchtzuivering, waterberging en beleefbare biodiversiteit. In eerste instantie voor de productgroep bomen, later ook voor andere productgroepen.
Grijs, Groen & Gelukkig - Plantenwand
Hermans, C.M.L. - \ 2017
IVN Nederland
groene gevels - klimaat - zorg - natuur - planten - green walls - climate - care - nature - plants
Plantenwanden zorgen voor een gezonder binnenklimaat. Voor zorginstellingen waar cliënten weinig buiten komen, halen we met de Plantenwand de natuur naar binnen en dragen zo bij aan een gezondere leefomgeving. Wageningen Environmental Research doet onderzoek naar de effecten van Plantenwanden op het binnenklimaat. Ook het effect op cliëntwelzijn en de afname van het ziekteverzuim onder medewerkers wordt onderzocht.
Metropolitan solutions: Droge voeten in een groene stad
Hattum, T. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
klimaat - hittetolerantie - stedelijke gebieden - luchtkwaliteit - regenwateropvang - temperatuur - climate - heat tolerance - urban areas - air quality - water harvesting - temperature
Door klimaatverandering krijgen we steeds vaker te maken met hevige regenval en periodes van extreme hitte en droogte. Veel steden zijn hier niet tegen opgewassen en moeten anders ingericht gaan worden. Groene oplossingen kunnen wateroverlast beperken, de temperatuur verlagen en de luchtkwaliteit verbeteren. Tim van Hattum van Wageningen University & Research vertelt er alles over.
Gezondheidseffecten onder de loep : weldadig groen
Spijker, J.H. ; Vries, S. de - \ 2017
Stadswerk (2017)6. - ISSN 0927-7641 - p. 34 - 36.
gezondheid - warmtestress - temperatuur - kwaliteit - beplantingen - biodiversiteit - stedelijke gebieden - bevolking - stressfactoren - sociaal welzijn - klimaat - health - heat stress - temperature - quality - plantations - biodiversity - urban areas - human population - stress factors - social welfare - climate
Groen speelt een sleutelrol bij een gezonde leefomgeving. De gezondheidseffecten spelen op diverse manieren, maar vooral door de stressverlagende effecten van groen en de hittedempende werking op warme dagen. Het is daarbij wel belangrijk om niet alleen naar de kwantiteit maar ook naar de kwaliteit van het groen te kijken.
Spațiile verzi și Locuința : Pe scurt, valoarea adaugată a spațiilor verzi pentru bunăstarea la locul de muncă
Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen University & Research - 7 p.
residential areas - green roofs - green walls - plantations - health - heat stress - climate - woonwijken - groene daken - groene gevels - beplantingen - gezondheid - warmtestress - klimaat
Amenajările verzi din locuințe și din exteriorul acestora sunt benefice atât climatului interior, cât și exterior al locuințelor, având un efect pozitiv asupra sănătății și a bunăstării generale a locatarilor și a vizitatorilor, mărind valoarea imobilului. Acest document oferă o mai bună înțelegere a avantajelor spațiilor verzi asociate cu locuința și bunăstarea locatarilor, inclusiv trimiteri către documentări științifice. La finalul documentului, regăsiți sfaturi privind amenajarea cu succes a spațiilor verzi.
Spațiile verzi și Munca : Pe scurt, valoarea adaugată a spațiilor verzi pentru bunăstarea la locul de muncă
Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen University & Research - 7 p.
work - work stress - offices - well-being - plantations - gardens - climate - health - air quality - labour - werk - werk stress - kantoren - welzijn - beplantingen - tuinen - klimaat - gezondheid - luchtkwaliteit - arbeid (werk)
Amenajările verzi din clădirile de birouri și din exteriorul acestora sunt benefice atât pentru climatul interior, cât și exterior al clădirilor de birouri, având un efect pozitiv asupra sănătății și bunăstării generale a angajaților și a vizitatorilor. Contribuie la îmbunătățirea capacității de concentrare, la reducerea stresului și la o mai mare productivitate din partea angajaților. Acest document oferă o mai bună înțelegere a avantajelor spațiilor verzi în relația cu munca și bunăstarea, inclusiv trimiteri către documentări științifice. La finalul documentului, regăsiți sfaturi privind amenajarea cu succes a spațiilor verzi.
Crop growth and development in closed and semi-closed greenhouses
Qian, Tian - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L.F.M. Marcelis, co-promotor(en): J.A. Dieleman; A. Elings. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430708 - 112
crops - crop production - growth - greenhouse crops - greenhouse horticulture - climate - semi-closed greenhouses - photosynthesis - temperature - gewassen - gewasproductie - groei - kasgewassen - glastuinbouw - klimaat - semi-gesloten kassen - fotosynthese - temperatuur

(Semi-)closed greenhouses have been developed over the last decades to conserve energy. In a closed greenhouse, window ventilation is fully replaced by mechanical cooling while solar heat is temporarily stored in an aquifer. A semi-closed greenhouse has a smaller cooling capacity than a closed greenhouse and, in which mechanical cooling is combined with window ventilation. (Semi-)closed greenhouses create new climate conditions: high CO2 concentrations irrespective of the outdoor climate, and vertical gradients in temperature and vapour pressure deficit throughout the canopy. This thesis focuses on the crop physiology in (semi-)closed greenhouses, and investigates the effects of the new climate conditions on crop growth, development and underlying processes.

Cumulative production in (semi) closed greenhouses increased by 6-14% compared to the open greenhouse, depending on the cooling capacity. The production increase in the (semi-)closed greenhouses was explained by the higher CO2 concentrations. In many species, feedback inhibition of photosynthesis occurs when plants are grown at high CO2. The results, however, suggest that high CO2 concentrations do not cause feedback inhibition in high producing crops, because the plants have sufficient sink organs (fruits) to utilise all assimilates. Pruning experiments showed that photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 concentration only occurred when the number of fruits was considerably reduced.

Cooling below the canopy induced vertical temperature and vapour pressure deficit gradients. These gradients correlated with outside radiation and outside temperature. Despite the occurrence of vertical temperature gradients, plant growth and fruit yield were mostly unaffected. Leaf and truss initiation rates did not differ in the presence or absence of a vertical temperature gradients, since air temperatures at the top of the canopy were kept comparable. The only observed response of plants to the vertical temperature gradient was the reduced rate of fruit development in the lower part of the canopy. This resulted in a longer period between anthesis and fruit harvest and an increase in the average fruit weight in summer. However, total fruit production over the whole season was not affected.

The effects of the climate factors light, CO2 concentration, temperature, and humidity on leaf photosynthesis were investigated. The photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) was modified by adding a sub-model for Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activation. The photosynthetic parameters: the maximum carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) and the maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), α (the efficiency of light energy conversion), θ (the curvature of light response of electron transport), and Rd (the non-photorespiratory CO2 release) were estimated based on measurements under a wide range of environmental conditions in the semi-closed greenhouse. The simultaneous estimation method and the nonlinear mixed effects model were applied to ensure the accuracy of the parameter estimation. Observations and predictions matched well (R2=0.94).

The yield increase in a closed greenhouse, compared to that in an open greenhouse was analyzed based on physiological and developmental processes. The yield increase in the (semi-)closed greenhouses was the result of an increase of net leaf photosynthesis. The (semi-)closed greenhouses have been applied commercially first in the Netherlands, and later in other countries. The knowledge obtained from (semi-)closed greenhouses is applied in conventional open greenhouse as well, which is called the next generation greenhouse cultivation. A number of innovations are being developed for greenhouse industry to reduce energy consumption while improving production and quality.

Groen en wonen : de meerwaarde van groen voor het welbevinden in de woonomgeving samengevat
Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
- 7 p.
woonwijken - huisvesting - beplantingen - openbaar groen - tuinen - tuinen bij het huis - gezondheidsindicatoren - culturele waarden - hoveniers - groene daken - groene gevels - temperatuur - plaatsbepaling van bomen - klimaat - warmtestress - welzijn - residential areas - housing - plantations - public green areas - gardens - domestic gardens - health indicators - cultural values - landscape gardeners - green roofs - green walls - temperature - tree orientation - climate - heat stress - well-being
Groen in en rondom woonhuizen en appartementen is goed voor het (leef)klimaat binnen en buiten de woning. Het heeft een positief effect op de gezondheid en het algehele welbevinden van bewoners en bezoekers en verhoogt de waarde van het vastgoed. Dit document biedt meer inzicht in de voordelen van groen in relatie tot wonen en welbevinden, inclusief verwijzingen naar de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing. Het document sluit af met tips die helpen om groen succesvol en volwaardig toe te passen
Groen en herstellen : de meerwaarde van groen voor het welbevinden in de herstelomgeving samengevat
Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
- 6 p.
welzijn - gezondheid - gezondheidsindicatoren - tuinen - warmtestress - klimaat - temperatuur - luchtkwaliteit - stress - sociaal welzijn - participatie - beplantingen - herstellen - well-being - health - health indicators - gardens - heat stress - climate - temperature - air quality - social welfare - participation - plantations - reconditioning
Groen in en rondom verzorgingshuizen, ziekenhuizen en overige klinieken is goed voor het klimaat binnen en buiten de instelling en heeft een positief effect op het herstellend vermogen en de gemoedstoestand van patiënten, en het algehele welbevinden van patiënten, medewerkers en bezoekers. Dit document biedt meer inzicht in de voordelen van groen in relatie tot herstellen en welbevinden, inclusief verwijzingen naar de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing. Het document sluit af met tips die helpen om groen succesvol en volwaardig toe te passen.
Groen en leren : de meerwaarde van groen voor het welbevinden in de leeromgeving samengevat
Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
- 7 p.
beplantingen - onderwijs - leren - schoolterrein - leerprestaties - openbaar groen - klimaat - temperatuur - gezondheid - sociaal welzijn - luchtkwaliteit - lichamelijke activiteit - lichamelijke fitheid - stressfactoren - kinderen - plantations - education - learning - school site - educational performance - public green areas - climate - temperature - health - social welfare - air quality - physical activity - physical fitness - stress factors - children
de meerwaarde van groen voor het welbevinden in de leeromgeving samengevat
Groen en werken : de meerwaarde van groen voor het welbevinden in de werkomgeving samengevat
Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
- 6 p.
arbeid (werk) - werk - werk stress - kantoren - beplantingen - tuinen - welzijn - klimaat - gezondheid - labour - work - work stress - offices - plantations - gardens - well-being - climate - health
Groen in en rondom kantoren en andere werkplekken is goed voor het klimaat in en buiten het kantoor en heeft een positief effect op de gezondheid en het algehele welbevinden van medewerkers en bezoekers. Het draagt bij aan concentratie, stressreductie en hogere arbeidsproductiviteit van medewerkers. Dit document biedt meer inzicht in de voordelen van groen in relatie tot werken en welbevinden, inclusief verwijzingen naar de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing. Het document sluit af met tips die helpen om groen succesvol en volwaardig toe te passen.
Klimaatmaatregelen en het gemeentelijk landbouwbeleid : verkenning naar mogelijkheden voor versterking van klimaatmaatregelen binnen het toekomstig GLB in Nederland
Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Kuikman, Peter - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2803) - 51
landbouwbeleid - plattelandsontwikkeling - klimaat - maatregelen - mitigatie - agricultural policy - rural development - climate - measures - mitigation
Marine complex adaptive systems : theory, legislation and management practices
Bigagli, Emanuele - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt, co-promotor(en): M. Craglia. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431255 - 160
marine areas - marine environment - adaptation - environmental management - oceans - climate - environmental legislation - global warming - climatic change - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - adaptatie - milieubeheer - oceanen - klimaat - milieuwetgeving - opwarming van de aarde - klimaatverandering

Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and biodiversity. Moreover, they have a negative impact on maritime economic sectors and on the social welfare of dependent coastal populations. In order to overcome the deficiencies of traditional single-sector management, in the recent decades several scientific approaches emerged, based on the view of marine systems as Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), i.e. systems where components interact in non-linear, path dependent ways, with lock-in and feedback loop mechanisms, and unpredictable effects also across scales. These approaches have been introduced into the texts of several international agreements related to marine CAS, and related management practices, with contrasting results in relation to effectiveness and integration of governance.

This thesis evaluates for the first time the current international and European legal frameworks from the perspective of marine CAS. To accomplish this objective, four research objectives are formulated: (1) Develop a framework for marine CAS assessment and management; (2) Evaluate the entire European Union (EU) legal framework against the framework developed; (3) Evaluate the international legal framework for the assessment and management of the global oceans against the framework developed; and (4) Evaluate the implementation of the EU and global legal frameworks into practice.

Chapter 2 develops a framework for marine CAS, based on the combination of two promising theoretical approaches: Adaptive Management (AM) and Transition Management (TM). The framework is based on the idea that AM and TM have the potential to overcome each other’s limitations, which are related to the insufficient attention to micro-level socio-economic components, and to the limited incorporation of environmental aspects into socio-technical assessments, respectively. More into detail, the proposed framework is articulated into three components. First, the two sets of marine social-ecological systems and connected socio-technical systems (e.g. fisheries, maritime transportation, coastal tourism and energy) must be clearly identified, and the complex interactions and influences between socio-economic patterns of production and consumption, and ecological components must be assessed. Second, the achievement of ecological resilience of a marine social-ecological system should be performed in coordination with transitions of unsustainable connected socio-technical systems. This implies that sustainability should be evaluated in relation to the pressures socio-technical systems generate on the ecological resilience of connected social-ecological systems, and related impacts. Third, the implementation of the two approaches should be articulated into iterative, learning- and science-based policy cycles, with mechanisms to foster coordination between the policy cycles of social-ecological and socio-technical systems. The benefits of this framework are threefold. First, the assessment of the two sets of social-ecological and socio-technical systems, taken together, allows to overcome current AM limitations and include micro-level socio-economic components into the assessment of ecological resilience. Second, by linking AM managers with established transition arenas, it is possible to overcome TM limitations and streamline the consideration of ecological aspects into the TM process. Third, by linking AM and TM policy cycles, it is possible to reduce the current legal and policy fragmentation.

Chapters 3 and 4 apply the framework proposed in Chapter 2 to evaluate the EU and global legal frameworks for the assessment and management of marine CAS. Chapter 3 presents the first comprehensive review ever realised of the entire EU legal framework, composed of more than 12,000 EU legal acts, from the perspective of marine CAS assessment and management. It concludes that the EU legislation does not provide a fully coherent framework for the assessment and management of EU marine CAS. Although the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD; 2008/56/EC) is a major step towards this purpose, the present research highlights three major limitations: (1) the limited capacity of the MSFD to support the coordination between Member States sharing the same marine region or sub-region; (2) the insufficient characterisation of marine ecological resilience, in particular in relation to socio-economic elements, ecosystem services, human benefits and cross-scale interactions; and (3) the limited capacity of the MSFD to tackle the fragmentation of the EU legal framework and integrate ecological resilience into the objectives of sector-based laws and policies.

