Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Groensector staat voor diverse grote uitdagingen
Vliet, Arnold van - \ 2018
entrepreneurship - climate - greening - plantations - innovations
‘Biobased is al lang volwassen’ : Jacco van Haveren
Haveren, Jacco van - \ 2018
biobased economy - industry - biobased materials - innovations - research - biomass - bioplastics - fibres

De biobased economie klein? Daar klopt niks van, als je het Jacco van Haveren vraagt. Hij is Programmamanager Biobased Chemicaliën en Brandstoffen bij Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research. 'Kijk maar eens om je heen; qua volume zijn er nu al veel meer biobased materialen, dan materialen gebaseerd op aardolie.'

Camelina Crambe And Insects
Wubben, E.F.M. ; Blaauw, R. ; Loo, E.N. van; Togtema, K.A. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research
biobased economy - innovations - crops - biomass - residual streams - insects - oils - camelina - crambe - agricultural wastes
Best practices and recommendations for effective and cost ‐ efficient call management in bioeconomy related ERA ‐ NETs : Deliverable 3.1 Recommendations call management
Listabarth, C. ; Sonne Bertelsen, U. ; Bunthof, C.J. - \ 2018
H2020 Platform of bioeconomy ERA-NET Actions (PLATFORM) - 6 p.
biobased economy - projects - research - innovations
PLATFORM policy brief No. 4. Alignment in the Bioeconomy
Kwant, Kees ; Lampel, Stefan ; Kuzniar-van der Zee, Brenda - \ 2018
H2020 Platform of bioeconomy ERA-NET Actions (PLATFORM) - 4 p.
PLATFORM - Alignment - Bioeconomy - Policy
Meer grip met fietsband van paardenbloemrubber
Meer, Ingrid van der - \ 2017
biobased economy - innovations - rubber - taraxacum

Eind augustus presenteerde bandenfabrikant Vredestein een racefietsband van rubber uit de wortels van Russische paardenbloemen. Wageningen deed veel onderzoek voor deze innovatie.

Panama disease in banana and neoliberal governance: towards a political ecology of risk
Cruz, Jaye de la - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P. Macnaghten, co-promotor(en): K. Jansen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437967 - 118
bananas - musa - Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense - governance - innovations - politics - bananen - musa - fusarium - governance - innovaties - politiek

The emergence of Panama disease Tropical Race 4 (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) or TR4 – a fungal disease in banana that is considered by horticulture experts as not only one of the most destructive diseases in the world (Ploetz 1994) but one with no on-hand socio-cultural or chemical method to control it satisfactorily (Ploetz 2015) – has generated conversations, dialogue, inquiry and at times controversy, on how this risk is to be managed.

The onslaught of Tropical Race 1 (TR1) in the 1900s, destroying many banana plantations in Latin America and the Caribbean, provided a lens by which the political economy of Latin America can be examined. Much, however, has changed in global political economy configurations between the 1900s and today. Confronted once more with the disease in contemporary settings, we are provided with an opportunity, and a context within which, to reflect on the ways by which societies, governments and peoples work to address the disease and mitigate its threats in a new time-space constellation. The rise of globalisation and the neoliberal model have ushered in profound changes within the last three decades – changes that have driven social and political processes on multiple scales of governance, and have influenced relationships, behaviours, ways of life and perceptions. This research, therefore, asks the central question: Do features of neoliberal governance influence risk perceptions and decision-making on Panama disease, and if so, in what ways?

This research draws from political ecology as a framework to analyse how political and economic relationships impact on people’s understandings of risk in the context of a phenomenon that has ecological or bio-physical roots. At the heart of the thesis lies the central matter of risk politics: that risk decisions – focusing in particular on what risks matter, who decides, who should be exposed to what, and to what degree – are both an effect of power and an exercise of power.

The thesis is based on a multi-site and multi-scale study consisting of two in-depth case studies – one conducted in the Philippines, the other in Australia – alongside expert interviews conducted in Kampala (Uganda), Rome (Italy), Wageningen (the Netherlands) and Florida (USA). The research is multi-scale in that three different scales of interaction are examined: at the global scale, as situated in the discourse and practice of international governing bodies; at the national scale, by studying the rules and laws in countries which have had experience of Panama disease, and by examining how biosecurity responses have been shaped in the context of a national policy of privatised agriculture; and at the local scale, where agrarian dynamics between small-holder farmers and large corporations are studied. The research is designed not to compare contexts with each other, but to provide illustrative snapshots of the many ways that risk can be shaped by its social milieu.

The first Chapter of this dissertation looks at how the risk of Panama disease is evaluated by international regulatory bodies and actors in global governance networks such as the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) within the Food and Agriculture Organisation, and examines the contestations that underlie the question of whether or not Panama disease control and management constitute a Global Public Good. It has been found with clarity that adherence to free trade principles influence and constrain the ways by which international organizations perceive the risk of, and how they address, this transnational plant disease.

The second Chapter, based on field work in the southern part of the Philippines where a Panama disease infestation has been confirmed and where social relations in rural livelihoods are characterized by a contentious agrarian history, investigates how asymmetric binary relationships between the social actors in a contract growership arrangement -- specifically large banana corporations and smallholder farmers -- influence the possibilities and limitations of disease control.

The third Chapter demonstrates, using the example of Australia, important limitations in the neoliberal ‘user-pays’ model in its ability to address emergency plant disease outbreaks, particularly when swift rule-making and rule-enforcing powers of the state are necessary. While the shared responsibility approach can keep the wheels grinding in a business-as-usual context, within a rapidly-evolving epidemiological emergency, the terms of engagement between government and industry need to be recast.

The fourth Chapter examines the issue of genetic modification – bannered by some scientists as the only or at least the most plausible solution to the urgent problem of Panama disease – and the current state of the global regulatory framework on bio-safety. Developing countries with confirmed Panama disease infestations (Philippines, Indonesia, Jordan, Mozambique and Pakistan) were used as units of analysis. Using tools of legal text analysis, a comparison is made between the National Reports of the countries to the Bio-Safety Clearing House of the Cartagena Protocol on Bio-Safety and international commitments to the IPPC, World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the Cartagena Protocol. This chapter challenges the notion of a ‘uniform science’ and finds that while individual countries ostensibly accept that science, or scientific knowledge, can be used as a unifying framework to consolidate multiple appreciations of risk and divergent approaches in addressing and confronting it, a perusal of their domestic legislation shows contradictions between what was committed in international platforms, and what is implemented domestically. Contrary to the purely scientific standards upheld by the IPPC and the WTO, socio-economic risks and cultural considerations have been found within domestic legislation.

Drawing from these chapters, this research proposes that neoliberalism influences Panama disease strategies in at least three ways: one, through the organisation and harmonisation of systems of behaviour, practices and legislation; two, through the promotion of its narratives and the marginalisation of counter-narratives; and three, through the endorsement of tools that support its agenda.

Firstly, neoliberalism organises and harmonises systems of behaviour, practices and legislation so that it conforms with its own logic and processes. An intuitive abhorrence of protectionism results in the perception that plant health measures that may result in trade barriers are inherently suspect, and thus should be avoided, except in the most exigent of circumstances. The international regulatory system has been substantially re-written so that even collective action becomes increasingly hard to be mobilized, and that international support cannot be activated without the imprimatur of the International Plant Protection Convention, given fears that such action might constitute the basis for future trade restriction. Through adherence to neoliberal principles, the global system has been in effect re-engineered in such a way as to limit the latitude and capacity of countries to identify and designate what they believe to be a risk, as a pluralistic interpretation of risk can be defined as constituting protectionism. Science and scientific knowledge are deployed not in furtherance of the wider considerations of plant health, but to ensure that considerations of plant health keep ‘within limits’ and do not cross over to impinge on borderless international trade.

Secondly, neoliberalism influences plant disease strategies through the propagation of a dominant narrative that protects its interests and the marginalization of counter-narratives that challenge its own dominant narrative. A narrative that blames smallholder farmers for Panama disease reinforces the trope on the unsustainability of smallholder agriculture and the lack of capacity of smallholder farmers. In contrast, a narrative that blames large companies or corporations for the spread of the disease is one that challenges the wisdom of corporate agriculture, and one that may have the consequence of state regulation of corporations, which contradicts the ideological core of neoliberalism: that the market must remain unhampered and unencumbered by strong state intervention.

