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Brewing with fractionated barley
Donkelaar, L.H.G. van - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Boom; Atze Jan van der Goot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577343 - 152
brewing - brewing quality - barley - fractionation - endosperm - beers - malt - filtration - industrial wastes - process optimization - food process engineering - bierbereiding - brouwkwaliteit - gerst - fractionering - endosperm - bieren - mout - filtratie - industrieel afval - procesoptimalisatie - levensmiddelenproceskunde

Brewing with fractionated barley

Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley.

The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how barley can be fractionated to optimize the use of resources for the beer brewing process, while maintaining the quality of the brewed beer. A resource use efficiency analysis was performed to verify the presumed benefits on the environmental sustainability of the proposed process change. The work was based on the hypothesis that fractionation of the unprocessed barley will reduce the amount of undesired components, which leads to improvements in the brewing process based on partial or no malting. Fractionation can be performed by milling and separation, which requires physical disentanglement of the components. This fractionation can be influenced by properties of the components of the material, such as the glass transition temperature (Stuart et al.). Fractionation by abrasive milling, also known as pearling, is another possibility: here one makes use of the spatial distribution of components in the kernels. In case of barley for brewing this technique is especially promising as most of the undesired components are in the outer layer of the kernel. In addition, the removal of bran from the barley reduces the amount of water needed in the process. It will also reduce the volume of spent grains, hence reducing wastes and energy required for drying the spent grains. A disadvantage of pearling is however that it lowers the ability of the barley kernel to produce enzymes. This leads to the need of the addition of exogenous enzymes, as is the case when the malting step is omitted.

Chapter 2 describes the glass-to-rubber transition of protein and starch isolated from the barley endosperm, for different moisture levels. The hypothesis for this chapter is that dry fractionation by milling is facilitated by milling conditions in which the protein is in a rubbery state and the starch in a glassy state. Two methods were used to measure the Tg; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-mechanical compression tests (TMCT). The methods gave different results due to the differences in moisture content range, and heating rates, which may lead to conformational changes of the protein. The value of the Tg of partially crystalline materials, such as starch in barley, was not unambiguous when using TMCT because the mechanical effect of expansion of these materials was smaller. For both results, the Tg lines were modelled using the Gordon-Taylor equation. Based on sorption isotherms, it was concluded that moisture does not distribute evenly over the protein and starch in the kernel. Starch absorbs more moisture than protein at given water activities. This required a correction of the Tg lines. After this correction, the glass transition lines of starch and protein were closer together. The expectation is therefore that achieving good separation between the components based on having one glassy component and one rubbery component is challenging.

For this reason, another dry fractionation technique, pearling, was considered. Chapter 3 describes the chemical composition of the barley and of fractions removed by pearling. Pearling was shown to selectively remove insoluble fibre, ash, protein and polyphenols, while the β-amylase activity and starch content of the remaining kernel was hardly affected. For example, removing the outer 5% of the kernel reduced insoluble arabinoxylans (15%), insoluble fibres (23%), ash (19%), polyphenols (11%) and water holding capacity of the non-starch components (25%), while only lowering starch content by 0.20%. The water holding capacity of the barley fractions was strongly related to the fibre content. This indicates that when the fibre content in the mash was reduced by pearling, the spent grains will take up less water, leading to less wort and sugar losses in this waste stream, and hence better use of the raw materials and less wastes.

Chapter 4 compares a traditional brewing process to an enzyme-assisted brewing process with respect to their resource use efficiency, which is one aspect of the sustainability of the processes. The use of exogenous enzymes is found to be more efficient than producing enzymes through the malting process. The exergetic efficiency of the conventional malting process was 77%. The main losses stem from the use of natural gas for removal of moisture from the barley in the kilning process, and from the loss of starch in the germination process. In case of the use of exogenous enzymes, it was concluded that the chemical exergy content of the enzymes was not a good measure for the exergy content of the enzymes. Instead, we proposed to use the cumulative exergetic consumption in the enzyme production rather than just the chemical exergy content of the enzymes. This cumulative exergetic consumption in the production of the enzymes was ± 30 times higher than their standard chemical exergy. This shows that the cumulative exergetic costs of minor components should be taken into account if a process uses them in significant quantities. This can be done by extending the system boundaries to include the production process of the purified components. The exergy efficiency of the enzyme formulation production process ranges between 20% and 42% depending on whether the by-product of the fermentation broth was considered as useful as the enzyme product. Even though the cumulative exergy consumption of the process was 30 times the standard chemical exergy of the dry enzyme, the total exergy input (i.e. both wasted and destroyed) for the production of 100 kg of beer was still larger for the conventional malting process (441 MJ) than for the enzyme-assisted process (354 MJ). In addition, beer produced using exogenous enzymes reduces the use of water by 7%, of raw materials by 14%, and of natural gas by 78%. Thus, the exergy loss of the enzyme production process is more than compensated by the prevention of exergy loss in the total beer brewing process.