Chapter 4 reviews 500 multilateral agreements, evaluated for the first time from the perspective of marine CAS. It shows that there is no international agreement aiming at the ecological resilience of the global oceans social-ecological system. Instead, the international legal framework is fragmented along two dimensions. On the one side, global agreements focus on specific objectives for determined socio-economic activities, ecological features or anthropogenic pressures. On the other side, regional agreements are in place for 18 ocean regions of the world, with a varying level of inclusion of elements of marine CAS assessment and management. The need is highlighted for a reformed global ocean governance framework, which should be based on a bio-geographical approach to the ecological resilience of the global oceans, and build on iteration, learning, and science-based advice to policy and management.

Chapter 5 evaluates the implementation of the EU and global legal frameworks into the practice of assessment and management of a case-study area, the Adriatic Sea. It shows the importance of the MSFD as the first policy trying to deliver a CAS approach to marine assessment and management. However, the case-study investigation confirms the three limitations of the MSFD, laying in: 1) an insufficient geographical approach, where implementation is driven at national level and the requirement of cross-border cooperation is weak; 2) the vagueness of legal requirements, and the limited capacity to include socio-economic aspects into the required assessment; and 3) an insufficient capacity to coordinate with other laws, policies and programmes at various levels of governance. Based on the identified limitations, suggestions are advanced on how to strengthen the implementation of the MSFD, both at Adriatic and EU level. These suggestions are further advanced in Chapter 6, which includes detailed proposals on how to foster integrated large-scale marine monitoring in the EU, in order to contribute to the implementation of the MSFD in an efficient and effective way, also in relation to costs.

Chapter 7 synthesizes the major findings of this thesis and evaluates the capacity of the framework to deliver a CAS approach to marine systems. It concludes that AM and TM, although holding different visions on sustainability and referring to different principles, have the potential to be put in synergy at the practical level. Further scientific research and management practices should focus on the need for AM and TM to overcome the relative isolation and foster synergies across sector-based management, in order to integrate environmental considerations into economic sectors. Suggestions are advanced to improve legal frameworks and policy practices at the global and EU level. They focus on the need: (i) to fill the gaps in the geographical scope of legal texts and to foster international cooperation at the right social-ecological scale; (ii) to increase guidance in translating complex scientific requirements into clear management objectives, and improve related data collection and sharing; and (iii) to reduce current legal and policy fragmentation through targeted, ecological resilience-based marine environmental impact assessments and maritime spatial planning. Lines for further scientific research are suggested, focusing on: (i) improving the evidence-base through additional case-studies; (ii) analysing legal frameworks and governance regimes in place for other marine social-ecological systems, like e.g. the United States of America, Canada, Australia and China; (iii) improving existing tools, or creating new ones for marine ecological resilience assessment; and (iv) developing innovative instruments and mechanisms to strengthen global oceans governance.

Landscape shapes the city
Timmermans, Wim - \ 2016
landscape - greening - parks - gardens - climate - heat stress
De Groene Agenda, topsectoronderzoek
Spijker, J.H. ; Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2016
Stadswerk 2016 (2016)7. - ISSN 0927-7641 - p. 56 - 57.
klimaat - luchtkwaliteit - bedrijven - waterbergend vermogen - gezondheid - welzijn - openbaar groen - beplantingen - kantoren - stedelijke gebieden - toegepast onderzoek - innovaties - arbeid (werk) - stress - warmtestress - sociaal welzijn - participatie - regenwateropvang - climate - air quality - businesses - water holding capacity - health - well-being - public green areas - plantations - offices - urban areas - applied research - innovations - labour - heat stress - social welfare - participation - water harvesting
Steeds meer mensen wonen in de stad. Dit is niet altijd een gezonde leefomgeving. Veel mensen ervaren stress, het ontbreekt aan sociale samenhang, de lucht is vervuild en het veranderende klimaat leidt tot toenemende hittestress en wateroverlast. Slim gebruik van groen is deel van de oplossing voor al deze uitdagingen.
Resilience of Amazonian forests : the roles of fire, flooding and climate
Monteiro Flores, B. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marten Scheffer, co-promotor(en): Milena Holmgren Urba; Jose de Attayde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578876 - 128
forests - resilience of nature - fire - flooding - floods - climate - floodplains - vegetation - amazonia - bossen - veerkracht van de natuur - brand - inundatie - overstromingen - klimaat - stroomvlakten - vegetatie - amazonia

The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the Amazon basin seems quite homogeneous, 14% is seasonally inundated. In my thesis I combine analyses of satellite data with field measurements and experiments to assess the role of floodplain ecosystems in shaping the resilience of Amazonian forests.

First, I analyse tree cover distribution for the whole Amazon to reveal that savannas are relatively more common on floodplains. This suggests that compared to uplands, floodplains spend more time in the savanna state. Also, floodplain forests seem to have a tipping point at 1500 mm of annual rainfall in which forests may shift to savanna, whereas the tipping point for upland forests seems to be at 1000 mm of rainfall. Combining satellite and field measurements, I show that the higher frequency of savannas on floodplain ecosystems may be due to a higher sensitivity to fire. After a forest fire, floodplains lose more tree cover and soil fertility, and recover more slowly than uplands (chapter 2).

In floodplains of the Negro river, I studied the recovery of blackwater forests after repeated fires, using field data on tree basal area, species richness, seed availability, and herbaceous cover. Results indicate that repeated fires may easily trap blackwater floodplains in an open-vegetation state, due the sudden loss of forest resilience after a second fire event (chapter 3).

Analyses of the soil and tree composition of burnt floodplain forests, reveal that a first fire is the onset of the loss of soil fertility that intensifies while savanna trees dominate the tree community. A tree compositional shift happens within four decades, possibly accelerated by fast nutrient leaching. The rapid savannization of floodplain forests after fire implies that certain mechanisms such as environmental filtering may favor the recruitment of savanna trees over forest trees (chapter 4).

In chapter 5, I experimentally tested in the field the roles of dispersal limitation, and environmental filtering for tree recruitment in burnt floodplain forests. I combine inventories of seed availability in burnt sites with experiments using planted seeds and seedlings of six floodplain tree species. Repeated fires strongly reduce the availability of tree seeds, yet planted trees thrive despite degraded soils and high herbaceous cover. Moreover, degraded soils on twice burnt sites seem to limit the growth of most pioneer trees, but not of savanna trees with deeper roots. Our results suggest a limitation of forest trees to disperse into open burnt sites.

The combined evidence presented in this thesis support the hypothesis that Amazonian forests on floodplains are less resilient than forests on uplands, and more likely to shift into a savanna state. The lower ability of floodplains to retain soil fertility and recover forest structure after fire, may accelerate the transition to savanna. I also present some evidence of dispersal limitation of floodplain forest trees. Broad-scale analyses of tree cover as a function of rainfall suggest that savannas are likely to expand first in floodplains if Amazonian climate becomes drier. Savanna expansion through floodplain ecosystems to the core of the Amazon may spread fragility from an unsuspected place.

Simplifying complexity : reflections on ecosystems, psychiatric disorders and biogeochemical pathways
Leemput, I.A. van de - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marten Scheffer; Egbert van Nes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577930 - 211
ecosystems - models - biogeochemistry - nitrogen - coral reefs - climate - aquatic ecology - ecosystemen - modellen - biogeochemie - stikstof - koraalriffen - klimaat - aquatische ecologie
Objective prioritization of intervention areas for the NAGA Foundation in the Kenya Tanzania border area
Maat, H.W. ter; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Fleskens, L. ; Querner, E.P. ; Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Jaspers, A.M.J. - \ 2016
Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2711) - 67 p.
hydrology - restoration management - climate - soil - geographical information systems - vegetation - models - tanzania - kenya - hydrologie - herstelbeheer - klimaat - bodem - geografische informatiesystemen - vegetatie - modellen
The NAGA foundation aims to establish Hydrologic Corridors, wherein re-greening and restoration of
the landscape interacts with regional rain-bringing wind patterns to intensify the local hydrologic cycle
to a point that a permanently greener and more productive ecosystem can be sustained. The initial
search area, as defined by NAGA, targets the Kenya-Tanzania border region and identified four
possible Hydrological Corridors. This report supports an objective prioritisation of potential
intervention locations in this larger domain. Therefore, readily available, geographically explicit
information on soil, vegetation, hydrology and climate, as well as institutional settings that may affect
the likelihood of success of such projects, were collected and analysed, and some climate-modelling
experiments were performed.
Combining the findings of the four themes: hydrology, soil restoration, climate, and institutions, and
ranking the four potential corridors objectively in order of priority, favours re-greening projects in the
Tanzanian corridors could provide the best starting point: especially the most eastern one. In this
area, many applicable land management options exist in combination with a high potential for
restoring soil organic matter, the highest rainfall recycling potential in the more favourable long rainy
season, and the apparent reliability of the Tanzanian governments at both national- and at local
levels. The GIS data facilitate further focus on this particular corridor in search of specific project
locations
Kansenkaart Natuurambitie Grote Wateren : inventarisatie van kansrijke uitvoeringsprojecten in de periode 2016-2021die kunnen bijdragen aan de Natuurambitie Grote Wateren
Hattum, T. van; Timmerman, J.G. ; Buuren, M. van; Lange, H.J. de; Veraart, J.A. ; Tol-Leenders, T.P. van - \ 2016
Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2690) - 57 p.
water - nederlandse wateren - natuur - klimaat - ecosysteemdiensten - hoogwaterbeheersing - nederland - dutch waters - nature - climate - ecosystem services - flood control - netherlands
In het kader van het Deltaprogramma, het Hoogwaterbeschermingsprogramma (HWBP) en het Meerjarenprogramma Infrastructuur, Ruimte en Transport (MIRT) gaan de komende jaren veel projecten in uitvoering. Dat biedt veel kansen om wateropgaven en natuurdoelen te combineren. Voor EZ is het waardevol om beter inzicht te hebben in regionale projecten en initiatieven die in de periode 2015 – 2021 in uitvoering gaan en die kunnen bijdragen aan de NAGW. Daarvoor is behoefte aan een kansenkaart met projecten die relevant zijn voor NAGW en inzicht geven in hoe EZ bij die projecten kan bijdragen aan het concretiseren van het gedachtegoed van NAGW. Op basis daarvan kan EZ beoordelen hoe en bij welke projecten/processen EZ om strategische redenen betrokken wil zijn. Alterra, onderdeel van Wageningen UR, heeft in opdracht van EZ deze kansrijke projecten in beeld gebracht.
Inzicht en Zichtbaar Weerbaar: meetmethoden nodig voor teelt-zeker weerbaar telen
Wurff, A.W.G. van der; Streminska, M.A. ; Boer, F.A. de; Cuesta Arenas, Y. ; Janse, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR
cropping systems - horticulture - plant protection - hydroponics - greenhouse horticulture - conferences - chrysanthemum - soilless culture - substrates - measurement - interactions - markers - plant development - climate - cultivars - tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - teeltsystemen - cultuur zonder grond - substraten - meting - interacties - merkers - plantenontwikkeling - klimaat
Aandacht wordt geschonken aan: voedingswater, micro-leven, rasverschillen, en oud stekmateriaal. Poster van PlantgezondheidEvent 12 maart 2015.
Verse groenten produceren in de woestijn
Campen, J.B. - \ 2015
Kas techniek 2015 (2015)oktober. - p. 16 - 18.
tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - groenteteelt - midden-oosten - onderzoeksprojecten - voedselproductie - agrarische productiesystemen - teelt onder bescherming - waterbeschikbaarheid - klimaat - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - vegetable growing - middle east - research projects - food production - agricultural production systems - protected cultivation - water availability - climate
Voedselzekerheid en voedselveiligheid staan hoog op de agenda in het Midden-Oosten sinds de voedselcrisis in 2007-2008. Voedsel wordt voor een groot deel geïmporteerd uit omliggende landen, maar ook uit Nederland. Vooral in de zomermaanden zijn de prijzen van versproducten in deze landen hoog, omdat er dan weinig in de regio zelf wordt geproduceerd. Vanwege de hoge prijzen en de lage kwaliteit van producten uit omliggende landen zijn er verschillende programma’s gestart om het productiesysteem te verbeteren. Hierbij is ook veel aandacht voor waterbesparing, aangezien water een zeer schaars product is in een groot deel van deze regio.
Op zoek naar écht verkoelend water
Kleis, R. ; Lenzholzer, S. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)8. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 10 - 10.
stedelijke gebieden - stadsomgeving - waterbeheer - stadsontwikkeling - klimaat - nachttemperatuur - ontwerpend onderzoek - stedelijke planning - urban areas - urban environment - water management - urban development - climate - night temperature - research by design - urban planning
Water neemt op een warme dag veel zonne-energie op. Het fungeert daardoor overdag als een soort warmtebatterij die wordt opgeladen en die het stedelijke hitte-eilandeffect een beetje dempt. Maar deze batterij loopt na zonsondergang langzaam leeg en versterkt daarmee juist het hitte-eilandeffect in de nacht. Daar is iets tegen te doen, denkt landschapsarchitect Sanda Lenzholzer. Door waterpartijen slim te ontwerpen kan water een echt koelelement zijn in een warme stad. Met haar project Realcool mag ze de komende twee jaar aantonen of en hoe dat precies werkt.
Naar de klimaattop
Kleis, R. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Fresco, L.O. ; Spijkerman, A. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)8. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 14 - 15.
conferenties - klimaatverandering - klimaat - klimaatadaptatie - milieuwetenschappen - wetenschappers - studenten - duurzame ontwikkeling - conferences - climatic change - climate - climate adaptation - environmental sciences - scientists - students - sustainable development
In de periferie van de VN-klimaatconferentie, van 30 november tot en met 11 december in Parijs, wemelt het van de bijeenkomsten en side-events. Ook Wageningen UR levert haar bijdrage aan dit marktplein van de klimaatwetenschap. Enkele tientallen wetenschappers en studenten trekken naar Parijs om hun boodschap te verkondigen. Op deze pagina’s een kleine greep.
Fine scale ecohydrological processes in northern peatlands and their relevance for the carbon cycle
Nijp, J.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frank Berendse; Sjoerd van der Zee, co-promotor(en): Juul Limpens; Klaas Metselaar. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575837 - 202
ecohydrologie - veengebieden - koolstofcyclus - koolstof - klimaat - neerslag - droogte - bodem - ecohydrology - peatlands - carbon cycle - carbon - climate - precipitation - drought - soil
Stad kan ook koelte-eiland zijn
Kleis, R. ; Pietersen-Theeuwes, N.E. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)7. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 8 - 8.
stadsomgeving - stedelijke gebieden - klimaat - meteorologie - atmosferische grenslaag - grenslaagmeteorologie - luchttemperatuur - urban environment - urban areas - climate - meteorology - atmospheric boundary-layer - boundary-layer meteorology - air temperature
Wat het hitte-eilandeffect is, weet iedereen zo langzamerhand wel. In de stad is het – vooral ’s avonds en ’s nachts – vaak warmer dan op het platteland. De stad slaat overdag energie op en straalt die ’s nachts weer uit. Maar op een rustige en heldere zomerdag kan het ’s ochtends in de stad zomaar een paar graden koeler zijn dan op het omringende platteland. Hoe kan dat? Hoe wordt een hitte-eiland tijdelijk een koelteeiland? Promovendus Natalie Theeuwes van de leerstoelgroep Meteorologie en luchtkwaliteit heeft daar een verklaring voor.
Exploring feedbacks between air pollution and climate policy
Chuwah, C.D. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wilco Hazeleger; D. van Vuuren, co-promotor(en): T.P.C. van Noije. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575547 - 122
luchtverontreiniging - klimaat - beleid - ozon - klimaatverandering - modellen - emissie - air pollution - climate - policy - ozone - climatic change - models - emission

The climate of the Earth is changing in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing agents. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants have led to significant changes in the Earth’s climate systems and projections indicate that further extensive changes are likely. Increased scientific understanding into the processes responsible for climate change and the possible consequences of assumptions regarding future climate and air pollution policy is important to formulate effective response strategies based on mitigation and adaptation. Earth System Models (ESMs) can be used to make climate projections based on emissions or concentrations projections for greenhouse gasses and aerosols derived from socio-economic scenarios. Such scenarios are produced by Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs), based on detailed descriptions of population growth, energy demand and land use.

