Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Records 1 - 18 / 18

  • help
  • print

    Print search results

  • export

    Export search results

  • alert
    We will mail you new results for this query: wurpublikatie/titelbeschrijving/classificatie/trefwoord/cab/engels==cannibalism
Check title to add to marked list
Radio doet scharrelkip goed
Sikkema, Albert ; Haas, Elske de - \ 2014
chicken housing - feather pecking - poultry farming - animal welfare - animal behaviour - cannibalism - sounds - radio - animal health - animal production - poultry
Er vroeg bij zijn werkt
Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2011
De Pluimveehouderij 41 (2011)7. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 28 - 29.
pluimveehouderij - verenpikken - kannibalisme - agressief gedrag - dierenwelzijn - poultry farming - feather pecking - cannibalism - aggressive behaviour - animal welfare
Verenpikken voorkomen door te selecteren op lage uitval en door moederkloekprikkels bij de jonge diertjes. WUR-onderzoek laat zien dat het een veelbelovende optie is.
Ingrepen bij pluimvee : update 2011 "Literatuurstudie ingrepen bij pluimvee" = Mutilations in poultry : update 2011 "Literature study mutilations poultry"
Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Jong, I.C. de; Veldkamp, T. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2011
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 468) - 75
pluimveehouderij - hennen - vleeskuikenouderdieren - kalkoenen - kannibalisme - chirurgische handelingen - snavelkappen - dierenwelzijn - literatuuroverzichten - poultry farming - hens - broiler breeders - turkeys - cannibalism - surgical operations - debeaking - animal welfare - literature reviews
Update of "Literature study mutilations poultry" (2006). In this update the latest research results are presented, dealing with laying hens, broiler breeders and turkeys. Also a new method of beak treatment with Infra-red is discussed.
Snavelbehandeling in de kalkoenhouderij : alternatieven via fokkerij en bedrijfsmanagemrnt = Beak trimming in turkey production : alternatives by means of breeding and farm management
Veldkamp, T. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 197) - 28
pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - kalkoenen - snavelkappen - dierenwelzijn - kannibalisme - verenpikken - poultry farming - poultry - turkeys - debeaking - animal welfare - cannibalism - feather pecking
A literature review on effects of breeding and management on injurious pecking behaviour and cannibalism has been conducted. The combination of factors to avoid injurious behaviour is not clear and thus no good alternative to beak trimming of the upper beak in day-old turkey poults is available. If beak trimming is performed, it is recommended to use the novel IR-method on day-old turkey poults because then welfare of turkeys is the least compromised compared with other beak trimming methods.
Ingrepen bij pluimvee : update 'Literatuurstudie ingrepen bij pluimvee, 2006' = Mutilations in poultry : update literature study "Literature study mutilations poultry, 2006"
Fiks, T.G.C.M. ; Jong, I.C. de; Veldkamp, T. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Emous, R.A. van - \ 2009
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 255) - 46
pluimveehouderij - hennen - vleeskuikenouderdieren - kalkoenen - kannibalisme - chirurgische handelingen - snavelkappen - dierenwelzijn - literatuuroverzichten - poultry farming - hens - broiler breeders - turkeys - cannibalism - surgical operations - debeaking - animal welfare - literature reviews
Update of "Literature study mutilations poultry" (2006). In this update the latest research results are presented, dealing with laying hens, broiler breeders and turkeys. Also a new method of beak treatment with Infra-red is discussed.
Genetics of survival in cannibalistic laying hens : the contribution of social effects
Ellen, E.D. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Piter Bijma; M.J. Wade. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853664 - 168
pluimvee - hennen - eierproductie - kannibalisme - dierveredeling - fokkerijmethoden - sociale interactie - lijnen - kunstmatige selectie - selectie - mortaliteit - overleving - pluimveehokken - diergenetica - poultry - hens - egg production - cannibalism - animal breeding - animal breeding methods - social interaction - lines - artificial selection - selection - mortality - survival - poultry housing - animal genetics
Mortality due to cannibalism in laying hens is a worldwide economic and welfare problem occurring in all types of commercial poultry housing systems. Due to prohibition of beak-trimming and the traditional battery system in the European Union in the near future, mortality due to cannibalism in laying hens may increase. To reduce mortality in laying hens, it is possible to use genetic selection. Mortality due to cannibalism, however, depends on social interactions between group members. Traditional selection methods neglect these social interactions, meaning that they ignore the genetic effect an individual has on its group members. These methods are, therefore, not very effective. The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the effect of social interactions on the heritable variance in mortality due to cannibalism in laying hens and to develop a selection method that takes into account social interactions.
To investigate the effect of social interactions on the heritable variance in mortality due to cannibalism, genetic parameters for direct and associative effects on survival time in three layer lines were estimated. For all three layer lines it was found that social interactions contribute approximately two-third of the heritable variation in survival time. The heritable variation in survival time is, therefore, substantially larger than suggested by the traditional methods currently used in poultry breeding.
To improve traits affected by social interactions in laying hens, a solution is to select individually housed candidates based on the performance of their full sibs kept in family groups. Theoretical results suggest that this selection method offers good opportunities to improve traits affected by social interactions. A selection experiment was applied aiming to improve mortality due to cannibalism in laying hens using selection based on relatives. After one generation, mortality was 10% lower in the selection line compared to the control. In the second generation, no significant effect was found, which seemed to be related to environmental factors.
Results in this thesis suggest that prospects for reducing mortality due to cannibalism by means of genetic selection are good. Using selection methods that incorporate social interactions may lead to substantial reduction of one of the major welfare problems in egg production. Further research is needed to investigate the effect of group size and kin recognition on social interactions.