Thirdly, neoliberalism influences Panama disease measures through the endorsement of tools against the disease that are consistent with its agenda. The research surfaces the aggressive promotion of biotechnology as the only solution – or the ‘silver bullet’ to the possible extermination of Cavendish bananas because of Panama disease, and the endorsement of a biotechnology-permissive global regulatory regime. Neoliberalism did not create Panama disease, nor are proponents of genetic modification always driven by market compulsions, but neoliberal globalism has been shown, for instance through predatory patenting schemes, to reinforce and exacerbate the tendencies of the ‘biotechnology revolution’ to cause social polarisation.

In sum, neoliberalism influences Panama disease strategies by framing risk ­– by managing and controlling how the risk of Panama disease is perceived, measured and decided upon by social actors. Its framing of risk is negotiable, malleable and contingent on what the system needs at a given time. This research concludes that neoliberalism has the effect of instrumentalising risk by deploying it as a tool that is used to protect the dominance of its ideology. The framing of risk – the answers to the fundamental questions of what risks matter, who decides, who should be exposed to what, and to what degree – is, indeed, an exercise of power. But at the same time, it is done to protect accumulated power, and in the course of this research, I strove to demonstrate, using the example of Panama disease, the precise ways by which neoliberalism has exercised its power in multiple levels of governance and within social relations of production to frame plant disease risk to its strategic advantage.

The urgent imperative, therefore, is to continue asserting a global counter-narrative: one that pushes plant disease protection as a global public good, one that speaks to heterogeneous understandings of risk and does not require a uniform notion of science to confer legitimacy to varying standards of protection and, most importantly, one that puts the marginalised and the disproportionate risk burdens that they bear at the centre of the discourse.

Pionieren : Jaarmagazine over het DEMOCRATISCH samenspel van groene burgerinitiatieven en overheden
Salverda, I.E. ; Kruit, J. ; Kuijper, Florien ; Koffijberg, M. ; Neefjes, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Pionieren ) - 39 p.
natuur - openbaar groen - stedelijke gebieden - burgers - participatie - innovaties - vergroening - democratie - nederland - nature - public green areas - urban areas - citizens - participation - innovations - greening - democracy - netherlands
Bioasfalt ruikt naar hout
Gosselink, Richard - \ 2017
cycleways - bitumen - lignin - innovations - biobased materials - biobased economy
Leveraging social networks for agricultural development in Africa
Ross, Martha - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H. Bulte, co-promotor(en): M. Voors. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431910 - 174
social networks - agricultural development - economic development - agricultural production - networks - technology transfer - innovations - innovation adoption - diffusion - interpersonal relations - communication - observation - social learning - social interaction - sociale netwerken - landbouwontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwproductie - netwerken - technologieoverdracht - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - diffusie - intermenselijke relaties - communicatie - observatie - sociaal leren - sociale interactie

This thesis contributes to a growing literature that explores relationships between social networks and innovation diffusion within a developing country context. Given this context, the networks of interest within this thesis are the offline interpersonal relationships between community members. Diffusion channels for new innovation are therefore limited to word-of-mouth communication, observation, and personal experience.

Chapter 2 of this thesis analyses two policy tools in targeting these information gaps. The first is through social learning as part of a farmer extension program. The second combines social learning with experiential learning, reducing the cost to personal experimentation with subsidized improved input packages. Our results indicate that farmers who are exposed to both social learning and learning-by-doing more significantly impacts farmer productivity relative to those receiving no intervention and those exposed only to social learning. I interpret this result as an indication of learning-by-doing combined with social learning being a more effective strategy for facilitating adoption of technologies that have more heterogeneous returns to adoption.

Chapter 3 of this thesis tests the difference in diffusion patterns that result by varying the network contact- point. Specifically, network contact-points are selected as being either the most central or least central individuals within the network. I find evidence that centrality affects the speed of distribution but does not affect the width of diffusion nor which individuals are participating within the diffusion process. Furthermore, large attenuation is observed throughout the diffusion process, which suggests the importance of selecting a sufficiently large set of lead community members for the spread of new technology.

Chapter 4 combines a community-wide polling of network entry-points combined with detailed community network and socio-economic data. First we explore what attributes are prioritized by community members in nominating a resident farmer as an extension contact-point. Second, we use simulations to compare the diffusion spread of top-nominated individuals as network entry-points compared to entry-points that achieve maximal spread within diffusion simulations. We find that community members prioritize network connectedness, pro-social preferences, and socioeconomic indicators of gender, age, formal leadership, and education levels within their nomination decisions. Furthermore, receiving the top three most amount of nominations is found to be significantly correlated with selection as an optimal entry-point within the diffusion simulation. These results suggest that community-wide polling offers a less data-intensive opportunity to realize gains in diffusion warranted through network-based seeding.

Chapter 5 explore whether an individual’s observed social preferences is correlated with an individual’s centrality within the network structure. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality are more trusting and more trustworthy than individuals with lower centrality. Moreover, individuals with low centrality are treated worse in these interactions—people trust them less initially, and return less money to them. Within a group context, little evidence is found of more central individuals displaying more cooperative behavior. Instead, for group cooperation, when a single monitor can observe contribution decisions, the presence of a direct link and more mutual network connections with a monitor correlates to more cooperative behavior by that individual. Our results suggest that network centrality and pro-social preferences are related but more localized network ties are more strongly correlated with pro-sociality than overall network connectedness.

Strategische agenda Wageningen Research 2018-2021
Wageningen Research, - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 52
research institutes - research policy - applied research - innovations
Grotere slagkracht CBBE
Vilsteren, G.E.T. van - \ 2017
Agro & chemie (2017)1. - p. 27 - 27.
onderwijs - publiek-private samenwerking - innovaties - beroepsopleiding (hoger) - onderzoeksprojecten - biobased economy - education - public-private cooperation - innovations - professional education - research projects
Het CBBE wil in 2017 een grotere slagkracht krijgen. Een krachtenbundeling rondom de vier innovatieroutes moet leiden tot meer impact op de biobased en circulaire economie in ons land.
De straat van de toekomst
Vreeburg, Jan - \ 2017
urban development - homes - cycling - water reuse - recovery - innovations - water treatment

2022 lijkt nog ver weg. Toch zijn Wageningse onderzoekers nu al bezig met de Floriade die dat jaar in Almere de poorten opent. Ze gaan daar de Straat van de Toekomst bouwen, die volledig is ingericht op hergebruik.

It takes three to tango : biobased innovaties: een samenwerking tussen overheid, onderwijs en ondernemers
Monteiro da Fonseca, Wendy ; Otterloo, Laura van; Simons, Ralph ; Ankersmit, Elis ; Vilsteren, Gerlinde van - \ 2017
Netherlands : CoE BBE - 47
samenwerking - publiek-private samenwerking - innovaties - biobased economy - kennisoverdracht - colleges - onderzoek - nederland - beroepsopleiding (hoger) - cooperation - public-private cooperation - innovations - knowledge transfer - research - netherlands - professional education
De transitie naar een Biobased Economy (BBE) is al jaren een 'hot item' in Nederland, zowel binnen de Nationaal Wetenschapsagenda als binnen de topsectoren. De MKB-erst, elk in eigen niches, spelen hierbij een bepalende rol. Hiernaast hebben de hogescholen op dit domein de ambitie om een belangrijke rol voor het MKB als kennisleverancier te spelen (onderwijs en onderzoek). In dit rapport probeert helderheid te creëren over hoe dit proces verloopt.
Dis-locating innovation : amphibious geographies of creative reuse and alternative value production
Barba Lata, Iulian I.V. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Claudio Minca, co-promotor(en): Martijn Duineveld. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430135 - 131
landscape - cultural landscape - innovations - creativity - imagination - urban sites - urban development - waste land - rural areas - topology - landschap - cultuurlandschap - innovaties - creativiteit - verbeelding - stedelijke terreinen - stadsontwikkeling - woeste grond - platteland - topologie

This dissertation dwells on an experimental approach to the emergence of alternative innovations, interrogated through their spatiotemporal and material conditions. Proceeding from the more recent spate of contributions that grant recognition to innovation processes as a common feature of any practice, this research seeks to expand the understanding of innovation beyond canonical interpretations of the subject matter. This opens up a bewildering matrix of potentialities to tackle the emergence of alternatives, often to be recovered from the very dynamics of mainstream innovations that branch out beyond their original purpose. Moreover, the contingent character of mainstream and alternative innovations connotes processes of varying dynamics and rhythmic qualities, which appear to escape the sole grip of linear or cyclical interpretations. Instructed by this preliminary set of assumptions, this investigation belongs to an amphibious domain of enquiry, one that takes shape at the interface between presumably grounded and more fluid readings of innovation processes. Aligned to the amphibious conceptual imaginary, there is also the thematic repertoire and empirical ambit of case studies explored within the dissertation. As such, the evoked conceptual liminality dictated the particular focus on amphibious practices, as the referents of material and affective dispositions, as well as of narratives of belonging scored across land-water interfaces.