Chapter 5 describes brewing tests using malted, unmalted and pearled, unmalted barley kernels. Brewing with unmalted barley saves material, energy and water in the malting stage but may result in complications during processing. Pearling mitigates these problems. Exogenous enzymes were used to compensate for the low enzyme activity in unmalted barley. Lautertun filtration and mash filtration were considered as filtration methods. Principle component analysis was performed on the chemical composition of the wort and the various spent grains, to investigate the effect of the malt-to-barley ratio, the degree of pearling and the filter method. A mash filter is optimal for this type of process, and we identified a window of operation in which optimal use is made of the raw materials while maintaining the end product quality, judged on basis of 4 quality parameters.

The concluding chapter 6 presents a general discussion of all results described in this thesis. In addition, the benefits of pearling over that of milling and fractionation, and the effect of pearling on milling properties were discussed. Furthermore, it explores the advantages in environmental sustainability that can be achieved by pearling. Pearling as a pre-treatment for malting reduces the enzyme activity of germinating barley, and therefore the mash quality.

This thesis provides insights in how pre-treatment of barley can make beer brewing more efficient in the use of resources. It stresses the need to optimally use all material streams in a process, to be able to design an environmentally sustainable process, and it shows that efficient resource use is key for achieving this. Additionally the value of enzymes as processing aids was discussed. A clear result is that one needs to include the resource use in the production of enzymes or other processing aids, when analyzing the environmental sustainability of a process, since this can be significant in the overall process.

Survey on sterigmatocystin in food
Mol, J.G.J. ; Pietri, A. ; MacDonald, S.J. ; Anagnostopoulos, C. ; Spanjer, M. - \ 2015
Parma, Italy : EFSA (EFSA supporting publiation 2015 EN-774) - 56
sterigmatocystine - mycotoxinen - graansoorten - bieren - noten - voedselveiligheid - voedselanalyse - sterigmatocystin - mycotoxins - cereals - beers - nuts - food safety - food analysis
A total of 1 259 samples of cereal grains, cereal products, beer and nuts were analysed for the presence of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. Samples were mainly collected at processing plants, storage facilities, wholesale and retail between August 2013 and November 2014, in nine European countries (mostly Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (UK), additionally in Cyprus, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland). The products originated from 27 European countries and 18 other countries (mostly rice and nuts). The samples comprised cereal grains (221 wheat, 35 rye, 33 maize, 59 barley, 51 oats, 2 spelt, 117 rice), grain milling products (125), pasta (115), bread/rolls (143), breakfast cereals/muesli (97), fine bakery ware (90), cereal-based infant food (54), beer (53), peanuts (28) and hazelnuts (36). All samples were analysed by methods based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
Glutenvrij ? Pils onde de loep
Sleutels, I. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Broeck, H.C. van den - \ 2014
Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 7 (2014). - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 10 - 11.
gluten - coeliakie - glutenvrije diëten - bieren - alcoholische dranken - gerst - lc-ms - analytische methoden - coeliac syndrome - gluten free diets - beers - alcoholic beverages - barley - liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry - analytical methods
Gluten meten in gehydrolyseerde en gefermenteerde voedingsmiddelen – zoals pils – is lastig. De door de Codex Alimentarius gevalideerde test onderschat het gehalte gluten in deze producten. Een uitgebreide LC-MS/MS-analyse geeft gedetailleerde informatie over de aanwezige coeliakie-stimulerende gluten in pils. Met deze gegevens is een geschikte test te ontwikkelen.
Een wijndrinker is geen bierdrinker
Sluik, Diewertje - \ 2014
wines - beers - alcohol intake - alcoholic beverages - social classes
Boer en bier in Limburg : samenwerking tussen gerstteler en brouwer
Stobbelaar, D.J. ; Duivenvoorden, C. - \ 2008
Ekoland 28 (2008)10. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 28 - 30.
biologische landbouw - akkerbouw - gerst - bieren - brouwerij-industrie - biologische voedingsmiddelen - samenwerking - limburg - organic farming - arable farming - barley - beers - brewing industry - organic foods - cooperation - limburg
Bioboer Norbert Huijts werkt samen met Gulpener Bierbrouwerij. Huijts teelt op dit moment 6 hectare brouwgerst dat bij Gulpener verwerkt wordt tot een biologische pilsner. De vraag naar dit bier is groeiende en daarom gaat volgend jaar een tweede teler biologische gerst leveren
Yeast physiology and flavour formation during production of alcohol-free beer
Iersel, M. van - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): F.M. Rombouts; T. Abee. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081162 - 105
bieren - brouwersgist - saccharomyces cerevisiae - beers - brewers' yeast - saccharomyces cerevisiae