There has been increasing interest in coupling different disciplines involved in climate research. The current cooperation efforts among scientists from different disciplines have led to an improved representation of climate forcings in ESMs, and of climate responses impacts in IAMs. In this thesis, we contribute to this cooperation by exploring the consequences of emission scenarios under different assumptions regarding air pollution and climate policy.

To do so, we utilize a set of scenarios similar to the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), developed using the IAM IMAGE. These scenarios combine scenarios with radiative forcing targets in 2100 of 2.6 W/m2 and 6.0 W/m2 with different assumptions for air pollution policies (low/high). These scenarios are subsequently used in the global atmospheric chemistry and transport model TM5. Results reveal that both climate and air pollution control policies have large-scale impacts on pollutant concentrations, often of comparable magnitude. We also find that air pollution control measures could, on a global scale, significantly reduce the warming induced by tropospheric ozone and black carbon and the cooling resulting from sulphate in the coming decades. These effects tend to cancel each other on a global scale.

Next, we evaluate the equilibrium climate response to aerosol reductions in different parts of the world in 2050, using the global climate model EC-Earth. Reductions in aerosol concentrations increase downward surface solar radiation and surface temperature concomitantly in various parts of the world. The increase in surface temperature is dominated by the reduced cooling effect of sulphate which in some areas is partially compensated by the decreased warming effect of black carbon. Also, we find that aerosol reductions can significantly affect climate at high latitudes especially in the winter, mostly as a result of teleconnections between the low and high latitudes.

Due to the inhomogeneous spatial distributions of air pollutants, changes in their emissions can have strong regional climate impacts. Using EC-Earth, we assess in Chapter 4 the effectiveness of different aerosol forcing agents in causing climate change in 2050. Our results show that different anthropogenic aerosol components may have a broad range ofefficacies. The results also reveal that there are large interhemispheric differences in aerosol forcings, which result in changes in circulation patterns.

By using surface ozone concentrations simulated by TM5 as input to IMAGE, we estimate ozone impacts on crop production, and subsequent impacts on land use and carbon fluxes in 2005 and 2050. In the absence of new climate and air pollution policies, higher ozone concentrations could lead to an increase in crop damage in 2050 compared to present day. This may lead to a global increase in crop area notably in Asia. Implementation of air pollution policies and climate policies (co-benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions) could limit future crop yield losses due to ozone in the most affected regions. At the local scale, the changes can be substantial.

Urban climate governance : the role of local authorities
Lenhart, J.L. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Bas van Vliet. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573239 - 206
stadsomgeving - stedelijke gebieden - klimaat - governance - milieubeleid - steden - urban environment - urban areas - climate - governance - environmental policy - towns
Dit proefschrift onderzoekt de rol van lokale autoriteiten, en hun interacties met belanghebbenden, om klimaatmitigatie en -adaptatie in steden te besturen. Hiervoor is in dit proefschrift een conceptueel kader ontwikkeld dat gebaseerd is op de governance capaciteiten die lokale overheden bezitten; de wijze van sturing die zij inzetten om klimaatverandering bespreekbaar te maken en de invloed van lokale autoriteiten op verticale en horizontale actoren in een multi-level governance systeem. De belangrijkste onderzoeksvraag van deze studie is: Hoe besturen vooroplopende stedelijke autoriteiten klimaatsverandering, en hoe kunnen de effecten daarvan worden verbeterd?
Studying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2 through Carbon-13 stable isotopes
Velde, I.R. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Maarten Krol; Wouter Peters, co-promotor(en): J.B. Miller. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572935 - 143
kooldioxide - biosfeer - atmosfeer - isotopen - koolstofcyclus - klimaat - voorspellingen - carbon dioxide - biosphere - atmosphere - isotopes - carbon cycle - climate - forecasts

Summary Thesis ‘Studying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2 through

carbon-13 stable isotopes’

Ivar van der Velde

Making predictions of future climate is difficult, mainly due to large uncertainties in the carbon cycle. The rate at which carbon is stored in the oceans and terrestrial biosphere is not keeping pace with the rapid increase in fossil fuel combustion and deforestation, resulting in an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). To gain a better understanding of the global carbon cycle we need to combine multiple sources of data into one consistent analysis, such as, forest and agricultural statistics, satellite data, atmospheric and ecological observations, and mechanistic models. This thesis describes fundamental research on some of the key components of the terrestrial carbon cycle, i.e., gross primary production (GPP) and terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) of CO2, which forms the key to improved prediction of net exchange. Droughts have been shown to strongly influence this exchange, and to interpret these responses adequately we have turned to a large collection of new atmospheric observations of CO2, and its 13C isotope (13CO2), to constrain key model components.

In Chapter 2 we studied the global budget of atmospheric CO2 and the ratio of 13CO2/12CO2 (δ13C) and investigated the main terrestrial drivers of interannual variability (IAV) responsible for the observed atmospheric δ13C variations. In this chapter we introduced the SiBCASA biogeochemical model that we provided with a detailed isotopic discrimination scheme (to calculate the natural preference of 12CO2 over 13CO2 in uptake processes), separate 12C and 13C biogeochemical pools, and satellite-observed fire disturbances. This model was able to calculate uptake of 13CO2 and 12CO2 and produced return fluxes from its differently aged carbon pools, contributing to the so-called disequilibrium flux. Our simulated terrestrial isotope processes, plant discrimination and disequilibrium, closely resembled previously published values and similarly suggested that discrimination variations in C3 type plants and year-to-year variations in C3 and C4 productivity are the main drivers of IAV. The year-to-year variability in the terrestrial disequilibrium flux was much lower than required to match variations in atmospheric observations, under the common assumption of low variability in net ocean CO2 exchange, constant discrimination, and a closed CO2 budget. It was unclear how to increase IAV in the terrestrial biosphere, which suggested that SiBCASA missed adequate drought responses resulting in a latent isotope discrimination and variability in C3/C4 plant productivity.

Implementation of carbon isotope cycling, biomass burning, and SiBCASA’s drought response were closely studied in Chapter 3. Our biomass burning emissions were similar as in CASA-GFED; both in magnitude and spatial patterns, and the implementation of isotope exchange gave a global mean discrimination value of approximately 15 ‰, and varied spatially depending on the photosynthetic pathway in the plant. These values compared well (annually and seasonally) with other published results. Similarly, the size of the terrestrial isotopic disequilibrium was close to that of other studies. As plants experience drought stress, they respond by closing their stomata to prevent the loss of water. This process also inhibits the uptake of CO2 and reduces the isotope discrimination against 13CO2 molecules. We found that the amplitude of drought response in SiBCASA was smaller than suggested by the measured isotope signatures. We also found that a slight increase in stomatal closure for large vapor pressure deficits amplified the variations in the respired isotope signature. Finally, we saw the need for modified starch/sugar storage pools to improve the propagation of isotopic discrimination anomalies to respiration on short-term time scales.

In Chapter 4 we developed a multi-tracer inversion system to interpret signals in atmospheric CO2 and δ13C observations simultaneously. We wanted to know whether drought stress in plants can induce changes in atmospheric δ13C and whether they are interpretable. Using inverse modeling we were able to refine the discrimination parameter for plants as it reflected detectable variations in atmospheric δ13C. The results showed that the isotope discrimination values were consistently smaller during large severe droughts in the Northern Hemisphere, exceeding the estimates from SiBCASA (i.e., a larger reduction). Decreased discrimination suggested an increase in the regional intrinsic water use efficiency, which was also recorded at a large number of measurement sites. The IAV in net ecosystem exchange was relatively insensitive as we allowed the variability of the discrimination parameter to increase more than 8-fold, but it also allowed significant correlation between annual net exchange and discrimination. This study suggested a larger effect of droughts on discrimination than previously thought and that the treatment of drought response in biosphere models needs to be improved.

Carbon cycle research is far from complete as many components are still largely uncertain, which prevents us from making better predictions of future climate. This thesis, however, highlights the importance of isotope observations to assess and improve biogeochemical models, especially with regard to the allocation and turnover of carbon, and responses to droughts.

Climate benefits and environmental challenges related to urban food systems
Verzandvoort, S.J.E. ; Mol, G. ; Meulen, Suzanne van der; Oostrom, Niels van - \ 2014
Alterra Wageningen - 29 p.
urban agriculture - mitigation - climatic change - climate - climate adaptation - urban environment - stadslandbouw - mitigatie - klimaatverandering - klimaat - klimaatadaptatie - stadsomgeving
In a short literature review, we have collected available knowledge on the potential benefits of urban agriculture, as part of local food systems, on climate change mitigation and adaptation. The effects of urban agriculture on climate change mitigation and adaptation depend on the type of agricultural practice (e.g. in greenhouses, in soil, in artificial substrates used resources) and the difference with previous land use (e.g. leading to an increase or decrease of sealed soil surface and green areas). Specific types of urban agriculture can alter the urban environment and in this way influence climate adaptation, or contribute to mitigation in case the production can be realized with lower energy inputs due to opportunities offered by the urban system.
Adviseurs over verduurzaming in de zuivelketen
Lauwere, C.C. de; Ham, A. van den; Reijs, J.W. ; Beldman, A.C.G. ; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Hoes, A.C. ; Philipsen, A.P. - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2015-002) - ISBN 9789086157020 - 81
melkveehouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - consulenten - consultancy - samenleving - klimaat - diergezondheid - biodiversiteit - landbouw en milieu - gezondheid en milieu - dairy farming - sustainability - consultants - society - climate - animal health - biodiversity - agriculture and environment - environmental health
By means of the Sustainable Dairy Chain initiative, dairy businesses and dairy farmers are together pursuing a future-proof and responsible dairy sector and, as a result, are supporting the market and society at large. In order to do this, the goals of the Sustainable Dairy Chain initiative have been formulated along four sustainability themes. This report describes how advisers see sustainability and the aims of the Sustainable Dairy Chain initiative, and how they raise the matter in discussions with dairy farmers.
Klimaat en veehouderij
Vellinga, Theun - \ 2014
livestock farming - climate - climatic change - dairy farming - emission - agricultural education - mitigation
Actualisering ammoniakemissiefactoren vleesvarkens en biggen : advies herberekening op basis van welzijnseisen
Groenestein, C.M. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 786) - 24
dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - varkens - klimaat - ammoniakemissie - biggen - varkensstallen - stalklimaat - animal production - animal welfare - animal health - animal housing - pigs - climate - ammonia emission - piglets - pig housing - stall climate
Deze studie heeft als doel de emissiefactoren voor de verschillende hokoppervlakken te evalueren en eventueel te herberekenen in het zicht van de huidige stand van zaken m.b.t. welzijnseisen, wetenschappelijke kennis en verwachte ontwikkelingen in de varkenshouderij
Stadsgroen maakt warmte draaglijker
Klemm, Wiebke - \ 2014
public green areas - urban parks - temperature - heat tolerance - urban areas - landscape architecture - climate
Climate change, climate variability and adaptation options in smallholder cropping systems of the Sudano - Sahel region in West Africa
Traore, B. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): Mark van Wijk; M. Corbeels. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739612 - 163
klimaatverandering - klimaat - klimaatadaptatie - kleine landbouwbedrijven - teeltsystemen - sahel - gewasproductie - west-afrika - climatic change - climate - climate adaptation - small farms - cropping systems - sahel - crop production - west africa

Key words: crop production, maize, millet, sorghum, cotton, fertilizer, rainfall, temperature, APSIM, Mali,

In the Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa (SSWA) agricultural production remains the main source of livelihood for rural communities, providing employment to more than 60 percent of the population and contributing to about 30% of gross domestic product. Smallholder agricultural production is dominated by rain-fed production of millet, sorghum and maize for food consumption and of cotton for the market. Farmers experience low and variable yields resulting in increasing uncertainty about the ability to produce the food needed for their families. Major factors contributing to such uncertainty and low productivity are climate variability, climate change and poor agricultural management. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate through experimentation, modelling and participatory approaches the real and perceived characteristics of climate variability and change and their effects on crop production in order to identify opportunities for enhancing the adaptive capacity of farmers in the Sudano - Sahelian zone.

The general approach was based on, first, understanding the past trend of climate and its effect on the yield of main crops cultivated in southern Mali; second, evaluating together with farmers different adaptation options in the field; third, evaluating climate adaptation options through experimentation on station; and fourth, evaluating the consequences of different adaptation options under different long term scenarios of climate change.

Minimum daily air temperature increased on average by 0.05oC per year during the period from 1965 to 2005 while maximum daily air temperature remained constant. Seasonal rainfall showed large inter-annual variability with no significant change over the 1965 – 2005 period. However, the total number of dry days within the growing season increased significantly indicating a change in rainfall distribution. There was a negative effect of maximum temperature, number of dry days and total seasonal rainfall on cotton yield.

Farmers perceived an increase in annual rainfall variability, an increase in the occurrence of dry spells during the rainy season, and an increase in temperature. Drought tolerant, short maturing crop varieties and appropriate planting dates were the commonly preferred adaptation strategies to deal with climate variability. Use of chemical fertilizer enhances the yield and profitability of maize while the cost of fertilizer prohibits making profit with fertilizer use on millet. Training of farmers on important aspects of weather and its variability, and especially on the onset of the rains, is critical to enhancing adaptive capacity to climate change.