The main case studies presented in chapters IV and V were the result of an exploratory phase, with its point of departure in a pilot study conducted on the emergence of floating urbanization solutions in the Netherlands. The surveyed modalities of inhabiting land-water interfaces led me to wonder on the existence of alternative conditions of possibility to what otherwise appeared and were also tagged as very innovative attempts to reimagine urban dwelling. This struck me as a thorny task: where do you start in qualifying something as innovative or not? It took another survey of historical practices and some lengthy reflection sessions to realize that beyond the shifts and turns it has supposedly informed, innovation is much more performative than I initially thought. Thus, I started conducting ethnographic fieldwork by focusing on a pretty unusual case – floating churches, in Volgograd, Russia, more rural than urban, and definitely not the kind of instance you would run across in the mainstream innovation literature. The second case selection followed more or less the same oddly-informed pattern, this time – an on-land harbour, the brainchild of an experimental self-sufficient community recently established in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Speaking from the field of Cultural Geography such an endeavour appears to be an opportune exercise, particularly for better understanding the underlying conditions of the current innovation ethos and the ways it (potentially) shapes future trajectories. The investigation draws on three main research questions, which address the meanings (1), workings (2) and expectations (3) connected to various innovation imaginaries, as follows:

In what ways do different amphibious practices acknowledge the spatiotemporal and material conditions of innovation?

How do those conditions enable the emergence of alternative innovations?

To what extent are emergent alternatives influencing incumbent political repertoires as part of the current innovation ethos?

To answer these research questions, the dissertation brings into dialogue multiple disciplinary filiations and, as a secondary and more subtle objective, it reflects upon a new set of spatial (and temporal) imaginaries that would add up to the emergent spatial grammars currently animating geographical thought. Within the broader ambit of unpacking the workings of innovation processes, the theoretical and empirical exploration weaves contributions to the burgeoning strands of work on topological thinking, geographies of religion and secularism, archival practices and knowledge mobilities, urban progressive movements, and particularly, to the ongoing debates on new materialism. Consequently, the methodological sway of this study covers a spectrum ranging from grand theory to ethnographic accounts of micro-societal shifts.

The dissertation is structured into seven chapters and its red thread could be envisioned as describing a loop between chapters II and VI, accordingly entitled The Magic Mirror I and The Magic Mirror II. The second chapter provides a critical overview of grand innovation narratives and their diverse filiations across Western thought, to outline the conceptual imaginary that drives this investigation. The thematic focus of The Magic Mirror I concerns the normative distinction between innovation and imitation, which arguably deters an ampler understanding of innovation processes. Chapter III, The surface and the abyss, expands on this preliminary vision by resorting to an extensive genealogical exercise. Through a critical deployment of the surface/depth metaphor, it explores the catalytic potential of topological thinking to establish points of articulation between apparently opposed notions and canons of thought. Starting from a genealogy of mathematical developments and philosophical mediations toward the end point of geography, it addresses the interplay between the formal (axiomatic) and conceptual (problematic) dimensions of topology in suggesting some potentially alternative ways of re-imagining the role of topological thinking for spatial theory and human geography, and connecting these to the empirical exploration presented in chapter IV.

Chapter IV explores the concept of creative reuse as an alternative modality to interrogate the materiality of things and their documentary sway beyond the immediate affordances dictated by circumstances of disposal or dissolution. Drawing on an ethnographic study of the Volga and Don riverscapes, it evokes the case of the floating churches built to support the revival of faith practices in the Volgograd oblast after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In attending to their impact in warping various temporal and geographical proximities, it suggests that their workings rely on topologies of fixed points and shifting spatialities, animated by forms of religious ritual and related creative manifestations. Through recourse to questions of materiality, mobility and affect it argues that creative reuse interventions provide productive ways of exposing and altering the residual surplus on which both things and processes of place-making rest upon.

Chapter V examines the role of creative reuse as an alternative imaginary specifically concerned with the residual surplus that results along dominant processes of accumulation and value production. In moving beyond circumstances of disposal or dissolution, it argues that creative reuse interventions provide inventive ways to exploit the productive latencies scored across incumbent sociotechnical arrangements. Building upon an ethnographic study of De Ceuvel’s on-land harbour, an experimental self-sufficient community recently established in Amsterdam, it shows how things that were otherwise redundant/disposed/forgotten can stimulate new material and affective dispositions that call into question established practices around sustainable, creative and inclusive city-making. Based on the findings, it goes on to suggest that creative reuse interventions enable new conditions of possibility for the enactment of alternative urban futures.

Chapter VI, The Magic Mirror II, closes the loop by connecting the findings to the introductory discussion from The Magic Mirror I, and elaborating further upon a more generous imaginary to tackle the workings of innovations, as well as the emergence of related alternatives. Thus, from the genealogical interrogation of topology to the unconventional interventions discussed in the empirical sections, creative reuse emerges as the vehicle of surprising returns. These enable a more generous reading that transcends the immediate affordances of mere imitation or circumstances of disposal – one that pivots on the key role of variation through mimesis or the potent afterlives of things and affects in animating alternative forms of innovation. The reference to alternatives should be understood both in relation to the dominant narrative of creative destruction, as well as to how various imaginaries – whether digested as secular, religious or otherwise – become entangled and mirror each other in intriguing ways. Consequently, even when proceeding from the fairly basic distinction that things envisioned as fixed end up afloat and travelling around, as much as things expected to float and travel around become stranded, the idea of surprising returns opens a broad spectrum of meanings and potentialities. As such, the resulting instances expose realities that are much more turbulent than commonly asserted.

Chapter VII answers the main research questions and also grants recognition to creative reuse imaginaries as the inescapable complement to dominant processes of accumulation and value production. As such, the material and affective dispositions cultivated through the emergence of alternatives, within and between various practices, signal the dislocation work occasioned by processes of variation through mimesis. These emergent imaginaries rely on a logic of aspiration and differentiation, which allows them to interfere with, and shape each other, or even morph into new narratives of belonging and creative action. And this is usually achieved through a rather twisted symbiosis, one of peculiar association. The latter pertains to the loose/labile character of creative reuse imaginaries explored in the empirical chapters, which enables them to contract and expand under various readings. Somewhat paradoxically, their dynamics seems to mirror that of mainstream innovations through the performative re-enactment of conditions for success. However, they excel through the disposition for multiple entanglements that often defy the normative distinctions between formal and informal domains. This gives rise to broad fields of resonance in recasting all sorts of anamorphic reflections across the resulting amphibious domains of contingency. In other words, the more imaginaries they interfere with or even subsume, the higher chances become for innovative spin-offs. For a more synthetic overview of the findings, the last section of the chapter packs a final reflection in the form of some tentative corollaries inspired by this exploratory journey.