Production of alcohol-free beer is performed with immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. uvarum . In the reactor, combined stress factors such as low temperature (0-4°C) and anaerobic conditions limit cell metabolism.

Cells of S. cerevisiae are able to grow as low as -2°C. Although sugar metabolism is instantaneously and similar in cells grown at high or low temperature, respiration differs significantly. Latter cells do not show substrate-induced respiration in spite of the presence of active mitochondria and biomass yield was substantially reduced.

We noticed an increase in reductive capacity of yeasts grown under anaerobic conditions and we subsequently purified and characterized a novel NADP-dependent branched-chain ADH. Based on the high reductive activity with 3-methylbutanal at physiological pH and higher ionic strength, the enzyme will have an important function in reduction of Strecker aldehydes during alcoholic fermentation.

The activity of the bcADH and the influence of immobilization on cell physiology were further monitored during alcohol-free beer production. Higher activities of glycolytic enzymes, and the bcADH were observed compared to those in batch grown cells. In addition, glucose flux was increased. The shifts in enzyme activities and glucose flux correlate with a higher in vivo reduction capacity of the immobilized cells.

Formation of ester and diacetyl by immobilized yeast cells were investigated. Due to the anaerobic conditions, acetate ester production and in vitro enzyme activity increase simultaneous with the decrease in unsaturated fatty acids. Sterol metabolism is blocked; consequently, squalene accumulates. Despite the presence of active acetohydroxy acid synthase, no diacetyl-precursor is formed at low temperatures.

S. cerevisiae W34 flocculates at the end of the exponential growth phase. Grown at low temperatures, cells have a higher flocculation capacity and a higher cell wall hydrophobicity. The immobilization of cells to DEAE-cellulose is influenced by both charge differences between cell wall and carrier and flocculation characteristics.

In conclusion, immobilized cells show some unique physiological features at low temperatures. These contribute positively to the limited fermentation of wort to alcohol-free beer.