A field experiment (from 2009 to 2011) indicated that for fertilized cereal crops, maize out yielded millet and sorghum by respectively 57% and 45% across the three seasons. Analysis of 40 years of weather data indicated that this finding holds for longer time periods than the length of this trial. Late planting resulted in significant yield decreases for maize, sorghum and cotton, but not for millet. However, a short duration variety of millet was better adapted for late planting. When the rainy season starts late, sorghum planting can be delayed from the beginning of June to early July without substantial reductions in grain yield. Cotton yield at early planting was 28% larger than yield at medium planting and late planting gave the lowest yield with all three varieties. For all four crops the largest stover yields were obtained with early planting and the longer planting was delayed, the less stover was produced.

Analysis of predicted future climate change on cereal production indicated that the temperature will increase over time. Generally stronger increases occur in the rcp8.5 scenario compared to the rcp4.5 scenario. The total annual rainfall is unlikely to change. By mid-century predicted maize grain yield losses were 45% and 47% with farmer’s practice in the rcp4.5 and rcp8.5 scenarios respectively. The recommended fertilizer application did not offset the climate change impact but reduced the yield losses to 38% of the baseline yield with farmer’s practice. For millet median yield loss was 16% and 14% with farmer’s practice in the rcp4.5 and rcp8.5 scenario. If the recommended fertilizer rates are applied to millet, the predicted yield losses with farmer’s practice due to climate change are reversed in both climate scenarios.

Under future climate change, food availability will be reduced for the all farm types, but that large farm will still achieve food self – sufficiency in terms of energy requirement. The medium and small farm types see a further decrease in food self-sufficiency. Addressing smallholder food self-sufficiency depends upon the capacity of each farm type to appropriately choose the planting date while taking into account the acceptable planting date window for each individual crop.

Vulnerability and adaptation to climate variability and change in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe
Rurinda, J. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): P. Mapfumo; Mark van Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739605 - 168
klimaatverandering - kleine landbouwbedrijven - bedrijfssystemen - klimaatadaptatie - adaptatie - klimaat - gewasopbrengst - zimbabwe - climatic change - small farms - farming systems - climate adaptation - adaptation - climate - crop yield - zimbabwe

Keywords: Climate change; Increased climate variability; Vulnerability; Smallholder farmers; Adaptation

Climate change and increased climate variability are currently seen as the major constraints to the already stressed smallholder farming livelihood system in southern Africa. The main objectives of this study were first to understand the nature and sources of vulnerability of smallholder farmers to climate variability and change, and second to use this knowledge to evaluate possible farm-level management options that can enhance the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers in the face of increased climate variability and long-term change in climate. The study was conducted in Makoni and Hwedza districts in eastern Zimbabwe. Local famers’ and expert empirical knowledge were combined using research tools that mainly included detailed field observations and surveys, systems analysis and field experimentation, and simulation modelling (the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)). To understand the nature and sources of vulnerability, long term climate data were analysed and farmers were interviewed individually and in groups. On-farm experimentation and simulation modelling were conducted to evaluate the impacts and interactions of adaptation options namely maize cultivar choice, staggered planting dates, and variable fertilizer rates, on maize yield under both short-term climate variability and long-term climate change. Another on-farm experiment was conducted to assess whether small grains (finger millet and sorghum) perform as well as maize under variable soil and rainfall conditions.

The long-term rainfall and temperature analyses closely supports farmers’ perceptions that the total annual rainfall has so far not changed, but variability in the rainfall distribution within seasons has increased. The number of rain days has decreased, and the frequency of dry spells within season increased. The mean daily minimum temperature increased by 0.2°C per decade in Makoni, and by 0.5°C per decade in Hwedza, over the period from 1962 to 2000. The surface air temperature is further projected to increase significantly in Makoni and Hwedza, by 2100. The impacts of rising temperatures and increased rainfall variability among smallholder households were highly differentiated because different households depend on varied farming livelihood sub-systems, which were exposed uniquely to aspects of climatic risk. For example, livestock production was sensitive to drought due to lack of feed, affecting resource-endowed farmers, who often own relatively large herds of cattle. Crop production was more sensitive to increased rainfall variability, affecting especially farmers with intermediate resource endowment. Availability of wild fruits and social safety nets were affected directly and indirectly by extreme temperatures and increased rainfall variability, impacting the livelihoods of poorer farmers. Farmers have also access to different biophysical and socioeconomic resources such as fertilizer and farm labour inputs, and as a result they respond variedly to impacts of a changing climate. Thus, alongside climate variability and change, farmers also faced biophysical and socioeconomic challenges, and these challenges had strong interactions with adaptation options to climate change.

Experimentation in this studydemonstrated that the maize cultivars currently on the market in Zimbabwe, and in many parts of southern Africa, exhibit narrow differences in maturity time such that they do not respond differently to prolonged dry spells. The yield performance for all three cultivars is projected to be similar in future change in climates, consistent with results from the experiments.In the current cropping system farmers can select any cultivar available on the market without a yield penalty. However, with climate change none of the available cultivars will be able to compensate for the decline in yield. Greater maize grain yields were obtained with both the early (25 October – 20 November) and normal (21 November – 15 December) plantings, with no significant differences between these planting windows(e.g. on average 5 t ha-1 in Makoni, and 3 t ha-1 in Hwedza for the high fertilization rate).Contrary to previous research findings, there is a reasonably wide planting window in which good yields can be obtained if the rains start on time, but if the start of the rains is delayed until after the beginning of December planting should be done as soon as possible. Regardless of the amount of fertilizer applied, yields were reduced strongly when planting was substantially delayed by four weeks after the start of the rainy season. Maize yielded more than finger millet and sorghum even when rainfall was poor in the 2010/2011 season. For example, maize yielded 2.4 t ha-1 compared with 1.6 t ha-1 for finger millet and 0.4 t ha-1 for sorghum in the 2010/2011 rainfall season in Makoni. Finger millet and sorghum failed to emerge unless fertilizer was applied. Application of manure alone failed to address this challenge of poor emergence until fertilizer was added. Sorghum suffered critical yield losses due to bird damage. The better performance of maize over finger millet and sorghum suggested that the recommendation to substitute small grains for maize as a viable adaptation option to a changing climate, will neither be the best option for robust adaptation nor attractive for farmers in southern Africa. Alternatively spreading crops across the farm and in time can be a viable strategy to spread climatic risk as well as improve human nutrition. Poor soil fertility constrained yield more strongly than rainfall and late planting, as demonstrated by the large yield gap (> 1.2 t ha-1) between the unfertilized and fertilized cultivars even in the poor rainfall season (2010/2011).

Fertilization increased yield significantly under both the baseline and future climates particularly when planting before mid-December.The maize response to mineral nitrogen is, however, projected to decline as climate changes, although effects only become substantial towards the end of the 21st Century. Soil fertility management is therefore likely to be a major entry point for increasing the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to climate change and increased climate variability. However, management of factors related to both nutrient resource access and farmers decisions to enhance resource use efficiencies are critical if agriculture is to be used as robust adaptation options to climate change by smallholder in Southern Africa.

The sensitivity of tropical forests to climate variability and change in Bolivia
Seiler, C. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pavel Kabat, co-promotor(en): Ronald Hutjes; Bart Kruijt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739230 - 157
tropische bossen - klimaatverandering - gevoeligheid - klimaat - remote sensing - koolstof - bolivia - tropical forests - climatic change - sensitivity - climate - remote sensing - carbon - bolivia
Adapting to an Uncertain Climate: Lessons From Practice
Capela Lourenco, T. ; Rovisco, A. ; Groot, A.M.E. ; Nilsson, C. ; Füssel, H.M. ; Bree, L. van - \ 2014
Switzerland : Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319048765 - 182
klimaatadaptatie - milieuwetenschappen - milieutechniek - aardsysteemkunde - klimaatverandering - milieu - klimaat - climate adaptation - environmental sciences - environmental engineering - earth system science - climatic change - environment - climate
Climate change highlights the challenges for long-term policy making in the face of persistent and irreducible levels of uncertainties. It calls for the development of flexible approaches, innovative governance and other elements that contribute to effective and adaptive decision-making. Exploring these new approaches is also a challenge for those involved in climate research and development of adaptation policy. Targeted specifically at policy developers and advisors, practitioners, climate knowledge brokers, researchers and interested adaptation decision-makers, this book differs from other titles addressing climate change adaptation and uncertainty by using real life cases to address distinct and pertinent uncertainties in actual adaptation situations. The authors introduce the role of uncertainties in informing adaptation decisions, showing why and how this is important, and why decisions do not have to wait until uncertainties are resolved. They explore uncertainty assessments supporting decision-making on climate change adaptation, with sections on variability, uncertainty typology, climate change, and projection of risks. A discussion of national adaptation planning follows with sections on sources and levels of uncertainty, communication of uncertainty, and guidance for adaptation planning under uncertainty. The book provides a dozen real-life examples of adaptation decision making in the form of case studies: · Water supply management in Portugal, England and Wales and Hungary · Flooding, including flood risk in Ireland, coastal flooding and erosion in Southwest France, and flood management in Australia’s Hutt River region · Transport and utilities, including the Austrian Federal railway system, public transit in Dresden, and Québec hydro-electric power · Report examining communication of large numbers of climate scenarios in Dutch climate adaptation workshops The concluding section outlines a new support framework for adaptation decisions under uncertainty, as well as guidance, recommendations and decision support for readers to apply in their own work. In the spirit of the newly adopted EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change, the book aims - as does the CIRCLE-2 project from which it emanates - to assist informed decision-making and to provide added value through increased knowledge sharing.
Klimaatbestendige beplanting
Hiemstra, Jelle - \ 2013
public green areas - plantations - urban areas - microclimate - soil plant relationships - climatic change - resource materials - climate - water harvesting - water holding capacity
Het Daklaboratorium: praktijkonderzoek naar de effecten van dakvergroening op waterhuishouding, energie en klimaat
Metselaar, K. - \ 2013
Stowa
proefopzet - groene daken - waterbudget - waterbeheer - energie - klimaat - regenwateropvang - experimental design - green roofs - water budget - water management - energy - climate - water harvesting
Artikelen uit een elektonische rondzendbrief van de Stichting Onderzoek Waterschappen, reg. nr. 433130
Sectorrapportage Duurzame Zuivelketen 2013 : prestaties 2012 in perspectief
Reijs, J.W. ; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Beldman, A.C.G. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-report / LEI Wageningen UR 2013-056) - ISBN 9789086156610 - 79
melkveehouderij - zuivelindustrie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - klimaat - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - weiden - begrazing - biodiversiteit - milieu - melkvee - duurzame veehouderij - levensduur - dierlijke productie - dairy farming - dairy industry - sustainability - climate - animal welfare - animal health - pastures - grazing - biodiversity - environment - dairy cattle - sustainable animal husbandry - lifespan - animal production
NZO en LTO hebben in 2011 via het initiatief Duurzame Zuivelketen concrete doelen geformuleerd om de Nederlandse zuivelsector duurzamer te maken. De doelen zijn gesteld op de thema’s klimaat & energie, diergezondheid & dierenwelzijn, weidegang en biodiversiteit & milieu. Om in beeld te krijgen of de inspanningen op het gebied van deze doelen leiden tot de gewenste resultaten, wordt door LEI Wageningen UR jaarlijks een sectorrapportage opgesteld. De sectorrapportage over 2012 is de tweede in deze reeks. Op basis van het rapport concludeert de Duurzame Zuivelketen dat op vrijwel alle thema’s sprake is van een verbetering of stabilisatie ten opzichte van het voorgaande jaar, maar dat er nog veel extra inzet nodig is om de doelen te behalen. De sectorrapportage Duurzame Zuivelketen geeft inzicht in de prestaties op de door de Duurzame Zuivelketen gestelde doelen over het jaar 2012
The social dimension of green growth in the Republic of Macedonia
Kamphuis, B.M. ; Verburg, R.W. ; Kuhlman, J.W. ; Brouwer, F.M. ; Berg, J. van den; Dimitrov, L. - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Natural resources ) - ISBN 9789086156269 - 110
economische groei - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame landbouw - klimaat - milieubeleid - sociale gevolgen - republiek macedonië - economic growth - sustainability - sustainable agriculture - climate - environmental policy - social impact - republic of macedonia
On the propagation of drought : how climate and catchment characteristics influence hydrological drought development and recovery
Loon, A.F. van - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Uijlenhoet, co-promotor(en): Henny van Lanen. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735010 - 196
droogte - waterstress - waterbeheer - hydrologie - klimaat - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - stroomgebieden - modellen - drought - water stress - water management - hydrology - climate - catchment hydrology - watersheds - models

Drought is a severe natural disaster resulting in high economic loss and huge ecological and societal impacts. In this thesis drought is defined as a period of below-normal water availability in precipitation (meteorological drought), soil moisture (soil moisture drought), or groundwater and discharge (hydrological drought), caused by natural variability in climate. Drought propagation is the change of the drought signal as it moves from anomalous meteorological conditions to a hydrological drought through the terrestrial part of the hydrological cycle. The objective of this PhD research is to investigate the processes underlying drought propagation and their relation with climate and catchment characteristics, both on the catchment scale and on the global scale.
The catchment-scale studies are based on five headwater catchments in Europe with contrasting climate and catchment characteristics. In one of these case study areas, anthropogenic influence on the water system was significant, resulting in severe water scarcity. As I only study natural processes in this thesis, there was a need to separate drought (as defined in this thesis) from human-induced water scarcity in this case study area. I proposed an observation-modelling framework that consists of a hydrological model to simulate the ‘naturalised’ situation and an anomaly analysis method to quantify drought and water scarcity events. Both the time series and the anomaly characteristics of the ‘disturbed’ and ‘naturalised’ situation were compared to quantify human and natural influences on the hydrological system.
After simulation of hydrometeorological variables of all case study areas with a conceptual hydrological model and drought identification with the variable threshold level method, time series and characteristics of drought events were analysed. I classified the drought events into six hydrological drought types that are the result of the interplay of temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration and storage in different seasons. The most common hydrological drought type develops as a result of a rainfall deficit. However, in the development of the most severe hydrological drought events temperature and storage-related processes play an important role, for example through a lack of recovery of the drought.
As I aimed to investigate drought propagation also on larger scales, I tested an ensemble mean of a number of large-scale models (both land-surface models and global hydrological models) on their ability to reproduce the drought propagation processes found in the case study areas. The large-scale models did simulate general aspects of drought propagation (e.g. fewer and longer drought events in discharge than in precipitation), but the above-mentioned effects of temperature and storage-related processes were only partly reproduced. In the large-scale model ensemble, daily runoff reacted almost immediately to changes in precipitation, resulting in important deficiencies in drought simulation in cold and semi-arid climates and regions with large storage. For the time being, this limits the use of large-scale models for the study of processes underlying drought propagation on a global scale.
Consequently, I used a synthetic conceptual hydrological model to study drought propagation on the global scale. I focused on climate control by isolating forcing effects from effects of catchment properties. The drought characteristics (duration and deficit combined) of both soil moisture and subsurface discharge exhibited strongly non-linear patterns in seasonal climates. The non-linear effects in soil moisture drought were caused by the fact that the development of soil moisture droughts in warm seasonal climates is limited by the wilting point. Hydrological droughts in both warm and cold seasonal climates showed a strong increase of deficit with duration due to a lack of recovery in the dry season or snow season, respectively. This effect was strongest in cold seasonal climates, which indicates that for the development and recovery of within-year hydrological drought temperature is an important factor.
The overall conclusion of this research is that, although drought is a complex, nonlinear phenomenon with drought characteristics varying with climate type and catchment characteristics, generic patterns can be derived that reflect the different hydrological processes underlying drought propagation. These processes result in different hydrological drought types that are shown to play a role both on the catchment scale and on the global scale. The non-linear effects of snow and storage-related processes on drought are not incorporated sufficiently in the currently-used large-scale models and drought indices. Possible future steps include more focus on catchment control, in particular the representation of storage, and the role of temperature and evapotranspiration. Additionally, the findings of this research can be applied to hydrological drought forecasting, prediction in ungauged basins, and prediction under global change.