Biogas production and digestate utilisation from agricultural residues : deliverable nº: 6.2.1
Corre, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. - \ 2016
HYSOL project - 39 p.
renewable energy - anaerobic digestion - biogas - crop residues - agricultural wastes - sustainable energy - electricity supplies - innovations - biobased economy - fermentation - digestate - hernieuwbare energie - anaërobe afbraak - oogstresten - agrarische afvalstoffen - duurzame energie - elektriciteitsvoorzieningen - innovaties - fermentatie - digestaat
The HYSOL project aims at hybridisation of concentrated solar power with a gas turbine in order to guarantee a stable and reliable electricity supply, based on renewable energy. The production of fully renewable electricity in a Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) plant includes the use of renewable gas. In task 6.2 of the HYSOL project research into the possibilities of sustainable biogas production from agricultural residues by anaerobic digestion has been performed. In this report results are described of part of this research focussing on potential biogas production and digestate production and utilisation from animal manure and crop residues.
PLATFORM Policy Brief No. 2. Co-creation of a Global Bioeconomy
Kwant, K. ; Lampel, S. ; Bunthof, C.J. ; Kuzniar-van der Zee, B. - \ 2016
H2020 Platform of bioeconomy ERA-NET Actions (PLATFORM) - 4 p.
platform - policy brief - policy - co-creation - global - bioeconomy - PLATFORM - ERA-NET - Bioeconomy - global bioeconomy - policy - policy brief
Winter light greenhouses at research centre ready for cucumber trial : will new greenhouse lead to 10% more light?
Kempkes, Frank - \ 2016
greenhouses - greenhouse technology - artificial lighting - experimental stations - light transmission - innovations
Circular Solutions : Part IV From Waste to Resource
Annevelink, E. ; Bos, H.L. ; Meesters, K.P.H. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Haas, W. de; Kuikman, P.J. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Sikirica, N. - \ 2016
TO2 Federatie - 65 p.
biobased economy - waste utilization - recycling - refuse - waste management - innovations - afvalhergebruik - vuilnis - afvalbeheer - innovaties
The fifth part of this report on Circular Solutions is about the circular principle From Waste to Resource. The purpose of this study is to select promising options for the implementation of this circular principle and to elaborate these options further.
Aquaculture Innovation in Vietnam
Rurangwa, E. ; Baumgartner, U. ; Nguyen, H.M. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2016
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C097/16) - 28
aquaculture - innovations - tilapia - fishes - shrimps - crabs - vietnam - aquacultuur - innovaties - vissen - garnalen - krabben (schaaldieren)
De Groene Agenda, topsectoronderzoek
Spijker, J.H. ; Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2016
Stadswerk 2016 (2016)7. - ISSN 0927-7641 - p. 56 - 57.
klimaat - luchtkwaliteit - bedrijven - waterbergend vermogen - gezondheid - welzijn - openbaar groen - beplantingen - kantoren - stedelijke gebieden - toegepast onderzoek - innovaties - arbeid (werk) - stress - warmtestress - sociaal welzijn - participatie - regenwateropvang - climate - air quality - businesses - water holding capacity - health - well-being - public green areas - plantations - offices - urban areas - applied research - innovations - labour - heat stress - social welfare - participation - water harvesting
Steeds meer mensen wonen in de stad. Dit is niet altijd een gezonde leefomgeving. Veel mensen ervaren stress, het ontbreekt aan sociale samenhang, de lucht is vervuild en het veranderende klimaat leidt tot toenemende hittestress en wateroverlast. Slim gebruik van groen is deel van de oplossing voor al deze uitdagingen.
Prima opbrengst winterlichtgewas komkommer in innovatieve kas : zowel energiebesparing als productieverhoging haalbaar
Janse, Jan - \ 2016
greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - cucumis - innovations - winter - light - light transmission - cultivation - energy consumption
Economic analysis of technological innovations to improve sustainability of pangasius production in Vietnam
Ngoc, Pham Thi Anh - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Miranda Meuwissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579880 - 141
fish production - fishes - innovations - economic analysis - sustainability - fish culture - vietnam - visproductie - vissen - innovaties - economische analyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - visteelt - vietnam

In response to increasing concerns about sustainable production, a growing number of European customers expect seafood products to be certified, for example by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) certification. Water purification technologies such as Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) could be a potential solution to reduce waste discharge and to improve water quality in fish ponds as a response to environmental regulations. In order to provide useful insights to consider investments in RAS, the overall objective of this thesis was to perform an economic analysis of technological innovations such as RAS to improve the sustainability of pangasius production in Vietnam.

This thesis first uses Data Envelopment Analysis to measure input- and output-specific technical and scale inefficiency of pangasius farmers in the traditional system and uses a bootstrap truncated regression to assess the impact of farmers’ demographics and farm characteristics on these technical inefficiencies. Second, the economic feasibility of RAS in pangasius farming is analysed using a capital budgeting approach and stochastic simulation accounting for uncertainty in key parameters. Next, key determinants influencing the adoption of RAS by pangasius farmers are investigated using a choice experiment. Finally, price transmission along the international supply chain of pangasius, from the Vietnamese farm to the Polish retail stage is analysed using a vector autoregressive error correction model framework.

The results show that inadequate management skills in using capital assets and improper methods for producing fish are the main challenges for enhancing the performance of Vietnamese pangasius production. Location of the farm in a saltwater intrusion area is positively associated with inefficiency of producing fish. The results suggest further that when shifting from the traditional system to RAS, the Net Present Value (NPV) of the investment in RAS is expected to substantially increase, for both medium (1-3 ha) and large (equal or greater than 3 ha) farms. Lack of trust in receiving a price premium, inadequate access to finance and uncertainty about the actual performance of RAS systems are constraints for the adoption of RAS. Finally, our study provides evidence that price signals at the Polish-Vietnamese retail stage were transmitted back to wholesale, export and Vietnamese pangasius farms stages.