Zeeuws Vlegelbier : onderzoek naar mogelijkheden voor afzetvergroting van het Zeeuws Vlegelbier
Appels, C. ; Roelofs, C. - \ 1997
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 137)
bieren - bierbereiding - markten - marketing - marktconcurrentie - aanbodsevenwicht - nederland - zeeland - beers - brewing - markets - market competition - supply balance - netherlands
Onderzoek naar chemische en sensorische eigenschappen van verschillende merken bier
Cramwinckel, A.B. ; Mazijk - Bokslag, D.M. van; Labrijn, J.F. ; Lam, R. ; Herstel, H. - \ 1991
Wageningen : DLO-Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor Land- en Tuinbouwprodukten (Rapport / RIKILT-DLO 91.54) - 24
bieren - bierbereiding - chemische samenstelling - sensorische evaluatie - organoleptische kenmerken - beers - brewing - chemical composition - sensory evaluation - organoleptic traits
Op verzoek van de Consumentenbond zijn in januari 1991 31 monsters bier chemisch en sensorisch onderzocht. Het chemisch onderzoek betrof bepalingen van SO2, nitraat, alcohol, eiwitten, koolhydraten en as. Tevens is de energie-waarde van de bieren berekend. Het sensorisch onderzoek bestond uit een vooronderzoek met de Free Choice Profiling methode om na te gaan welke termen relevant zijn in het beschrijven van verschillen tussen de bieren. Met deze termen zijn alle bieren door het panel beschreven. Een derde sensorisch onderzoek betrof de vraag of blind geteste monsters gemakkelijk binnen een categorie te plaatsen zijn.
Sensorisch en chemisch onderzoek van dry en alcoholarm bier
Mazijk-Bokslag, D.M. van; Cramwinckel, A.B. ; Herstel, H. - \ 1990
Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT 90.29) - 19
bieren - chemische samenstelling - sensorische evaluatie - organoleptische kenmerken - nederland - beers - chemical composition - sensory evaluation - organoleptic traits - netherlands
Op verzoek van Konsumenten Kontakt zijn veertien monsters bier onderzocht. De monsters zijn onderverdeeld in acht monsters alcoholarm of alcoholvrij bier, drie monsters dry bier en drie monsters gewone pils. De monsters zijn getest op sensorische verschillen. De monsters zijn verder chemisch onderzocht op alcoholgehalte, stamwortgehalte, percentage glucose en percentage malto-dextrine. Alle monsters voldoen aan de eisen van de Warenwet.
Beer foam physics
Ronteltap, A.D. - \ 1989
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. Prins. - S.l. : Ronteltap - 133
bieren - bierbereiding - suspensies - emulsies - fysica - mechanica - beers - brewing - suspensions - emulsions - physics - mechanics

The physical aspects of beer foam behavior were studied in terms of the four physical processes, mainly involved in the formation and breakdown of foam. These processes are, bubble formation, drainage, disproportionation and coalescence. In detail, the processes disproportionation and coalescence were studied. The mechanism of coalescence was determined using, amongst others, a falling film apparatus. The spreading of surface active material on the film surface proved to initiate coalescence. Disproportionation in a foam is mainly influenced by partial gas pressure differences. Surface rheological aspects dominate the rate of disproportionation when the gas composition throughout a foam is uniform. The effect of the four physical processes on various foam phenomena can be explained. The disappearance of beer foam is a result of the combined action of drainage and gas diffusion from the foam to the surrounding atmosphere. When spreading substances are added to beer foam from an external source, coalescence is initiated and foam collapse occurs. The four physical processes have a different effect on foam behavior. Therefore, a distinction between these processes was made using an optical glass-fibre probe technique. With this technique the bubble-size distribution, the gas fraction in the foam, the height of the foam and the level of the foam-liquid interface can be measured as a function of time.

Sensorisch onderzoek van vijftien merken Nederlandse pils
Mazijk - Bokslag, D.M. van; Cramwinckel, A.B. ; Herstel, H. - \ 1988
Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT 88.35) - 21
bieren - sensorische evaluatie - beers - sensory evaluation
Op verzoek van Konsumenten Kontakt zijn vijftien merken Nederlandse pils sensorisch onderzocht. De analyses zijn in april 1988 uitgevoerd. Eerst hebben we in een vooronderzoek met zes merken met behulp van de free choice profiling methode en een procrustus-analyse bepaald met welke termen de merken van elkaar onderscheiden kunnen worden. Daarna zijn in het hoofdonderzoek alle merken met deze termen sensorisch beoordeeld.
Bepaling van het alcoholgehalte van bier
Frijns, L.M.H. ; Herstel, H. - \ 1984
Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 84.43) - 3
bieren - chemische samenstelling - beers - chemical composition
In samenwerking met het Laboratorium van het Ministerie van Financiën werden 11 monsters bier onderzocht op alcoholgehalte m.b.v . een enzymatische- en de lolarenwet-methode. Van de Consumentenbond werden 29 monsters bier ontvangen en het alcoholgehalte werd enzymatisch bepaald.
Aspects of the manufacture and consumption of Kenyan traditional fermented beverages
Nout, M.J.R. - \ 1981
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): E.H. Kampelmacher. - Wageningen : Nout - 102
alcoholische dranken - bieren - bierbereiding - voedsel - voedselsamenstelling - voedingsmiddelen - kenya - mineralen - voedingswaarde - eigenschappen - kwaliteit - zout - wijnbereiding - wijnen - alcoholic beverages - beers - brewing - food - food composition - foods - kenya - minerals - nutritive value - properties - quality - salt - winemaking - wines
This study was aimed at providing fundamental information con ern ing the manufacture, composition, and consumption of the major Kenyan traditional fermented beverages.