Effect van zomerklimaat bij Cymbidium
Kromwijk, J.A.M. ; Eveleens-Clark, B.A. ; Mourik, N.M. van - \ 2013
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1227) - 72
sierplanten - cymbidium - zomer - klimaat - impact - vochtigheid - temperatuur - teelt onder bescherming - nederland - ornamental plants - summer - climate - humidity - temperature - protected cultivation - netherlands
Abstract NL Bij Cymbidium kan in sommige zomers de uitgroei van de bloemtak vertragen of zelfs stil gaan staan, waardoor het gewenste oogsttijdstip niet gehaald wordt. Onderzoek gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw en uitgevoerd door Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw heeft laten zien dat dit het gevolg is van een te hoge temperatuur. Maximaal 26 oC gaf een betere takstrekking, vroegere productie en nauwelijks bloemschade. Er was bovendien een trend naar meer totaal geoogst gewicht, meer scheuten in het 2e teeltjaar, veelal betere kwaliteit en/of productie en bij de cultivar ‘Esther’ was de houdbaarheid op de vaas beter. Maximaal 26 oC met hoge RV en maximaal licht toe laten gaf bij ‘Esther’ betere resultaten dan maximaal 26 oC met lage RV en een normaal gekrijtte kas, maar bij Earlysue ‘Paddy’ was er geen meerwaarde. Een hoge RV gaf bij gelijkblijvende hoge temperatuur weinig verbetering in de takstrekking en nog steeds veel bloemschade. De bloemtakken lijken vooral in een jong stadium gevoelig voor een te hoge temperatuur. Abstract English During the summer, elongation of the Cymbidium flower stem can be delayed or even stopped, which delays harvest. Research at Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture (funded by the Horticulture Board) found that this delay is caused by too high temperature. A maximum of 26 oC gave better stem elongation, earlier production, no flower damage, more total harvested weight, and more shoots in the subsequent growing season, than the control without a maximum temperature. Quality and production often improved and the vase-life of ‘Esther’ was longer. A maximum of 26 oC with high humidity and maximal light gave better results for ‘Esther’ than a maximum of 26 oC with low humidity and normal light levels. For Earlysue ‘Paddy’ there was no advantage of high humidity and maximal light levels. A high RV without a maximum temperature gave no improvement in stem elongation and flower damage still occurred. Young flowering stems seem to be more sensitive to high temperature than older stems.
Chemical and physical drivers of the evolution of organic aerosols over forests
Janssen, R.H.H. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pavel Kabat, co-promotor(en): Jordi Vila-Guerau de Arellano; Laurens Ganzeveld. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789461735102 - 148
aërosolen - bossen - atmosferische grenslaag - meteorologische factoren - wolken - klimaat - aerosols - forests - atmospheric boundary-layer - meteorological factors - clouds - climate

Diurnal evolution of organic aerosol over boreal and tropical forests

The first research question of this thesis is: how do local surface forcings and large-scale meteorological forcings shape the evolution of organic aerosol over the boreal and tropical forest? This question is dealt with in Chapters 3 and 4 in case studies for the boreal and tropical forest, respectively. To answer this question a modeling tool (MXLCH-SOA) is developed, which represents land surface conditions and dynamical and chemical processes that influence the evolution of organic aerosol (OA) in a balanced way. The novelty of our approach is that it combines the dynamics of a convective boundary layer (BL) with a reduced gas-phase chemistry mechanism and a module for gas/particle-partitioning of semi-volatile organic species. The principles and governing equations of this modeling tool are described in Chapter 2 and in the subsequent chapters the simplified chemical reaction schemes are presented to calculate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from terpenes (Chapter 3 and 4) and from isoprene (Chapter 4).

Despite its simplicity, MXLCH-SOA is able to satisfactorily reproduce the main observed characteristics of dynamics, gas-phase chemistry and gas/particle partitioning for the two studied forest ecosystems and it enables us to explain the temporal variability of the concentrations of organic aerosol and its precursors as a function of the various processes. In short, the results show that the diurnal evolution of organic aerosol in a boreal and a tropical forest is the net result of land surface conditions, boundary layer dynamics, chemical transformations and gas/particle partitioning. In the case study for the boreal forest, the entrainment term of the background OA dominates the OA tendency, while in the tropical forest case it is the interplay of several local and large scale processes that shape the diurnal evolution of OA. A sensitivity analysis for the boreal forest case further shows that the OA concentration is sensitive to both volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and the partitioning of the surface energy budget into a latent and a sensible heat flux. We have identified two regimes, based on which of the two studied land surface drivers dominates: one in which OA is mainly driven by SOA formation from the emitted VOCs and another in which dilution due to entrainment, as driven by the surface energy fluxes, determines the OA concentration. A background OA to fresh SOA ratio is introduced to facilitate the interpretation of this analysis and is used to quantify the contributions of both fresh and background components to the total OA concentration. One main difference between the two case studies is that in the boreal forest entrainment appears to dominate the diurnal cycle, which leads to a decreasing OA concentration during the day, while in the tropical forest the formation of SOA from both isoprene and terpenes leads to increasing OA concentrations during day time. The MXLCH-SOA framework therefore shows the need to represent all these biochemical and physical processes simultaneously in order to understand the diurnal evolution of OA.

As the boundary layer dynamics-chemistry system is not a closed system, it is necessary to further study the influence of external forcings on the diurnal evolution of OA, besides the surface forcings. Two types of large-scale meteorological forcings and their effects on OA evolution through their impact on BL dynamics have been studied: subsidence due to the presence of a high pressure system and advection of relatively cool air. In Chapter 3 a theoretical sensitivity analysis is given of OA evolution to subsidence, which is applied to the tropical forest case study in Chapter 4. Subsidence has a rather counter-intuitive effect on OA concentrations: even though it suppresses the growth of the BL and consequently decreases the mixing volume for chemical species, it leads to decreased OA concentrations. The reason for this is that entrainment is strongly enhanced in case of subsidence due to thermodynamic effects, which results in a stronger dilution of OA. This knowledge is applied in the case study for the tropical forest in Chapter 4, since results from a large-scale model show subsiding air motions over the measurement site and surroundings at Borneo.

In addition to subsidence, the advection of cool air is needed to reproduce the observed boundary layer dynamics at Borneo: only if subsidence and advection of relatively cool air are accounted for, the observed low BL height can be reconciled with the large observed surface sensible and latent heat flux. This cool air suppresses BL growth and entrainment. Consequently, the aerosol is trapped in a shallower layer, which leads to an increased concentration compared to the case without advection of cooler air. In conclusion, the large-scale meteorological forcings subsidence and advection of cool air have opposing effects on the diurnal evolution of OA, even though both suppress BL growth. These findings show the utility of our method in identifying effects that should be accounted for in large-scale chemistry transport models.

The second research question is whether recently discovered pathways of isoprene chemistry are the key to closing the gap between measured and modeled organic aerosol concentrations in tropical forests and other high isoprene environments. To address this issue, several mechanisms which may affect SOA formation from isoprene are implemented in MXLCH-SOA and discussed in Chapter 4. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the main oxidant of isoprene, is thought to be regenerated in the oxidation of isoprene. We find that for the tropical forest case study, we cannot reconcile the modeled concentrations of VOCs, OH and OA with their observed concentrations and fluxes both for cases with and without OH recycling. Therefore, we conclude that the issue of recycling of the OH radical in the oxidation of isoprene has to be solved before its effect on SOA formation can be determined.

The formation of SOA from isoprene involves multiple generations of oxidation and due to this complex chemistry there is no single mechanism which can explain SOA formation from isoprene under all conditions. To gain understanding in this issue, we have implemented different pathways through which isoprene SOA is known to form, although we do not explicitly account for the detailed isoprene oxidation chain. A central aspect of this branching approach is whether the isoprene peroxy radical chemistry follows the low- or the high-NOx pathway. We find that the latter channel dominates in our case study. For SOA formed through the high-NOx channel, we further account for the effect of the NO2/NO ratio on SOA yields. In the presented case study this has little effect as this ratio is low, it but could be more important in regions with slower photochemistry or higher emissions of anthropogenic pollution. In the low-NOx regime, isoprene epoxides (IEPOX) are important intermediate gas-phase species in the formation of isoprene SOA. Even though the low-NOx pathway is only a minor one here, the amount of IEPOX SOA formed is likely substantial, although a better understanding of the exact mechanisms for its formation is needed to confirm this. However, as in previous studies we systematically underestimate the organic aerosol concentration in a tropical forest even though we incorporate the state-of-the-art knowledge on isoprene SOA formation in MXLCH-SOA. Nevertheless, we advocate accounting for NOx regime specific chemical pathways when modeling isoprene SOA formation. As this field is rapidly evolving in terms of the development of new measurement techniques and the discovery of chemical mechanisms, we strongly recommend the intensive use of our modeling system to gain further understanding of the diurnal variability of OA and for testing new hypotheses under atmospheric conditions.

Satellite observations of cloud droplet concentration over the boreal forest

The final objective of this thesis is to understand how aerosols and meteorological factors influence cloud droplet concentration over the boreal forest. This is a first step in translating the process understanding such as addressed in the previous chapters to larger spatio-temporal scales. Since this objective considers different temporal and spatial scales, a different method is applied in Chapter 5 than in the foregoing chapters. Observations of cloud properties by the MODIS instrument onboard the Terra satellite are combined with a model that contains the microphysics and thermodynamics of a single-layered water cloud to obtain a seasonal cycle of cloud droplet number concentrations, averaged over 9 years of data. This seasonal cycle in cloud droplet concentration is compared with aerosol concentrations at the surface and meteorological fields from ECMWF reanalysis. We find that the cloud droplet number concentration is related to the potential temperature gradient in the boundary layer, a measure for the strength of convection, while it shows no clear relationship with the cloud active aerosol concentration at the surface. From this we conclude that the convective transport of the aerosols from the surface to cloud base is the limiting factor for their activation as cloud droplets. However, convection will also influence the formation of clouds from a thermodynamic perspective. Therefore, it is likely that convection, as driven by land surface conditions, regulates both transport of aerosols to cloud base and the height of the cloud base, defined as the height at which water vapor reaches its saturation pressure. To ultimately understand the effect of the boreal forest on cloud properties, the effects of aerosols and thermodynamics should be studied simultaneously.

Aerosol processes relevant for the Netherlands
Brugh, J.M.J. Aan de - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Maarten Krol, co-promotor(en): M. Schaap. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734211 - 172
aërosolen - atmosfeer - simulatie - luchtverontreiniging - klimaat - simulatiemodellen - modellen - europa - nederland - aerosols - atmosphere - simulation - air pollution - climate - simulation models - models - europe - netherlands

Particulate matter (or aerosols) are particles suspended in the atmosphere. Aerosols are believed to be the most important pollutant associated with increased human mortality and morbidity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the relationship between sources of aerosols (such as industry) and the concentration of harmful aerosols at ground level. Furthermore, aerosols influence the climate system by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and by influencing cloud properties. The total climate effect of aerosols is poorly understood compared to the climate effect of greenhouse gases. Therefore, climate studies also benefit from a better understanding of aerosols.

The goal of this thesis is to investigate the spatial distribution of aerosols over Europe with focus on the Netherlands. The aerosol life cycle and effects are calculated with numerical simulations. Performing numerical simulations of aerosols is very challenging, because, in contrast to gas molecules, each individual aerosol differs in size, composition and microphysical properties. Without simplifications, a model has to track each individual particle, which would take far too much computational time, even for modern supercomputers. The challenge is to design simplifications in such a way that the life cycle of aerosols and the effects of aerosols on human health and climate are still properly represented.

Many model studies are supported by measurements. Both the measurements and the models can have different purposes. Using the correct combination of different models and observations is key for studies on aerosols. A different combination of models and observations is required to accomplish the different sub goals of this thesis. These sub goals are:

Investigation of the aerosol life cycle over Europe Improvement of the understanding of gas-aerosol phase transition of ammonium nitrate and aerosol optics Improvement of representation of aerosols and their effects in models

The life cycle of aerosols in Europe is investigated in chapter 3. The full life cycle of aerosols has been implemented in a global transport model. It is concluded that Europe is a net source of anthropogenic (man-made) aerosols and a net sink of natural aerosols. The most important sink of anthropogenic aerosols is removal by clouds and rain, while natural aerosols are removed predominantly by dry deposition processes. By comparing model results with observations, it is concluded that the largest uncertainties are caused by the parameterisation of wet removal processes and by missing emissions.

In the Netherlands, emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia are high because of the high population density and intensive agriculture. After oxidation of nitrogen oxides to nitric acid, ammonium nitrate aerosols can be formed. This aerosol is special, because it can evaporate under warm and dry conditions and condense back to the aerosol phase under cold and moist conditions. Like the case of clouds, the phase equilibrium changes with altitude as the atmospheric temperature decreases with altitude. The phase of ammonium nitrate is poorly detected by many measurement instruments, because the gas-aerosol partitioning can change inside the instrument. Partly due to the scarcity of reliable measurements, the phase transition of ammonium nitrate is poorly implemented in large-scale models.

Because ammonium nitrate aerosol and its phase transition is important for the aerosol budget of the Netherlands, this process has further been investigated in case studies. The goal of case studies is to gain detailed insight in the aerosol processes and, ultimately, to develop better parameterisations for large-scale models. These case-studies are performed with more detailed small-scale models. In these models, not the full aerosol life cycle is simulated but only the processes that are being investigated. A large advantage, however, is that these models have a higher resolution both in the spatial and the temporal domain. As a result, the important processes can be resolved more precisely.