Verrassende materialen zetten onderzoekers op duurzaam spoor
Blok, Chris - \ 2016
substrates - polylactic acid - biochar - greenhouse horticulture - innovations - biobased materials - biobased economy - substitutes
Meer maatwerk mogelijk in bemesting voor pot- en grondteelten
Kromwijk, Arca - \ 2016
greenhouse horticulture - manures - fertilizer application - cropping systems - growers - innovations - pot plants - new products
Kennisagenda biomimicry 2015-2018
Vogelzang, T.A. ; Vader, J. ; Michels, R. - \ 2016
Den Haag : Wageningen Economic Research - 23 p.
biobased economy - ontwerp - innovaties - biomimicry - duurzame ontwikkeling - productontwikkeling - biotechnologie - kennismanagement - gebiedsontwikkeling - organisatieontwikkeling - design - innovations - sustainable development - product development - biotechnology - knowledge management - area development - organizational development
Biomimicry , de ontwerpfilosofie die de natuur als inspiratiebron ziet voor innovaties, kan grote ecologische en economische voordelen opleveren voor onze samenleving wanneer het bre ed wordt ingezet ten behoeve van maatschappelijke en wetenschappelijke vraagstukken. Het biedt ook veel toepassingsmogelijkheden voor een groot aantal sectoren , zoals bouw, industrie en landbouw . Om aan een kennisinfrastructuur voor biomimicry te kunn en werken, is het van belang om te weten welke kennis diverse partijen in ons land in huis hebben, welke ze willen delen en welke kennislacunes er zijn. Deze kennisagenda is met dat doel opgesteld. De kennisagenda agendeert een aantal vraagstukken voor de komende periode waaraan betrokken stakeholders in onderlinge samenwerking gericht kunnen werken om de toepassing van biomimicry in ons land de komende jaren op een hog er plan te brengen. Deze kennisagenda geeft daarmee richting aan biomimicry -innovaties die de komende jaren (wellicht) met voorrang opgepakt worden.
Kansen voor regionale innovatieprojecten, verkenning voor de vollegrondsgroentesector in Zuidoost Nederland
Haan, J.J. de; Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Wolf, P.L. de - \ 2016
Wageningen : Stichting DLO (PPO/PRI-rapport 3750302800 ) - 26 p.
akkerbouw - groenteteelt - groenten - kleine landbouwbedrijven - limburg - ondernemerschap - innovaties - kennisoverdracht - kennissystemen - kennis van boeren - kennis - subsidies - arable farming - vegetable growing - vegetables - small farms - entrepreneurship - innovations - knowledge transfer - knowledge systems - farmers' knowledge - knowledge
The Dutch province of Limburg has asked Wageningen UR to develop an initial knowledge- and innovation agenda for the outdoor vegetable production sector, including three concrete project ideas for the POP3 framework. Besides this, Wageningen UR was asked to evaluate three innovation projects with farmers and SMEs to make recommendations to optimise the POP3 framework. Recommendations for POP3 Based on experiences in three different subsidy projects, recommendations are formulated for POP3. The main conclusion is that subsidy schemes do not match with the situation of agricultural businesses and small SMEs, although the schemes aim to support such companies with innovation. It is recommended to leave the ownership of the innovation with the companies, but without the full project management responsibility. Moreover, it is important to make the conditions more suitable for small enterprises, e.g. the minimum subsidy sum and the required contribution in cash. Second problem is the inflexibility of subsidy schemes, limiting the dynamics of innovation projects or forcing them to start procedures for acceptance of changes in the plan and budgeting. It is recommended to make schemes more flexible, e.g. asking less detailed plans and creating more room for changes in partners, activities and budgets. Third problem is the limitation for consortium partners to get their full costs paid, affecting research and advisory partners. This is often solved through very complicated constructions (outsourcing, secondary partnership), causing inequalities in the project (some partners are fully paid, others are not). Recommendation: allow projects to involve the right partners for the project, with the possibility to pay real costs and without complicated constructions. Last common problem is the artificial distinction between knowledge development and knowledge use/uptake, causing problems within projects when necessary research activities are not accepted by the subsidy scheme. Recommendation: allow projects to do all activities they believe are necessary for the innovation process.
Growth and Innovation in the Ocean Economy : North Sea Checkpoint : Data Adequacy Report – Oil Platform Leak Challenge
Wal, J.T. van der; Vries, P. de; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2016
Den Helder : IMARES Wageningen UR (IMARES rapport C095/16) - 67
oceans - economics - innovations - emergencies - pollution - case studies - oil spills - north sea - oceanen - economie - innovaties - noodgevallen - verontreiniging - gevalsanalyse - olieverontreinigingen - noordzee
Een verkenning naar toepassing van drones in landbouw en natuur : drijfveren, kansen en consequenties
Wal, Tamme van der; Meijer, Marcel ; Rip, Frans I. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2742) - 49
drones - landbouw - natuur - innovaties - technologie - wetgeving - agriculture - nature - innovations - technology - legislation
Dit rapport is een nadere uitwerking van het rapport van WODC (Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatie Centrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie) uit begin 2015 naar het gebruik van drones. Deze uitwerking, gemaakt in opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken, is gericht op de domeinen landbouw en natuur. Het rapport begint met een overzicht van de diverse aanduidingen voor drones. Daarnaast wordt de VITAAL-typologie voor drones gepresenteerd. Deze fungeert als raamwerk voor de beschouwing van zes in dit rapport onderscheiden aspecten van drones: Vlucht, Inzetbaarheid, Toepassing, Aansturing, Apparaat en Lading. In het tweede hoofdstuk zijn de VITAAL-aspecten in verband gebracht met al bestaande en mogelijke toekomstige inzet van civiele drones in landbouw en natuur. De maatschappelijke vraagstukken die drijfveren (kunnen) zijn voor de inzet van drones komen aan de orde in het derde hoofdstuk, waarbij ook de innovatieopgaven worden besproken die zijn afgeleid uit de maatschappelijke opgaven op het gebied van landbouw en natuur. Het rapport sluit af met de discussie, gevolgd door conclusies en aanbevelingen voor beleid en nader onderzoek. Deze liggen op het vlak van regeldruk, vergroeningsmaatregelen en verkenning van gevolgen van de inzet van drones in een Living Lab.
Biobased Products Innovation Plant: ‘Innoveren voor bedrijven’
Haveren, J. van; Bolck, C.H. ; Yilmaz, G. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR
product development - non-food products - innovations - test rigs - biobased materials - biobased economy - public-private cooperation - productontwikkeling - non-food producten - innovaties - testinstallaties - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - publiek-private samenwerking
De Biobased Products Innovation Plant is de kraamkamer van succesvolle biobased producten, zoals zetmeelplastics van aardappelschillen en Biofoam van PLA. We namen een kijkje in deze grote onderzoeksfaciliteit - onderdeel van Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research - waar al drie decennia lang wordt samengewerkt met bedrijven, overheden en andere onderzoeksinstellingen.
Agrarisch Waterbeheer in de praktijk : Op zoek naar de gemene deler
Breman, B.C. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. - \ 2016
Het Waterschap 2016 (2016)6. - ISSN 1380-4251 - p. 7 - 9.
waterbeheer - waterschappen - duurzame energie - terugwinning - rioolwaterzuivering - zuiveringsinstallaties - landbouw - innovaties - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - water management - polder boards - sustainable energy - recovery - sewage treatment - purification plants - agriculture - innovations - climate adaptation - urban areas
In dit themanummer over Green Deals staan de volgende artikelen: 1) Green Deals: Code oranje, blauwe oplossing. 2) Op zoek naar de gemene deler: agrarisch waterbeheer in de praktijk. 3) Kraamkamer van innovatie. 4) Modern aanbesteden is kennis delen: marktvisie waterschappen. 5) De politicus Liesbeth van Tongeren: Niet langer in discussie met klimaatsceptici. 6) Er valt iets te kiezen: waterschappen integreren duurzame energieproductie succesvol in hun kerntaken. 7) Slimmer investeren: Strategisch asset management. 8) Creativiteit op het snijvlak van orde en chaos: Waterschap De Dommel flirt met paradoxen. 9) Open overheid, ook voor waterschappen. 10) Werken aan morgen is gisteren al begonnen: hoe ziet werken voor een waterschap er in 2026 uit?
The metis of responsible innovation : helping society to get better at the conversation between today and tomorrow
Macnaghten, Philip - \ 2016
Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573758 - 16 p.
technology - innovations - innovation adoption - future - technologie - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - toekomst
Exploring opportunities for on-farm innovations in smallholder dairy systems of Michoacán, Mexico
Cortez Arriola, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pablo Tittonell, co-promotor(en): Walter Rossing; R.D. Améndola Massiotti; Jeroen Groot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577473 - 162
dairy farming systems - dairy farming - innovations - small farms - family farms - mexico - melkveehouderijsystemen - melkveehouderij - innovaties - kleine landbouwbedrijven - familiebedrijven, landbouw - mexico

Taking into consideration the population growth, farmers are challenged to produce enough to feed the population. To increase productivity, normally small dairy farmers intensify their production systems by increasing livestock density and inputs, but inadequate management results in economic, technical, and environmental inefficiencies. This work aims to support decision making by farmers and technicians, and to provide information that can aid local governments to establish policies that are effective at improving farmers’ livelihoods. To achieve this, and intensive field work was implemented in Marcos Castellanos, Michoacán, Mexico, to gather the information needed to analyze the dairy farming systems of the region. The exploration analysis showed that simple re-arrangement of existing farm resources may considerably improve current dairy farm performance across family-based on semi-specialized farm types. To actually implement these changes requires breaking away from current mainstream thinking about farming methods and considerable farming skills.

Fruit 4.0: de vruchten van meer technologie : technologie-roadmap
Ossevoort, R.S. ; Verdouw, C.N. ; Jong, P.F. de; Hennen, W.H.G.J. ; Robbemond, R.M. - \ 2016
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2016-004) - ISBN 9789462578456 - 63 p.
horticulture - fruits - innovations - technology - internet - tuinbouw - vruchten - innovaties - technologie
Modern fruit production is not possible without reliable and up-to-date information. In addition, developments of technologies in the field of the internet, sensors, drones and robotics are gaining momentum. Consequently, production is changing radically towards flexible, autonomous and demand-driven business processes, which integrate smoothly in the supply chain. We also refer to this transition as the fourth industrial revolution, or Industry 4.0. This report introduces a roadmap for automation and digitalisation in the fruit industry, which will allow this sector to profit from its own Fruit 4.0.
Feed sources for livestock : recycling towards a green planet
Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Paul Bikker; Bastiaan Meerburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578050 - 251
cum laude - livestock - livestock feeding - feeds - resources - food wastes - leftovers - recycling - greenhouse gases - environmental impact - innovations - sustainable animal husbandry - animal production - vee - veevoeding - voer - hulpbronnen - voedselafval - etensresten - recycling - broeikasgassen - milieueffect - innovaties - duurzame veehouderij - dierlijke productie

Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as land, water, and fossil energy. The livestock sector, for example, is responsible for about 15% of the global anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and uses about 70% of global agricultural land.

Many proposed mitigation strategies to feed the world sustainably, therefore, focus primarily on reducing the environmental impact of the livestock sector, so-called production-side strategies. Other strategies focus on changing consumption patterns by reducing consumption of ASF, or on shifting from ASF with a higher environmental impact (e.g. beef) to ASF with a lower environmental impact (e.g. pork or chicken), so called consumption-side strategies.

Most of the environmental impact of production of ASF is related to production of feed. One production-side strategy to reduce the environmental impact is the use of products that humans cannot or do not want to eat, such as co-products, food-waste, and biomass from marginal lands for livestock feed (referred to as ‘leftover streams’ in this thesis). This strategy is effective, because feeding leftover streams to livestock transforms an inedible food stream into high-quality food products, such as meat, milk, and eggs.

Two production-side strategies that use leftover streams as livestock feed were explored in this thesis: replacing soybean meal (SBM) in diets of growing pigs with either rapeseed meal (RSM) or with waste-fed larvae meal. Replacing SBM with RSM in growing-pig diets was assessed because RSM became increasingly available following an increase in bio-energy production in the EU. In this strategy, therefore, the RSM content in pig diets increased at the expense of SBM. SBM is an ingredient associated with a high environmental impact. It was expected, therefore, that replacing SBM with RSM in pig diets would lead to a decrease in the environmental impact of pork production. Replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal was assessed because recent developments show the environmental benefits of rearing insects as livestock feed. Insects have a low feed conversion ratio (kg feed/kg product) and can be consumed completely, without residual materials, such as bones or feathers. The nutritional value of insects is high, especially as a protein source for livestock. Insect-based feed products, therefore, can replace conventional feed ingredients, such as SBM. Altogether this strategy suggests that waste-fed larvae meal might become an important alternative feed source in the future.