In Chapter 1, the reader is introduced to Kenya, its population and climate, and several aspects of its agriculture underlying this study.

Chapter 2 offers an overview of the major fermented beverages con sumed in Kenya. A distinction is made between traditional and foreign fermented beverages. Both groups of products include beers and wines, as well as spirits. The traditional fermented beverages play an important role, particularly in the rural daily life, they are cheap and are usually prepared from locally available ingre dients such as honey, maize, millets or palm-sap. Their age-old manufacturing techniques are known through oral tradition and are often quite primitive. The final products are obtained by way of uncontrolled fermentations, and are mostly consumed in a stage of active fermentation.

Except for the spirits, the traditional fermented beverages have only a short shelf-life since excessive souring soon renders them unacceptable.

Most foreign fermented beverages have been introduced into Kenya during the period of colonial administration; nowadays, a number are manufactured locally, on a large industrial scale.

In Chapter 3, mention is made of recent measures taken by the Kenyan Government to curb alcoholism through prohibition and clo sure of beer halls, and to increase productivity. These measures tend to favour the illegal trade in traditional fermented bever agesand,in particular, the consumption of illicit traditional spirit of dubious quality.

The aims of the ensuing study are formulated in Chapter 4, and include providing insight in the consumption of the major Kenyan traditional fermented beverages, their nutritive value, and their possible harmfulness to health. Furthermore, a study will be made of ways of improving upon the quality and shelf-life of a selected traditional beer of superior nutritive value.

In Chapter 5, an estimate is made of the total consumption of alcoholic beverages in Kenya. It is shown that the traditional fermented beverages represent a major proportion of the total con sumption of alcohol. This is not surprising since the traditional products are relatively cheap and can be afforded by the majority of the Kenyan public.

In the same chapter, it is observed that the consumption of alco hol in Kenya is moderate, compared with other countries. The nutrient content of selected traditional and foreign beverages is compared in Chapter 6. It is concluded that the traditional beer Busaa has the highest nutritive value, particularly when considering its protein, vitamin B 2 , and niacin contents. The nutritive value of the traditional spirit Chang'aa is the least. The consumption of Chang'aa occupies a major proportion of the total quantity of alcohol consumed in Kenya. The chemical composition of this spirit is studied in some further detail in Chapter 7. In particular, the fusel oil content of Chang'aa is studied, as well as the effect of ingredients and distilling techniques on its occurrence in this spirit.

In Chapters 8, 9, and 10 several aspects of the manufacture of the traditional beer Busaa are dealt with. In Chapter 8, some microbiological aspects of the traditional manufacture of this beer are discussed. In particular, attention is given to the dominant yeasts and bacteria, involved in the stages of fermentation and subsequent spoilage. In Chapter 9, experimental work is described, aimed at the development of a process for the manufacture of bottled and preserved Busaa. The malt used as ingredient for Busaa is usually obtained from finger millet. In most other African countries however, sorghum is used for such purpose. Although sorghum is easily available in Kenya as well, the Busaa brewers nevertheless prefer the use of finger millet malt for the brewing of Busaa. In Chapter 10 therefore, the germination characteristics and the brewing potential of finger millet and sorghum are compared. Barley is also included in this comparative study, since it is grown in Kenya as ingredient for the manufacture of foreign lager beers. In Chapter 11, the major findings from the study are discussed, and conclusions and recommendations are formulated with regard to a possible control of the consumption of traditional fermented beverages. On the one hand, these are aimed at a reduction and subsequent gradual abolishment of home-brewing of traditional fermented beverages. On the other hand, the consumption of cheap traditional fermented beverages of high nutritive value such as Busaa, is advocated to be allowed to continue off-licence on a restricted scale. Such products should offer a cheap, high-grade substitute for other, less appropriate, products which would eventually be phased out. It is finally observed that an upgrading of the quality and shelf-life of the former beverages would facilitate an adjustment of the present consumption pattern.

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