Chapter 4 presents a case study where the interaction between ammonium nitrate phase transition and mixing in the lower atmosphere (boundary layer) is investigated for a warm day in spring. During an intensive measurement campaign near the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands, measurements of ammonium nitrate have been performed. Importantly, the gas and the aerosol phases have been separated with a special instrument so that both concentrations are measured without errors due to phase transition inside the instrument. It is shown that the observed partitioning between gas and aerosol ammonium nitrate deviates significantly from the thermodynamic equilibrium. The hypothesised explanation for this mismatch is that aerosol-rich air from higher altitudes (where the aerosol phase is preferred due to lower temperatures) is transported to the surface, increasing the aerosol-phase fraction of ammonium nitrate at the surface. This implies that the thermodynamic equilibrium is not instantaneously restored at the surface. A simulation of ammonium nitrate partitioning in the boundary layer has been performed with a simplified column model. The match between model results and observations improved drastically when applying a delay timescale up to two hours for the gas-aerosol equilibrium.

The interaction between turbulence and ammonium nitrate partitioning is further investigated in a more detailed model study (chapter 5). In this model, turbulent motions are explicitly resolved. As highlighted above, downward motions are associated with higher aerosol concentrations, because the phase equilibrium of ammonium nitrate is shifted towards the aerosol phase at higher altitudes. Therefore, turbulent motions induce a fluctuating concentration of aerosol ammonium nitrate with updrafts containing lower aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations and subsidence motions containing enhanced aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations. It is discussed that these fluctuations in observations may provide information about the speed of gas-aerosol partitioning, which is very difficult to measure directly.

Throughout chapters 3 to 5, several ideas for model improvements have been posed. These ideas originate both from knowledge gained in the studies and from further challenges that are discovered. One such improvement for models is a computationally efficient and adequate representation of the optical properties of aerosols. Implementation of aerosol optics has been quite challenging, because the physics of aerosol optics is very complicated. Chapter 6 presents a package that allows easy implementation of aerosol optics in atmospheric models that represent aerosols.

Aerosol modelling is a very challenging task and can be developed much further. In this thesis, important steps have been taken to improve knowledge about aerosols. Future research should proceed by unravelling remaining aerosol mysteries, such as those presented in the final chapter (7) of this thesis.

Landschappen van Nederland, geologie, bodem en landgebruik
Jongmans, A.G. ; Berg, M.W. van den; Sonneveld, M.P.W. ; Peek, G.J.W.C. ; Berg van Saparoea, R.M. van den - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862139 - 925
bodem - landschap - landschapselementen - geomorfologie - geologie - klimaat - landgebruik - nederland - soil - landscape - landscape elements - geomorphology - geology - climate - land use - netherlands
Landschappen van Nederland is samengevat in zes delen: Bodem en Landschap, Tektoniek en Klimaat, Ijs en Wind, Rivieren, Veen en als laatste Kust en Zee. Per type: landschap wordt beschreven welke klimatologische en tektonische aspecten hebben bijgedragen aan de totstandkoming. Daarnaast wordt uitvoering aandacht besteed aan de rol van de mens in de vorming van de landschappen. De zes delen zijn samengebracht in twee volumes.
Basiskennis roofmijten voor een betere plaagbestrijding : literatuurstudie naar de effecten van gewas, klimaat en licht op generalistische bladbewonende roofmijten
Messelink, G.J. ; Holstein, R. van - \ 2012
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw ) - 12
biologische bestrijding - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - roofmijten - phytoseiidae - plagenbestrijding - glastuinbouw - natuurlijke vijanden - trialeurodes vaporariorum - frankliniella occidentalis - kasgewassen - klimaat - belichting - biological control - biological control agents - predatory mites - pest control - greenhouse horticulture - natural enemies - greenhouse crops - climate - illumination
Doel van dit project is om de belangrijkste basiseigenschappen van generalistische roofmijten in kaart te brengen, om daarmee een beter advies te kunnen geven over de inzet van roofmijten in o.a. de teelt van potplanten. Gestart wordt met een literatuurstudie gevolgd door laboratoriumtesten met 6 soorten roofmijten. Deze publicatie beschrijft de literatuurstudie.
Sectorrapportage Duurzame Zuivelketen; Nulmeting in 2011 ten behoeve van realisatie van de doelen
Reijs, J.W. ; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Beldman, A.C.G. - \ 2012
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2013-013) - ISBN 9789086156122 - 108
melkveehouderij - zuivelindustrie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - klimaat - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - weiden - biodiversiteit - milieu - dierlijke productie - melkvee - duurzame veehouderij - dairy farming - dairy industry - sustainability - climate - animal welfare - animal health - pastures - biodiversity - environment - animal production - dairy cattle - sustainable animal husbandry
De Nederlandse Zuivel Organisatie (NZO) en LTO Nederland hebben hun krachten gebundeld in de Duurzame Zuivelketen. Via de Duurzame Zuivelketen zetten zuivelindustrie en melkveehouders zich gezamenlijk in voor het versterken van het toekomstig draagvlak in markt en maatschappij. Dit rapport beschrijft de doelen, die de Duurzame Zuivelketen heeft geformuleerd en de indicatoren, die gekozen zijn om de voortgang te monitoren. Ook wordt de realisatie van de doelen van de Duurzame Zuivelketen in het jaar 2011 beschreven rond 4 thema's: 1) klimaat & energie, 2) diergezondheid & dierenwelzijn, 3) weidegang en 4) biodiversiteit & milieu.
Bemestingproef alstroemeria: Resultaten over periode 2010 tot 2012
Helm, Frank van der - \ 2012
alstroemeria - fertilizer application - fertilizers - nutrients - climate - crop production - illumination - temperature - agricultural research
The impact of climate change on the critical weather conditions at Schiphol airport (Impact)
Jacobs, A.J.M. ; Barkmeijer, J. ; Siebesma, A.P. ; Plas, E.V. van der; Wichers Schreur, B.G.J. ; Roozekrans, J.N. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Ronda, R.J. ; Roode, S.R. de - \ 2012
Utrecht/Wageningen : Knowledge for Climate Programme Office (Knowledge for Climate KfC 53/2012) - ISBN 9789490070571 - 76
luchthavens - betrouwbaarheid - weersgegevens - klimaat - modellen - weersvoorspelling - haarlemmermeer - airports - reliability - weather data - climate - models - weather forecasting
Schiphol is van groot belang voor de economische positie van Nederland. De luchthaven is erg gevoelig voor kritieke weersomstandigheden zoals mist, intensieve neerslag en hevige wind. Als gevolg van klimaatverandering verwachten we dat ook de variabiliteit van het weer op de luchthaven en de frequentie en intensiteit van kritieke weersomstandigheden zullen veranderen, maar een precieze kwantificering daarvan ontbreekt. De belangrijkste doelstelling van dit project is daarom het verstrekken en demonstreren van het volgende generatie weer‐ en klimaatmodel HARMONIE. Dit is een nieuw model dat beter geschikt lijkt om het effect van klimaatverandering op lokale kritieke weersomstandigheden op de luchthaven te kwantificeren en te begrijpen. Bovendien zal kennis uit dit project worden gebruikt om de kwaliteit van onze huidige en toekomstige weersvoorspellingen te verbeteren. In dit project wordt het potentieel van het HARMONIE model, om meer gedetailleerdere en nauwkeurigere weersvoorspellingen voor luchthaven Schiphol te leveren dan ons huidige operationele weermodel HIRLAM, nagegaan in het huidige klimaat.
Analysis of vegetation-activity trends in a global land degradation framework
Jong, R. de - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Schaepman, co-promotor(en): Sytze de Bruin. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733122 - 147
vegetatie - vegetatie-indexen - landdegradatie - cartografie - monitoring - observatie - exploratie - klimaat - seizoenvariatie - satellietbeelden - remote sensing - vegetation - vegetation indices - land degradation - mapping - monitoring - observation - exploration - climate - seasonal variation - satellite imagery - remote sensing

Land degradation is a global issue on a par with climate change and loss of biodiversity, but its extent and severity are only roughly known and there is little detail on the immediate processes – let alone the drivers. Earth-observation methods enable monitoring of land resources in a consistent, physical way and on global scale by making use of vegetation activity and/or cover as proxies. A well-known spectral proxy is the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is available in high temporal resolution time series since the early 1980s. In this work, harmonic analyses and non-parametric trend tests were applied to the GIMMS NDVI dataset (1981–2008) in order to quantify positive changes (or greening) and negative changes (browning). Phenological shifts and variations in length of growing season were accounted for using analysis by vegetation development stage rather than by calendar day. This approach does not rely on temporal aggregation for elimination of seasonal variation. The latter might introduce artificial trends as demonstrated in the chapter on the modifiable temporal unit problem. Still, a major assumption underlying the analysis is that trends were invariant, i.e. linear or monotonic, over time. However, these monotonic trends in vegetation activity may consist of an alternating sequence of greening and/or browning periods. This effect and the contribution of short-term trends to longer-term change was analysed using a procedure for detection of trend breaks. Both abrupt and gradual changes were found in large parts of the world, especially in (semi-arid) shrubland and grassland. Many abrupt changes were found around large-scale natural influences like the Mt Pinatubo eruption in 1991 and the strong 1997/98 El Niño event. This marks the importance of accounting for trend changes in the analysis of long-term NDVI time series. These new change-detection techniques advance our understanding of vegetation variability at a multi-decadal scale, but do not provide links to driving processes. It is very complex to disentangle all natural and human drivers and their interactions. As a first step, the spatial relation between changes in climate parameters and changes in vegetation activity was addressed in this work. It appeared that a substantial proportion (54%) of the spatial variation in NDVI changes could be associated to climatic changes in temperature, precipitation and incident radiation, especially in forest biomes. In other regions, the lack of such associations might be interpreted as human-induced land degradation. With these steps we demonstrated the value of global satellite records for monitoring land resources, although many steps are still to be taken.

Verhalen van weer in de toekomst
Hazeleger, W. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461731616 - 20
klimaat - weersvoorspelling - openbare redes - climate - weather forecasting - public speeches
Weer is vaak het gesprek van de dag. Klimaat is het gemiddelde van het weer. Het klimaat is abstracter dan weer en klimaatveranderingen zijn subtiel. Het blijkt moeilijk om informatie over klimaatverandering effectief te gebruiken in sectoren die kwetsbaar zijn voor klimaatverandering. Er wordt voorgesteld een verhaallijn te ontwikkelen van veranderingen in weerfenomenen. Elementen daarin zijn analogen van verleden weerextremen, het plaatsen van huidige weerfenomenen in de context van veranderend klimaat en beschrijvingen van weercondities in een toekomstig klimaat
Op weg naar duurzame veehouderij : hoe? zo! : Wat heb jij met duurzame veehouderij?
Animal Sciences Group (ASG), - \ 2012
Wageningen UR Livestock Research
veehouderij - dierhouderij - dierlijke producten - huisvesting, dieren - duurzame veehouderij - lesmaterialen - innovaties - dierenwelzijn - energiebesparing - milieu - klimaat - natuur- en milieueducatie - livestock farming - animal husbandry - animal products - animal housing - sustainable animal husbandry - teaching materials - innovations - animal welfare - energy saving - environment - climate - nature and environmental education
In 2009 hebben de belangrijkste organisaties uit de productieketen van dierlijke producten duidelijke afspraken gemaakt om samen te werken aan een duurzame veehouderij in 2023.
Groeiseizoen in 2011 zeer lang, voorlente 2012 dient zich al aan
Vliet, A.J.H. van; Bron, W.A. ; Mulder, S. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Stichting voor Duurzame Ontwikkeling
fenologie - flora - fauna - klimaat - phenology - climate
De lengte van het groeiseizoen was in 2011 drieëndertig dagen langer dan normaal (jaren 40 tot en met 60 van de vorige eeuw). Dit blijkt uit het jaaroverzicht van De Natuurkalender. De bijzondere aaneenschakeling van weersextremen zorgde voor een uitzonderlijk jaar in de natuur. De voorlente begon twintig dagen eerder dan normaal, vlinders en libellen waren vroeg tot zeer vroeg terwijl vogels en amfibieën weinig verschuivingen lieten zien ten opzichte van de voorgaande jaren. De zomer was de een na vroegste ooit en de herfst begon bijna twee weken later dan normaal. Door de zeer warme december en aanhoudende hoge temperaturen lijkt de voorlente van 2012 nu al van start te gaan met bloeiende hazelaars en bloeiend speenkruid.
Eindrapportage Hotspot Oude Vaart - Reest
Schaap, B.F. ; Geertsema, W. ; Schotman, H. ; Visser, J.C. ; Vree, L.G. de - \ 2011
Den Haag : Nationaal Onderzoeksprogramma Klimaat voor Ruimte (KvR) - ISBN 9789088150418 - 73
stroomgebieden - beekdalen - watersystemen - scenario-analyse - klimaatfactoren - klimaat - overijssel - drenthe - watersheds - brook valleys - water systems - scenario analysis - climatic factors - climate
De beekdalen in Drenthe zijn bij uitstek gebieden waar de effecten van de klimaatverandering merkbaar zullen zijn. Dat wordt veroorzaakt doordat beeksystemen kwetsbaar zijn voor klimatologische veranderingen. Daarnaast worden de in het gebied aanwezige functies landbouw en natuur in sterke mate beïnvloed door klimaatverandering. Hierbij spelen veranderingen in de waterhuishouding een belangrijke rol.
From field to globe: upscaling of crop growth modelling
Bussel, L.G.J. van - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herman van Keulen; Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): F. Ewert; Peter Leffelaar. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730152 - 212
gewassen - gewasgroeimodellen - modelleren - computersimulatie - tarwe - maïs - klimaat - crops - crop growth models - modeling - computer simulation - wheat - maize - climate

Recently, the scale of interest for application of crop growth models has extended to the region or even globe with time frames of 50-100 years. The application at larger scales of a crop growth model originally developed for a small scale without any adaptation might lead to errors and inaccuracies. Moreover, application of crop growth models at large scales usually gives problems with respect to missing data.

Knowledge about the required level of modelling detail to accurately represent crop growth processes in crop growth models to be applied at large scales is scarce. In this thesis we analysed simulated potential yields, which resulted from models which apply different levels of detail to represent important crop growth processes. Our results indicated that, after location-specific calibration, models in which the same processes were represented with different levels of detail may perform similarly. Model performance was in general best for models which represented leaf area dynamics with the lowest level of detail. Additionally, the results indicated that the use of a different description of light interception significantly changes model outcomes. Especially the representation of leaf senescence was found to be critical for model performance.

Global crop growth models are often used with monthly weather data, while crop growth models were originally developed for daily weather data. We examined the effects of replacing daily weather data with monthly data. Results showed that using monthly weather data may result in higher simulated amounts of biomass. In addition, we found increasing detail in a modelling approach to give higher sensitivity to aggregation of input data.