To gain insight into the status quo of the environmental impact of both mitigation strategies, replacing SBM with RSM or with waste-fed insects, we first used the attributional life cycle assessment (ALCA) method. Based on the ALCA method, results showed that each mitigation strategy was promising. Replacing SBM with RSM in growing pig diets hardly changed either global warming potential (GWP) or energy use (EU), but decreased land use (LU) up to 16% per kg body weight gain. As expected, feed production had the largest environmental impact, responsible for about 50% of the GWP, 60% of the EU, and 77% of the total LU. Feed production in combination with feed intake, were the most sensitive parameters; a small change in both these two parameters changed the results. Replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal in growing-pig diets showed that EU hardly changed, but GWP (29%) and LU (54%) decreased per kg body weight gain. Based on ALCA results, each mitigation strategy, therefore, seems to offer potential to reduce the environmental impact of pork production. An ALCA, however, has two disadvantages: it does not account for product-packages and it does not consider feed-food competition.

The first disadvantage of ALCA was that the complexity of dealing with product-packages is not fully considered. ‘Product-package’ refers to a multiple-output situation. During the processing of sugar beet, for example, beet-pulp and molasses are produced in addition to sugar. Sugar, beet-pulp, and molasses together form a ‘package of products’ because they cannot be produced independently from each other. An ALCA does not account for the fact that the production volume of the co-product(s) depends on the demand for the determining product (e.g. sugar), which results in the limited availability of co-products. Increasing the use of co-products in animal feed, consequently, results in reducing use of a co-product in another sector, requiring them to be replaced with a different product. The environmental impact of increasing the use of a co-product or food-waste, therefore, depends on the net environmental impact. The net environmental impact refers to the environmental benefits of using the product in its new application minus the environmental cost of replacing the product in its old application.

A consequential theoretical framework was developed to account for product-packages. The results, based on the consequential framework, contradicted standard ALCA results. The consequential LCA (CLCA) method we used for replacing SBM with RSM showed an increased GWP (up to 15%), EU (up to 12%), and LU (up to 10%) per kg body weight gain. Moreover, this CLCA method showed that replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal increased GWP (60%) and EU (90%), but decreased LU (73%) per kg body weight gain.

Accounting for product-packages increased the net environmental impact of each strategy, replacing SBM with RSM or with waste-fed larvae meal. The difference in results between ALCA and CLCA was especially large in the strategy with waste-fed larvae meal. The difference was caused mainly by the use of food-waste. Food-waste fed to larvae was used initially to produce bio-energy via anaerobic digestion. In CLCA, the environmental impact related to replacing the bio-energy function of food-waste with fossil-energy was included. The net environmental impact became negative, because environmental benefits of replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal were less than environmental costs related to the marginal energy source, i.e. fossil energy, replacing the bio-energy. Results of the indirect environmental impact, however, are situation specific: if the marginal energy source were wind or solar energy, the net environmental impact of using waste-fed larvae meal might be positive. Waste-fed larvae meal, therefore, appears to be an interesting mitigation strategy only when energy from wind and solar energy are used more dominantly than energy from fossil sources.

If results were based solely on ALCA, then these potentially negative impacts would have been overlooked. Consideration of the environmental consequences of product-packaging, therefore, is essential to determine total environmental costs. If policy makers or the feed industry want to assess the net environmental impact of a potential mitigation strategy, then we recommend to perform a CLCA instead of an ALCA. The framework developed in this thesis can be used to perform such an assessment.

The second disadvantage of an LCA was that it does not take into account feed-food competition, e.g. competition for land between humans and animals. Most LCA studies focus on the total amount of land required to produce one kg ASF. LCA studies do not account for competition for land between humans and animals, or so-called feed-food competition. In other words, they do not include, differences in the consumption of human-edible products by various livestock species or differences in the suitability of land used for feed production as land to cultivate food-crops directly. Given the global constraints on land, it is more efficient to grow food directly for human consumption rather than for livestock. To address the contribution of livestock to a future sustainable food supply, a measure for land use efficiency was developed, called the land use ratio (LUR). The LUR accounts for plant productivity, efficiency of converting human-inedible feed into ASF, and suitability of land for crop cultivation. The LUR also has a life-cycle perspective.

Results of the LUR illustrated that dairy cows on sandy soil, laying hens, and pig production systems in the Netherlands have a LUR >1.0. In terms of protein produced per m2, therefore, it is more efficient to use these soils for livestock production to produce crops for direct human consumption than to produce feed for livestock. Only dairy cows on peat soil produce human digestible protein (HDP) more efficiently than crops do, because peat is not suitable for crop production. The LUR allows identification of livestock production systems that are able to produce HDP more efficiently than crops do. Livestock systems with a LUR<1.0, such as dairy on peat, have an important role to play in future sustainable nutrition supply.

Results of the LUR showed that livestock production systems using mainly co-products, food-waste, and biomass from marginal land, can produce human digestible protein more efficiently than crop production systems do. The availability of those leftover streams, however, is limited and, therefore, the amount of ASF produced based only on leftover streams is also limited. Because LUR is a ratio, LUR results do not give an indication of how much ASF can be produced based on livestock systems that feed mainly on leftover streams.

The third, and last, mitigation strategy, therefore, focused on the amount of ASF that can be consumed by humans, when livestock are fed only on leftover steams, also referred to as “default livestock”. The calculation of the amount of ASF was based on the assumption that a vegan diet was consumed in principle. The resulting co-products and food-waste were fed to pigs and, biomass from grazing land was fed to ruminants. Results showed that in total 21 g animal source protein per person per day could be produced by feeding livestock entirely on leftovers.

Considering feed-food crops and feeding food-waste made an important contribution to the 21 g of protein that could be produced from default livestock. Considering feed-food crops implies that choices have to be made between different crops, based on their contribution to feed and food production. Oil production from soy cultivation, for example, resulted in the co-product SBM. Results showed that considering feed-food crops can affect the final protein production from pork. The practice of feeding food-waste to livestock is currently prohibited due to problems of food safety but the practice shows potential in extensively reducing the environmental impact of livestock production. Considering feed-food crops and feeding food-waste are examples of mitigation strategies that currently can be implemented to reduce further the environmental impact of the livestock sector.

On average, it is recommended to consume about 57 g of protein from ASF or plant-origin per person per day. Only ASF from default livestock does not fulfil the current global protein consumption of 32 g per person per day, but about one third of the protein each person needs can be produced without any competition for land between feed and food production. To feed the world more sustainably, by requiring livestock production systems with a LUR <1.0, however, a paradigm shift is needed. Global average consumption of ASF should decrease to about 21 g of protein per person per day. Innovations are needed, moreover, to overcome problems of food safety and technical concerns related to collecting the leftover streams. This applies, in particular to food-waste, which is currently unused in livestock production but which presents a valuable strategy in mitigating environmental impacts caused by livestock production. Livestock systems should change their focus, furthermore, from increasing productivity per animal towards increasing protein production for humans per ha. By using leftover streams optimally, the livestock sector is able to produce a crucial amount of protein, while still avoiding competition for land between feed and food crops. Livestock, therefore, can make an important contribution to the future nutrition supply.