Next, we investigated the impact of the use of spatially aggregated sowing dates and temperatures on the simulated phenology of winter wheat in Germany. We found simulated winter wheat phenology in Germany to be rather similar using either non-aggregated input data or aggregated input data with a 100 km × 100 km resolution.

Generation or simulation of input data for crop growth models is often neces­sary if the model is applied at large scales. We simulated sowing dates of several rainfed crops by assuming farmers to sow either when temperature exceeds a crop-specific threshold or at the onset of the wet season. For a large part of the globe our methodology is capable of simulating reasonable sowing dates. To simulate the end of the cropping period (i.e. harvesting dates) we developed simple algorithms to generate unknown crop- and location-specific phenological parameters. In the main cropping regions of wheat the simulated lengths corresponded well with the observations; our methodology worked less well for maize (over- and underestimations of 0.5 to 1.5 month). Importantly, our evaluation of possible consequences for simulated yields related to uncertainties in simulated sowing and harvesting dates showed that simulated yields are rather similar using either simulated or observed sowing and harvesting dates (a maximum difference of 20%), indicating the applicability of our methodology in crop productivity assessments.

The thesis concludes with a discussion on a proposed structure of a global crop growth model which is expected to simulate reasonable potential yields at the global scale if only monthly aggregates of climate data at a 0.5° × 0.5° grid are available. The proposed model consists of a forcing function, defined in terms of sigmoidal and quadratic functions to represent light interception, combined with the radiation use efficiency approach, and phenology determining the allocation of biomass to the organs of the crop. Within the model sowing dates and pheno­logical cultivar characteristics are simulated. Based on the proposed model the thesis finally derives directions for future research to further enhance global crop growth modelling.

Shrubs in the cold : interactions between vegetation, permafrost and climate in Siberian tundra
Blok, D. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frank Berendse, co-promotor(en): Monique Heijmans; Gabriela Schaepman. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730251 - 152
struiken - vegetatie - permafrost - kou - klimaat - interacties - toendra - arctische ecologie - plantenecologie - siberië - shrubs - vegetation - permafrost - cold - climate - interactions - tundra - arctic ecology - plant ecology - siberia

The Arctic is experiencing strong increases in air temperature during the last decades. High-latitude tundra regions are very responsive to changes in temperature and may cause a shift in tundra vegetation composition towards greater dominance of deciduous shrubs. With increasing deciduous shrub cover, the surface albedo (proportion of sunlight that is reflected to the atmosphere) may be reduced and lead to air warming by trapping more solar radiation into the Arctic ecosystem. As a result of this warming, thawing of carbon-rich permafrost soils may increase and cause a large greenhouse gas flux to the atmosphere, thus contributing to global warming.

In my thesis I studied how climate influences shrub growth in the Siberian tundra and how climate-induced changes in shrub cover affect summer permafrost thaw and surface albedo. I investigated these interactions between climate, permafrost and Arctic shrub growth using a combination of shrub ring width analysis, field experiments and remote sensing techniques. I measured and compared growth ring widths with meteorological station data and observed that shrub growth is stimulated by higher summer air temperatures. By performing a shrub removal experiment, I demonstrated that a temperature-induced increase in shrub cover may reduce summer permafrost thaw. Shading by the shrub canopy reduced the transfer of energy to the soil. A denser shrub cover thus effectively reduces summer permafrost thaw, despite leading at the same time to a lower surface albedo. These results indicate it is important to incorporate feedbacks between shrub growth, climate and permafrost thaw in model predictions on the Arctic climate and stability of permafrost in a future warmer world.

Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions
Richardson, K. ; Steffen, W. ; Liverman, D. ; Barker, T. ; Jotzo, F. ; Kammen, D.M. ; Leemans, R. ; Lenton, T.M. ; Munasinghe, M. ; Osman-Elasha, B. ; Schellnhuber, H.J. ; Stern, N. ; Vogel, C. ; Waever, O. - \ 2011
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9780521198363 - 524
klimaatverandering - koolstofcyclus - beleid - mitigatie - risico - klimaat - biofysica - economie - ethiek - climatic change - carbon cycle - policy - mitigation - risk - climate - biophysics - economics - ethics
Providing an up-to-date synthesis of knowledge relevant to the climate change issue, this book ranges from the basic science documenting the need for policy action to the technologies, economic instruments and political strategies that can be employed in response to climate change. Ethical and cultural issues constraining the societal response to climate change are also discussed. This book covers a very wide range of disciplines – core biophysical sciences involved with climate change (geosciences, atmospheric sciences, ocean sciences, ecology/biology) as well as economics, political science, health sciences, institutions and governance, sociology, ethics and philosophy, and engineering.
Greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2009 : National Inventory Report 2011
Maas, C.W.M. ; Coenen, P.W.H.G. ; Zijlema, P.W. ; Baas, K. ; Berghe, G. van; Biesebeek, J.D. te; Brandt, A.T. ; Geilenkirchen, G. ; Hoek, K.W. van der; Molder, R. te; Dröge, R. ; Peek, C.J. ; Vonk, J. ; Wyngaert, I.J.J. van den - \ 2011
Bilthoven : National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM report / National Institute for Public Health and the Environment 680355004/2011) - 279
broeikasgassen - emissie - tendensen - methodologie - klimaat - nederland - greenhouse gases - emission - trends - methodology - climate - netherlands
The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2009 decreased by approximately 3% compared to the emission in 2008. This decrease is a result of the economic crisis, especially due to the decrease in the industrial production. In 2009, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF – land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amount to 198.9Tg CO2 eq. This is nearly 7 % below the emissions in the base year 1990 (213.2 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2011 Netherlands’ annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union’s Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.
The frankincense tree of Ethiopia : ecology, productivity and population dynamics
Eshete Wassie, A. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers, co-promotor(en): Frank Sterck. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085859536 - 149
boswellia - populatiedynamica - tappen (rubber) - modellen - harsen - klimaat - begrazing - soortenrijkdom - bosecologie - ethiopië - boswellia - population dynamics - tapping - models - resins - climate - grazing - species richness - forest ecology - ethiopia

Keywords: Boswellian papyrifera, Frankincense tree, matrix model, population dynamics,
population bottleneck, tapping.

Combretum – Terminalia woodlands and Acacia – Commiphora woodlands are the two
dominant vegetation types that cover large parts of the dry land areas in Ethiopia. Several of
their tree and shrub species yield economically valuable products such as gum Arabic,
frankincense and myrrh. Boswellia papyrifera provides the widely traded frankincense that
accounts for >80% of the export revenues that the country is earning from gum and resin
resources. Unfortunately, the Ethiopian dry woodlands and the B. papyrifera populations are
disappearing rapidly due to the combined effects of over-harvesting gums and resins,
overgrazing by livestock, recurrent fires, and excessive wood harvesting. The current lack of
small saplings in the remaining populations of Boswellia suggests that the populations may
not be sustained for the future.
The main objectives of this thesis were to determine diversity and production patterns in B.
papyrifera dominated dry woodlands, to show the regeneration status in various B. papyrifera
populations, and to evaluate the effects of environment, frankincense harvesting, and grazing
on the population dynamics of B. papyrifera. The main research questions were: (1) how do
environmental conditions affect the tree/shrub species richness and production of Ethiopian
dry woodlands? (2) what factors determine the frankincense production by B. papyrifera
trees? (3) how do the vital rates and population dynamics of B. papyrifera vary across
habitats that differ in soil conditions and biotic factors? (4) What are the major bottlenecks in
the life cycle of the trees that hinder the sustainability of the remaining populations? To
address these questions, tree populations were studied in the highlands of Abergelle and the
lowlands of Metema. Metema also has a longer wet season length, higher annual rainfall and
better soil fertility status than Abergelle.
In total 36 and 22 tree and shrub species representing 20 and 9 families were recorded in
Metema and Abergelle woodlands, respectively. The most dominant plant families were
Burseraceae, Fabaceae, Combretaceae and Anacardiaceae. The vegetation at both sites was
dominated by B. papyrifera. The two sites differed in species richness, diversity and
production. Metema, the site with the longer wet season, had a higher species richness,
diversity and production than Abergelle. The productivity of woodlands also increased with a
higher clay content and greater soil depth. Populations structures indeed lacked the saplings,
except for one very isolated population on a steep mountain slope.
The studied frankincense trees produced 41 to 840 gram of frankincense during a year with
seven collection rounds, and 185 to 1826 gram of frankincense during a year with 14
collection rounds. The variation in frankincense production was large across individuals.
Frankincense production increased with tree size, tapping intensity, and tapping frequency.
The increase in production, however, levelled-off beyond a stem diameter of 20 cm, a tapping
intensity of 9 spots, and a tapping intensity of 10 rounds. Growth rate, survival rate and
fruiting probability varied across populations, but were not related to soil conditions or biotic
factors. The growth rates of the 12 Metema populations varied between 0.86 to 0.98,
suggesting that they were all decreasing. Matrix model analyses indicated that the mortality
of adult trees was the major bottleneck for sustainable population growth, and that the lack of
sapling recruitment was a second major bottleneck. These bottlenecks appear both in tapped
and non-tapped stands. Remarkably, tapped stand showed higher growth rates than nontapped
stands, probably because productive stands were selected for harvesting resin.
All results suggest that the remaining populations of B. papyrifera will disappear in the near
future if the current situation continues. Frankincense production is expected to halve in 15-
20 years. Unexpectedly, tapping had no negative effect on vital rates, nor on population
growth rates indicating that other factors are responsible for the decline of the populations.
Adult mortality by insect infestation and windfall, and the negative impact of grazing and fire
on the establishment of saplings need extra attention. Management should be directed
towards releasing two major population bottlenecks (improve sapling regeneration, reduce
adult mortability) to maintain the Boswellia populations and frankincense production in the
future.

Exploring the urban heat island intensity of Dutch cities : assessment based on a literature review, recent meteorological observation and datasets provide by hobby meteorologists
Hove, L.W.A. van; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Moors, E.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra report 2170) - 60
stedelijke gebieden - klimaat - openbaar groen - oppervlaktewater - warmte - rotterdam - veluwe - urban areas - climate - public green areas - surface water - heat
In the present study, an up-to-date assessment of the current Urbana Heat Island (UHI)-intensity in urban areas in the Netherlands has been made. The underlying question is whether or not thermal comfort will be a critical issue considering urbanization and climate change in the next decades. This assessment is based on results from meteorological observations reported in the literature with particular focus on assessed relationships between maximum nocturnal UHI intensity (UHImax) and city features, such as city size and urban configuration and structure. Also results from recent meteorological observations in the urban canopy in Rotterdam and Arnhem have been used. Furthermore, historical datasets provided by hobby meteorologists have been analyzed to obtain a more nationwide coverage.
Energiezuinig klimaat in de teelt van lelies
Kok, B.J. - \ 2011
energiebesparing - klimaat - bloementeelt - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - kassen - lelies - bloembollen - energy saving - climate - floriculture - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - greenhouses - lilies - ornamental bulbs
Informatieposter over maatregelen voor een energiezuinig klimaat in de teelt van lelies
Landschapsarchitect met gevoel voor stadsklimaat (Interview met Sandra Lenzholzer)
Vries, A. de; Lenzholzer, S. - \ 2010
In: Summer in the City ; weersverschijnselen en luchtkwaliteit in de stad Wageningen : Wageningen University & NLT (Natuur, Leven en Technologie module ) - p. 85 - 87.
landschapsarchitectuur - stedelijke gebieden - klimaat - ruimtelijke ordening - landscape architecture - urban areas - climate - physical planning
Interview met Sanda Lenzholzer, assistent professor aan Wageningen University. Ze deed onderzoek naar het stadsklimaat in Nederlandse steden.
Evaluation: ‘SynErgy: Montitoring and control system for conditioning of plants and greenhouse’ (WP-066)
Anonymous, - \ 2010
greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - climate - crops - greenhouse crops - plant development - growth - synergism
Onderzoek blauwverkleuring bij Anthurium: resultaten bedrijfsvergelijking september 2009
Garcia Victoria, N. ; Warmenhoven, M.G. - \ 2010
vergelijkend onderzoek - blauwkleuring - bloemen - anthurium - klimaat - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - comparative research - blue stain - flowers - climate - farm comparisons
10 telers van de soort ‘Tropical’ hebben klimaatgegevens en bloemen geleverd voor een bedrijfsvergelijking naar de redenen van het optreden van blauwverkleuring. Blauwverkleuring deed zich bij alle kwekers voor; de mate waarin varieert per kweker en per periode
Natuur toont klimaatverandering
Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2010
Tuin en Landschap 32 (2010)5. - ISSN 0165-3350 - p. 40 - 41.
klimaatverandering - opwarming van de aarde - klimatologie - broeikaseffect - klimaat - volksgezondheid - climatic change - global warming - climatology - greenhouse effect - climate - public health
Het klimaat van Nederland in de afgelopen tien jaar is vergelijkbaar met dat van Lyon in de jaren zeventig en de gevolgen daarvan zijn in de natuur duidelijk te merken. Planten bloeien vroeger, het groeiseizoen duurt langer en de soortenrijkdom van ons land verandert
Crop physiology in (semi-)closed greenhouses - Final report of the TransForum scientific project “SynErgy: Monitoring and control system for conditioning of plants and greenhouse” (WP-066)
Dieleman, J.A. ; Qian, T. ; Elings, A. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture (Rapporten GTB 1051)
glastuinbouw - kassen - klimaat - gewassen - kasgewassen - plantenontwikkeling - groei - synergie - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - climate - crops - greenhouse crops - plant development - growth - synergism
In The Netherlands, since 2002, a number of (semi-)closed greenhouses was constructed. Climate conditions in these greenhouses were found to differ considerably from those in conventional greenhouses. Knowledge of the effects of these climate conditions on the crop was scarce. Therefore, in the research project “Crop management in conditioned greenhouses”, funded by the Dutch Commodity Board and the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food safety, the effects of the new climate conditions on the crop were investigated. In the accompanying scientific project “SynErgy: monitoring and control system, for conditioning of plants and greenhouses” (WP-066; May 2007 – May 2012), funded by TransForum, this knowledge is used to develop new concepts of climate control for optimal crop growth. In this report, the results and impact of this scientific project are described.
Literatuurstudie zomerklimaat en knoprui bij Cymbidium
Eveleens-Clark, B.A. ; Kromwijk, J.A.M. - \ 2010
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / GTB 1043)
cymbidium - knoppen - afwijkingen, planten - klimaat - zomer - literatuuroverzichten - nederland - buds - plant disorders - climate - summer - literature reviews - netherlands
Op verzoek van de BCO en landelijke commissie Cymbidium van LTO-Groeiservice zijn twee literatuurstudies uitgevoerd voor Cymbidium. De eerste was gericht op het effect van het zomerklimaat op de uitgroei van de bloemtak, bloeitijdstip en de vorming van nieuwe scheuten. De tweede literatuurstudie was gericht op oorzaken van knoprui tijdens de teelt. Beide literatuurstudies zijn gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw. Hieronder een samenvatting van de conclusies van de literatuurstudies.
Klimaat in de stad : tussentijdse rapportage van het dialoogproject Klimaat in de stad
Woestenburg, M. ; Alterra - Centrum Landschap, - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra - 43
stedelijke gebieden - klimaat - temperatuur - klimaatverandering - broeikasgassen - luchtverontreiniging - groene zones - gemeenten - fijn stof - openbaar groen - urban areas - climate - temperature - climatic change - greenhouse gases - air pollution - green belts - municipalities - particulate matter - public green areas
In Nederland woont 82% van de bevolking in de stad. De uitstoot van broeikasgassen is er hoog en extreme regenbuien of hittegolven kunnen juist in de steden grote fysieke, sociale of economische gevolgen hebben. Genoeg reden om bij de aanpak van klimaatverandering te beginnen in de stad. Zes praktijkvoorbeelden laten zien dat oplossingen voor een klimaatbestendige stad altijd lokaal en specifiek zijn, en dat de maatregelen altijd ingebed moeten zijn in de stedelijke cultuur en de bijbehorende gemeentelijke beleidscultuur.
Climate research Netherlands : research highlights
Heinen, M. ; Driessen, P. ; Kabat, P. ; Pater, F. de; Vellinga, P. - \ 2009
[S.l.] : Climate Changes Spatial Planning [etc.] - ISBN 9789088150159 - 67
klimaat - klimaatverandering - onderzoek - nederland - climate - climatic change - research - netherlands
In the Netherlands the temperature has risen, on average, by 1.6°C since 1900. Regional climate scenarios for the 21st century developed by the Dutch Royal Meteorological Institute [1] show that temperature in the Netherlands will continue to rise and mild winters and hot summers will become more common. On average winters will become wetter and extreme precipitation amounts will increase. The intensity of extreme rain showers in summer will increase and the sea level will continue to rise. Changing climate will affect all segments and sectors of the society and the economy of the Netherlands, but it also brings new opportunities for major innovations
Evaluatie Kennisuitwisselingdag in het kader van Kennistransfer NME, thema 'Energie en Klimaat', 27 november 2009
Waal, M.E. van der - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research centre
natuur- en milieueducatie - kennisoverdracht - informatieverspreiding - projecten - energie - klimaat - nature and environmental education - knowledge transfer - diffusion of information - projects - energy - climate
Op 27 november 2009 werd in het kader van het project Kennistransfer NME in Burgers’ Zoo de kennisuitwisselingdag ‘Energie en Klimaat ’ gehouden. Deze uitwisselingsdag, in hoofdzaak bestemd voor de grotere NME ontwikkelaars, is onderdeel van een serie kennisuitwisselingactiviteiten die plaatsvinden in de periode 2008‐2010. Ze hebben tot doel professionals uit onderzoek, ontwikkeling en onderwijs nader tot elkaar te brengen om te komen tot een structurele uitwisseling en inbedding van (NME) kennis. Het projectteam organiseert alle activiteiten.
Lake and watershed characteristics rather than climate influence nutrient limitation in shallow lakes
Kosten, S. ; Huszar, V.M. ; Mazzeo, N. ; Scheffer, M. ; Sternberg, L.S.L. ; Jeppesen, E. - \ 2009
Ecological Applications 19 (2009)7. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 1791 - 1804.
waterkwaliteit - voedingsstoffen - meren - stikstof - fosfor - cyanobacteriën - eutrofiëring - herstel - klimaat - zuid-amerika - primaire productie - water quality - nutrients - lakes - nitrogen - phosphorus - cyanobacteria - eutrophication - rehabilitation - climate - south america - primary production - phytoplankton community structure - fresh-water - meteoric precipitation - nitrogen-retention - subtropical lakes - trophic state - danish lakes - n-p - denitrification
Both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) can limit primary production in shallow lakes, but it is still debated how the importance of N and P varies in time and space. We sampled 83 shallow lakes along a latitudinal gradient (5°–55° S) in South America and assessed the potential nutrient limitation using different methods including nutrient ratios in sediment, water, and seston, dissolved nutrient concentrations, and occurrence of N-fixing cyanobacteria. We found that local characteristics such as soil type and associated land use in the catchment, hydrology, and also the presence of abundant submerged macrophyte growth influenced N and P limitation. We found neither a consistent variation in nutrient limitation nor indications for a steady change in denitrification along the latitudinal gradient. Contrary to findings in other regions, we did not find a relationship between the occurrence of (N-fixing and non-N-fixing) cyanobacteria and the TN:TP ratio. We found N-fixing cyanobacteria (those with heterocysts) exclusively in lakes with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations of
'Uitbreiding EU leidt tot hoger water in Nederland'
Moors, E.J. - \ 2009
Kennis Online 6 (2009)nov. - p. 12 - 12.
klimaatverandering - opwarming van de aarde - broeikaseffect - klimaat - waterverzadiging - rivieren - rivierengebied - climatic change - global warming - greenhouse effect - climate - waterlogging - rivers
Nederland zou bedrijven kunnen gaan betrekken bij het vinden van oplossingen voor wateroverlast. India heeft misschien wat aan de manier waarop Europa boeren compenseert voor het leveren van groene en blauwe diensten. En als de landbouw opschuift naar de Oostbloklanden, dan verandert de waterafvoer van de Rijn. Over de grens kijken is leerzaam, maakt Eddy Moors duidelijk
'Pas Kaderrichtlijn aan op warmer water'
Lototskaya, A.A. - \ 2009
Kennis Online 6 (2009)nov. - p. 8 - 8.
klimaatverandering - opwarming van de aarde - klimaat - broeikaseffect - waterlopen - sloten - rivieren - kaderrichtlijn water - climatic change - global warming - climate - greenhouse effect - streams - ditches - rivers - water framework directive
De watertemperatuur in beken, sloten, rivieren en plassen gaat langzaam stijgen onder invloed van klimaatverandering. Onderzoek van Alterra laat zien dat de samenstelling van het onderwaterleven hierdoor verandert. De Kaderrichtlijn Water houdt daar echter nog geen rekening mee
Onbeheerd bos beter bestand tegen ander klimaat
Bijlsma, R.J. - \ 2009
Kennis Online 6 (2009)nov. - p. 7 - 7.
klimaatverandering - opwarming van de aarde - broeikaseffect - klimaat - bossen - bosbeheer - climatic change - global warming - greenhouse effect - climate - forests - forest administration
Bos dat met rust wordt gelaten, biedt kansen aan planten en dieren die last hebben van klimaatverandering. Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van Alterra
Klimaat dwingt tot kiezen
Sandt, K.H. van de - \ 2009
Kennis Online 6 (2009)nov. - p. 5 - 5.
klimaatverandering - opwarming van de aarde - broeikaseffect - klimaat - hoogwaterbeheersing - overstroomde gronden - waterverzadiging - climatic change - global warming - greenhouse effect - climate - flood control - flooded land - waterlogging
Hoe gaan we om met de gevolgen van klimaatverandering, zoals de dreiging van overstromingen, tekorten aan zoet water, achteruitgang van natuur en oververhitte steden? Onderzoekers van Wageningen UR brengen voor die discussie de ruimtelijke effecten in kaart
Klimaatverandering en het Waddengebied
Kabat, P. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Engelmoer, M. - \ 2009
Leeuwarden : De Waddenacademie KNAW (Position paper klimaat en water 2009-06) - ISBN 9789490289089 - 89
klimaat - klimaatverandering - morfologie - ecologie - veiligheid - waddenzee - wadden - zeeniveau - climate - climatic change - morphology - ecology - safety - wadden sea - tidal flats - sea level
Voor een goed begrip van de klimaatverandering in het waddengebied is kennisontwikkeling noodzakelijk rond een viertal thema’s. Allereerst zijn nadere studies gewenst naar regionale, natuurlijke emissies van broeikasgassen, waarvan Duitse gegevens laten zien dat deze zeer significant kunnen zijn ten opzichte van de antropogene emissies van bijvoorbeeld methaan. Hoe kunnen de bijbehorende processen worden verklaard? Voor een volledig begrip moeten dergelijke studies gekoppeld worden aan die van primaire productie en decompositie in het ecologisch systeem en aan het netto transport door getijdenstromen naar de Noordzee. Dit moet ons in staat stellen beter in te schatten hoe het beheer van rivieren, de kustzone en de denzee deze emissies (onbedoeld) kan beïnvloeden. Daarnaast kan de waddenkustzone een hotspot worden voor toekomstige duurzame energieopwekking, waarvan de uitwerking terdege rekening moet houden met de natuurwaarden van het gebied. Onderzoek in dit spanningsveld is nodig. Integrale analyses van systemen én processen zijn cruciaal. Klimaatverandering en zeespiegelstijging bieden, naast dat ze een bedreiging vormen, juist ook uitgelezen kansen voor zowel natuur, landbouw maar ook andere sectoren. Wellicht zijn nieuwe functiecombinaties mogelijk zodat maatregelen een gunstige uitwerking hebben op meer dan één sector. Creatieve ideeën moeten worden doorgerekend op integrale effecten op de toekomstige situatie
Climate-related differences in the dominance of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes
Kosten, S. ; Kamarainen, A. ; Jeppesen, E. ; Nes, E.H. van; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Lacerot, G. ; Scheffer, M. - \ 2009
Global Change Biology 15 (2009)10. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2503 - 2517.
meren - waterkwaliteit - klimaat - stikstof - troebelheid - voedingsstoffen - diepte - waterplanten - zuid-amerika - europa - noord-amerika - fosfor - temperatuur - fytoplankton - vegetatie - lakes - water quality - climate - nitrogen - turbidity - nutrients - depth - aquatic plants - south america - europe - north america - phosphorus - temperature - phytoplankton - vegetation - phosphorus concentrations - aquatic macrophytes - eutrophic lakes - fish - restoration - communities - nutrient - growth
It has been suggested that shallow lakes in warm climates have a higher probability of being turbid, rather than macrophyte dominated, compared with lakes in cooler climates, but little field evidence exists to evaluate this hypothesis. We analyzed data from 782 lake years in different climate zones in North America, South America, and Europe. We tested if systematic differences exist in the relationship between the abundance of submerged macrophytes and environmental factors such as lake depth and nutrient levels. In the pooled dataset the proportion of lakes with substantial submerged macrophyte coverage (> 30% of the lake area) decreased in a sigmoidal way with increasing total phosphorus (TP) concentration, falling most steeply between 0.05 and 0.2 mg L-1. Substantial submerged macrophyte coverage was also rare in lakes with total nitrogen (TN) concentrations above 1–2 mg L-1, except for lakes with very low TP concentrations where macrophytes remain abundant until higher TN concentrations. The deviance reduction of logistic regression models predicting macrophyte coverage from nutrients and water depth was generally low, and notably lowest in tropical and subtropical regions (Brazil, Uruguay, and Florida), suggesting that macrophyte coverage was strongly influenced by other factors. The maximum TP concentration allowing substantial submerged macrophyte coverage was clearly higher in cold regions with more frost days. This is in agreement with other studies which found a large influence of ice cover duration on shallow lakes' ecology through partial fish kills that may improve light conditions for submerged macrophytes by cascading effects on periphyton and phytoplankton. Our findings suggest that, in regions where climatic warming is projected to lead to fewer frost days, macrophyte cover will decrease unless the nutrient levels are lowered
News in Climate Science and Exploring Boundaries: A Policy brief on developments since the IPCC AR4 report in 2007
Meyer, L.A. ; Leemans, R. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Swart, R. ; Verhagen, A. ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Marinova, N.A. - \ 2009
Bilthoven : PBL, KNMI, WUR (PBL publication 500114013) - 51
klimaat - klimatologie - klimaatverandering - monitoring - climate - climatology - climatic change - monitoring
The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of 2007 (AR4), today, still offers a solid scientific base for climate policy-making. However, there are risks that climate change may happen faster - or may have more severe impacts – than expected. Therefore, it is recommended to increase climate monitoring efforts, and investigate policy response options addressing these risks.
Geoliede stofreductie
Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Harn, J. van - \ 2009
De Pluimveehouderij 39 (2009)5. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 30 - 31.
pluimvee - pluimveehouderij - huisvesting van kippen - klimaat - stallen - dierenwelzijn - fijn stof - binnenklimaat - poultry - poultry farming - chicken housing - climate - stalls - animal welfare - particulate matter - indoor climate
Helpt een oliefilm tegen fijnstof? ASG heeft dit onderzocht. De eerste resultaten zijn positief
Maatregelen ter vermindering van fijnstofemissie uit de pluimveehouderij: optimalisatie van een oliefilmsysteem bij vleeskuikens = Measures to reduce fine dust emission from poultry: optimization of an oil spraying system for broilers
Winkel, A. ; Cambra-López, M. ; Harn, J. van; Hattum, T.G. van; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2009
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen UR (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 204) - 44
pluimveehouderij - vleeskuikens - vleesproductie - emissie - luchtverontreiniging - huisvesting van kippen - klimaat - stallen - dierenwelzijn - fijn stof - binnenklimaat - poultry farming - broilers - meat production - emission - air pollution - chicken housing - climate - stalls - animal welfare - particulate matter - indoor climate
The effects of oil dose, spraying frequency and of technical optimizations of an oil spraying system on the reduction of fine dust were studied. Daily application of 8 to 15 ml of oil per m2 of bedding up from day 21 of the production cycle resulted in a 60% and 80% reduction of PM10 and PM2.5 emission, based on particle mass. Technical optimizations substantially reduced oil droplets
Klimaatverandering steeds zichtbaarder in natuur
Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2008
Nature Today 2008 (2008)1-8-2008.
meteorologie - klimaat - klimaatverandering - temperatuur - nederland - fenologie - meteorology - climate - climatic change - temperature - netherlands - phenology
Het KNMI maakte bekend dat de temperatuur tegenwoordig 1,5°C hoger is dan rond 1950. De stijging is twee keer hoger dan wereldwijd. De gevolgen van deze klimaatverandering worden steeds duidelijker zichtbaar in natuur in onze directe omgeving. Een aantal voorbeelden van veranderingen in de natuur worden besproken
Testing of modifications in the land surface scheme HTESSEL
Wipfler, E.L. ; Metselaar, K. ; Dam, J.C. van; Feddes, R.A. ; Meijgaard, E. van; Hurk, B.J.J.M. van den; Zwart, S.J. ; Bastiaansen, W.G.M. - \ 2008
klimaat - modellen - verandering - vochtigheid - bodem - lucht - aardoppervlak - climate - models - change - humidity - soil - air - land surface
The land surface scheme HTESSEL has been revised including flexible numerical discretization, a soil depth according to the FAO soil map, a modification of root water uptake parameters, and the effect of shallow groundwater
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