Innovations in crop protection ready to put into practise : four steps to a healthy greenhouse
Zijlstra, Carolien - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - control methods - screening - monitoring - detection - prevention - innovations - agricultural research
Ruimte voor exploratie : agrarische ondernemers op zoek naar klantbehoefte : eindrapportage project Marktgericht Ondernemen 2012-2015
Valk, O.M.C. van der; Splinter, G.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2016-040) - ISBN 9789462577923 - 19 p.
tuinbouw - agro-industriële sector - landbouwindustrie - markten - marktconcurrentie - ondernemerschap - innovaties - creativiteit - nederland - horticulture - agroindustrial sector - agribusiness - markets - market competition - entrepreneurship - innovations - creativity - netherlands
Het project Marktgericht Ondernemen (2012-2015) heeft als doel om de positie van telers en ketenpartners in de tuinbouw te versterken. Via verschillende sporen is er gewerkt aan het creëren van (nieuwe) waarde omdat een lage kostprijs alleen niet meer voldoende is om het verschil te maken. Bijvoorbeeld door het ontwikkelen van onderscheidende producten, productconcepten en duurzame verdienmodellen, het vertalen van markt- en consumententrends naar marktkansen, het versterken van ondernemerschap en het aanjagen van een cultuurverandering. Het project heeft een aantal inzichten opgeleverd. Deze inzichten zijn niet alleen relevant voor tuinbouwondernemers, maar feitelijk voor iedereen binnen de Topsector Tuinbouw & Uitgangsmaterialen die zich betrokken voelt bij het innovatiethema ‘Samenwerkende waardeketens’.1 Dit document is een verslag van vier jaar innoveren en exploreren met ondernemers. Een gezamenlijke ontdekkingstocht die niet stopt na het afsluiten van dit project.
Nieuwe waardeproposities ontdekken : hoe agrarische ondernemers kunnen co-creëren en experimenteren
Valk, O.M.C. van der; Splinter, G.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR - 22 p.
agro-industriële sector - landbouwindustrie - ondernemerschap - innovaties - creativiteit - nederland - agroindustrial sector - agribusiness - entrepreneurship - innovations - creativity - netherlands
De LEI Business Innovation Approach (LEI-BIA) ondersteunt ondernemers in de agribusiness bij het ontwikkelen én implementeren van innovatieve en duurzame bedrijfsmodellen. Mooi voorbeeld is het vierjarig project “Marktgericht Ondernemen” binnen de sector tuinbouw. De rapportage ‘Ruimte voor exploratie; agrarische ondernemers op zoek naar waardecreatie’ geeft een overzicht van opgedane ervaringen, toegepaste methodiek en behaalde resultaten.
Een chemicus kan de wereld veranderen : Harriëtte Bos : programmamanager Biobased Economy bij Wageningen UR
Bos, Harriette - \ 2016
career choice - chemists - chemistry - biobased economy - technical progress - innovations - interviews - research workers
Volksdijk; de adaptieve dijk, studielocatie Grebbedijk
Blokland, J. ; Ziegler, P. ; Aben, R. ; Vries, R. de; Broekhuizen, R.E. van; Agricola, H. ; Kuiper, E. - \ 2016
In: De adaptieve dijk; strategieën voor dijktransitie in de komende 100 jaar BNA Onderzoek Amsterdam - p. 32 - 41.
dijken - veiligheid - hoogwaterbeheersing - waterbouwkunde - innovaties - ruimtelijke ordening - gebiedsontwikkeling - dykes - safety - flood control - hydraulic engineering - innovations - physical planning - area development
Hoe kan de dijk weer volwaardig onderdeel worden van de maatschappij, zonder daarbij de veiligheid aan te tasten? Kunnen we onze democratie –die een oorsprong heeft in de waterschappen- herijken en waarde geven? Hoe maken van de dijk als technisch kunstwerk ook een democratisch kunstwerk dat past bij 21ste eeuw? Hoe transformeren we de verkrampte en functioneel eenzijdige dijk in een adaptieve en veelzijdige dijk?
'Niet blussen, maar brandpreventie en bestrijdingstechniek ontwikkelen' : club van 100 op Tuinbouw Relatiedagen Gorinchem
Zwart, Feije de; Bakker, Sjaak ; Vries, Jan Willem de - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - financing - innovations - agricultural research - organizations - cooperation - guidance - consultancy

Na de kick-off met 25 leden in november 2014 haalde de Club van 100, een initiatief van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, vooral de publiciteit als een nieuw lid zich had aangemeld. Dat gebeurde met regelmaat, want na 15 maanden staat de teller al op 52. Belangrijker nog is dat in gezamenlijkheid inmiddels diverse onderzoeksvoorstellen zijn geformuleerd, waarvan er drie zijn gehonoreerd door de Topsector Tuinbouw & Uitgangsmaterialen (T&U). Tijdens Tuinbouw Relatiedagen Gorinchem treedt de club naar buiten.

Het Nieuwe Veehouden mogelijk maken : zoeken naar ruimte voor verduurzaming in de veehouderij
Bremmer, B. ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Vierstra, J. ; Wichen, Yvette ; Veen, Kristel ; Boezem, E. van den - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2016-002) - 51 p.
duurzame veehouderij - veehouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - marktconcurrentie - fondsgelden - vergunningen - innovaties - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - dierenwelzijn - nederland - sustainable animal husbandry - livestock farming - sustainability - market competition - funding - permits - innovations - farm management - entrepreneurship - animal welfare - netherlands
The Uitvoeringsagenda Duurzame Veehouderij (Implementation agenda for sustainable livestock farming, UDV) aims to achieve a Dutch livestock sector that is leading the way by 2023, while maintaining its competitiveness and ensuring that its production duly respects people, animals and the environment. Project implementers are asked to examine why and where innovative entrepreneurs are faced with structural barriers when they try to put an innovative concept into practice. This report also sets out the experiences and insights of the innovative livestock farmers. The project implementers translate these into recommendations in the analysis and conclusions. In order to be able to examine the obstacles faced by livestock farmers in achieving innovation in the thematic areas of the market, funding or permits, it was decided to select two or three entrepreneurs for each theme who appear to have run into difficulties in practice.
Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives
Bornkessel, S. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta; Stefanie Broring. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576599 - 129
functional foods - innovations - food industry - non-food industries - pharmacology - functionele voedingsmiddelen - innovaties - voedselindustrie - non-food industrieën - farmacologie

Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives

Sabine Bornkessel

The worldwide growing functional food market (e.g. Menrad, 2003, Ding et al., 2015) is based on the convergence of the food and pharmaceutical sectors (Omta, 2004, Bröring, 2005), since functional foods incorporate a nutritional as well as a health benefit (Spence, 2006, Hasler, 2002). Several studies provide a comprehensive overview of convergence definitions and their different emphases (Bröring, 2005, Curran, 2010, Hacklin, 2008, Preschitschek, 2014), mainly following the common idea summarised by the Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development as follows: ‘the blurring of technical and regulatory boundaries between sectors of the economy’ (OECD, 1992). On the one hand, this emerging segment offers a plethora of innovation opportunities. On the other hand, companies focusing on this emerging segment have to employ knowledge and technologies outside of their traditional expertise. The importance of innovation increases, since the emergence of the functional food market implies an intensification of competitive pressure. Due to high failure rates, there is an urgent need to improve the food innovation process (Stewart-Knox and Mitchell, 2003).

The convergence process is considered to follow the consecutive steps of science, technology and market convergence, leading to a complete industry convergence in which companies or whole industry segments fuse (Curran et al., 2010, Hacklin, 2008). Linking these steps to the simplified innovation process, the comparative perspective on the innovation and convergence processes delivers a framework with which to analyse innovation processes in converging industries using different perspectives. Therefore, the present thesis aims

Ø to evaluate convergence processes using different perspectives in order to derive an assessment framework of the innovation process in converging industries.

This study deals with the functional food sector emerging between the food and pharmaceutical industries while using certain functional ingredients as units of analysis.

The present thesis comprises two parts. It first focuses on the procedural perspective of convergence processes in order to deliver a comprehensive analysis of the complete convergence process. This is then complemented in the second part by a focus on the later steps of market and industry convergence.

In the first part, this study delivers quantitative (Chapter 2 – life cycle approach) and qualitative (Chapter 3 – perspective of innovation value chain) measures for the comprehensive analysis of the complete convergence process. While the life cycle approach focuses on the development showing the movement of complete industry sectors, the innovation value chain perspective delivers insights into the underlying strategic cross-industry activities on a company level. Next to the comprehensive analysis of the convergence process, this study delivers two levels with which to analyse the later phases in converging industries: first, the analysis of cross-industry collaborations on a company level (Chapter 4), and second, the analysis of ingredient awareness on a consumer level (Chapter 5). While the analysis on a company level delivers an approach to analyse cross-industry innovation using the resource-based view, the consumer perspective sheds light upon the consumers’ perception of the products delivered in the convergence areas.

In summary, convergence implies a changing competitive environment. The evaluation of this phenomenon is therefore of high importance for researchers and practitioners alike. This thesis enhances the research field of convergence by delivering an overall assessment framework that integrates different perspectives to screen convergence processes and to analyse converging competences. The scope and the unit of analysis, along with the adaptation of theoretical concepts, extend already existing convergence assessment approaches. Besides the analysis of the early phases of convergence processes used to anticipate industrial developments (e.g. Curran et al., 2010), the elaboration of the complete convergence process delivers an approach to face the multifaceted challenges during the innovation process in converging industries. The practical implications of this study is that it provides companies in convergence areas different measures to evaluate convergence processes in order to identify relevant convergence areas. Depending on the phase of the convergence process, the appropriate method or mixture of methods can be used to substantiate strategic corporate decisions such as for instance product positioning.

Vermindering discards door netinnovatie in de Noorse kreeft visserij
Molenaar, P. ; Steenbergen, J. ; Glorius, S.T. ; Dammers, M. - \ 2016
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C027/16) - 119 p.
discards - visserij - nephrops norvegicus - innovaties - vistuig - fisheries - innovations - fishing gear
Dit rapport beschrijft de testen die zijn uitgevoerd binnen het project ‘Sectorale en Ketenintegrale aanpak Langoustines’ in de periode april 2014 – december 2015 dat was gericht op het verminderen van discards binnen de visserij op Noorse kreeft (Nephrops norvegicus). Het project is een initiatief van de Coöperatieve Visserij Organisatie (CVO) en maakte onderdeel uit van breder programma waarin de sector zich voorbereid op de aanlandplicht. De aanlandplicht, als onderdeel van het nieuwe gemeenschappelijke visserijbeleid, is sinds 2015 van kracht en houdt in dat maatse en ondermaatse vissen en schaaldieren van soorten waarvoor vangstbeperkingen gelden niet meer in zee terug mogen worden gezet. Discards in de visserij op Noorse kreeft bestaan o.a. uit kleine Noorse kreeft, schar (Limanda limanda) en ondermaatse schol (Pleuronectes platessa).
Inhoudsstoffen - Verwerking van inhoudsstoffen : Kennisclip Bogo-project e-learning
Baltissen, A.H.M.C. - \ 2016
Groen Kennisnet
plantensamenstelling - plantextracten - extractie - tuinbouw - biobased economy - innovaties - lesmaterialen - plant composition - plant extracts - extraction - horticulture - innovations - teaching materials
Deze kennisclip maakt onderdeel uit van de lesmodule Biobased Economy van het CIV T&U.
Nieuwe verdienmodellen voor de Innovatie en Demonstratie Centra
Ruijs, M.N.A. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : WageningenUR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1386) - 36 p.
glastuinbouw - demonstratiebedrijven, landbouw - zuid-holland - innovaties - bedrijfsvoering - financiële ondersteuning - toegepast onderzoek - greenhouse horticulture - demonstration farms - innovations - management - financial support - applied research
Within the project ‘Knowledge and Innovation IDC Westland- Oostland’ Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture examines which alternative earning models are suitable for the Innovation and Demonstration Centre (IDC) in order to be less dependent on government contribution. There are various earning models, additional activities and governance issues identified, which could increase the continuity perspective of IDC. Nevertheless, representatives of the IDC and Greenport Westland-Oostland believe anyhow that public financing is desirable for knowledge exchange and dissemination. The IDCs are recommended to examine the value of the models further for their situation. The extent to which earning models can be successful for IDC may vary depending on design (thematic / sectoral), ranking in core activities and affiliation with the agenda of the private sector.
Grondig boeren met maïs in Drenthe: eindverslag project periode 2012-2015
Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Schans, D.A. van der; Schooten, H.A. van; Groten, J. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, onderdeel van Wageningen UR, Business Unit Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten - 94
zea mays - maïs - drenthe - duurzame landbouw - duurzaam bodemgebruik - duurzame ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - systeeminnovatie - innovaties - onderzoeksimplementatie - demonstratiebedrijven, landbouw - maize - sustainable agriculture - sustainable land use - sustainable development - rural development - system innovation - innovations - implementation of research - demonstration farms
De duurzaamheid van agroproductie in Nederland staat onder toenemende belangstelling. Duurzaamheid wordt niet alleen meer gezien als een ecologisch en sociaal-economisch aspect van agroproductie maar ook steeds meer als unique selling point. De duurzaamheid van de maïsteelt in Nederland staat onder druk en de noodzaak om een flinke stap te zetten naar meer duurzaamheid is groot. Inmiddels worden steeds meer duurzaamheidsproblemen geassocieerd met de huidige maïsteelt, zoals uit- en afspoeling van nutriënten, een slechte bodemstructuur, lager wordende gehaltes aan organische stof in de bodem, achteruitgaande bodembiodiversiteit, toenemende druk van ziekten en plagen en productie van broeikasgassen als lachgas. Op de langere termijn zal dit niet houdbaar blijken te zijn. Om deze problemen de baas te worden is een stap nodig naar een ander, innovatief teeltsysteem dat genoemde problemen niet heeft en daardoor de maïssector een substantiële stap op het pad naar meer duurzaamheid te zetten. Dit nieuwe teeltsysteem bestaat uit een vruchtwisseling met gras, een geslaagde nateelt en een maïs met kortere groeiduur die de nateelt ondersteunt aangevuld met innovaties als niet-kerende grondbewerking en aangepaste teeltwijze. Dit nieuwe teeltsysteem geeft het gebruikelijke rendement als de huidige teeltwijze, maar draagt bij aan 1) een beter bodemkwaliteit en structuur met een geleidelijk hoger wordend organisch stofgehalte (koolstof vastlegging) en een lager wordende uitstoot van overige broeikasgassen (lachgas) 2) vermindering van de ziektedruk door bodem- en gewasgebonden ziekten, plagen en onkruiden 3) een hogere bodembiodiversiteit en 4) vermindering van de uit- en afspoeling van nutriënten naar het grond- en oppervlaktewater. 5) Een rendabele teeltwijze ook na aanscherping van mineralen gebruiksnormen. Dit teeltsysteem is in onderzoek nu zo ver ontwikkeld dat implementatie in de praktijk mogelijk is. Voor de provincie Drenthe is daarom een demonstratieproject ontwikkeld onder de titel “Grondig Boeren met Maïs”. In dit project zullen de projectpartners Agrifirm en Wageningen UR een tweetal demonstratiepercelen in de praktijk aanleggen waarin verschillende systeemvarianten getoond worden samen met relevante deelinnovaties. De demonstraties worden ondersteund met waarnemingen om de beoogde milieueffecten aan te tonen. Via zomer- en winterbijeenkomsten worden maïstelers en loonwerkers uitgenodigd mee te denken. Een communicatieplan zal er zorg voor dragen dat inzicht, kennis en kunde over dit nieuwe teeltsysteem ingebed wordt in de Drentse maïspraktijk.
Innovatie in de land- en tuinbouw 2014
Meer, R.W. van der; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-140) - ISBN 9789086157235 - 22 p.
landbouwbedrijven - tuinbouwbedrijven - innovaties - landbouwsector - monitoring - bedrijfsinformatiesystemen - agrarische economie - farms - market gardens - innovations - agricultural sector - management information systems - agricultural economics
Het percentage vernieuwende bedrijven (innovatoren en volgers) in de land- en tuinbouw was in 2013 ruim 14%. Dit is ongeveer gelijk aan het jaar ervoor. Daarmee is de doelstelling van het ministerie van Economische Zaken van 15% vernieuwende bedrijven in 2013 net niet gehaald. In de melkveehouderij nam het aandeel vernieuwers het sterkst toe. Dit blijkt uit de Innovatiemonitor, onderdeel van het Bedrijveninformatienet van LEI Wageningen UR.
Floor egg collection with PoultryBot
Vroegindeweij, B.A. - \ 2015
Farm Technology Group Wageningen UR
poultry farming - robots - floor eggs - farm equipment - innovations - pluimveehouderij - grondeieren - boerderij uitrusting - innovaties
In this movie, results are presented from autonomous floor egg collection with PoultryBot. This is the final Proof of Concept of integrating the various components for localisation, path planning, object detection, navigation and egg collection. The tests are performed in our test-setup, which (from a robot's perspective) resembles a poultry house containing two rows of interior objects
Waarin een klein land groot kan zijn : Reacties op Dutch Farming visie van Agrifirm
Fresco, Louise - \ 2015
agriculture - supply chain management - management - netherlands - innovations

Onder de titel Dutch Farming laat Agrifirm zien hoe agrarisch ondernemers samenwerken in de keten om tot betere resultaten te komen. Is Dutch Farming herkenbaar en is dit concept bruikbaar om de Nederlandse land- en tuinbouw vooruit te helpen? We spraken met vier bestuurders in verschillende agroketens. En we legden deze vragen voor aan Louise Fresco, sinds ruim een jaar voorzitter van de raad van bestuur van Wageningen UR.

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