Literatuurstudie ingrepen bij pluimvee = Literature study mutilations poultry
Fiks-van Niekerk, T.G.C.M. ; Jong, I.C. de; Veldkamp, T. ; Emous, R.A. van; Middelkoop, J.H. van - \ 2006
Wageningen : Animal Sciences Group (PraktijkRapport Pluimvee 19) - 75
pluimvee - hennen - vleeskuikens - kalkoenen - pluimveehouderij - sporen (pluimvee) - snavelkappen - kannibalisme - dierhouderij - dierenwelzijn - poultry - hens - broilers - turkeys - poultry farming - spurs (poultry) - debeaking - cannibalism - animal husbandry - animal welfare
In this report the state of the art with regards to mutilations in poultry in the year 2005 is given. A restriction has been made for only those mutilations that are of importance for the Netherlands. These are beak treatments, toe clipping, despurring and dubbing. Also only the most common species that undergo mutilations are dealt with, being laying hens, layer- and broiler breeders (including breeding flocks) and turkeys.
Natural mating in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) : implications for reproductive success, inbreeding and cannibalism
Fessehaye, Y. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth; Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Hans Komen; Henk Bovenhuis. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085045401 - 149
oreochromis niloticus - tilapia - natuurlijke paring - voortplantingsefficiëntie - inteelt - kannibalisme - genetische verbetering - visteelt - oreochromis niloticus - tilapia - natural mating - reproductive efficiency - inbreeding - cannibalism - genetic improvement - fish culture
Verrijkte kooien
Emous, R.A. van; Fiks, T.G.C.M. ; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. - \ 2003
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij (PraktijkRapport / Animal Sciences Group, Praktijkonderzoek : Pluimvee ) - 77
hennen - pluimveehokken - kooien - verrijking - snavelkappen - zitstokken (vogels) - legresultaten - verenpikken - kannibalisme - belichting - dierenwelzijn - hens - poultry housing - cages - enrichment - debeaking - perches - laying performance - feather pecking - cannibalism - illumination - animal welfare
Ruim 75 % van de leghennen in Nederland wordt in batterijkooien gehouden. Deze kooi werd vele jaren gezien als het ideale houderijsysteem voor leghennen. Vanuit ethologisch gezichtspunt is het houden van legkippen in batterijsystemen echter een flinke beperking voor de dieren. Om deze reden is de batterij in een kwaad daglicht komen te staan en is vanuit de maatschappij de roep om welzijnsvriendelijkere huisvestingssystemen steeds sterker geworden. Men houdt steeds meer leghennen in alternatieve systemen als scharrel en volière, waar de dieren de beschikking hebben over een ruime hoeveelheid strooisel. Verder zijn er legnesten en zitstokken in de systemen ingebouwd. Volière en scharrel zijn voor de kleinere bedrijven goede alternatieven. Voor grote bedrijven zijn ze minder aantrekkelijk, omdat ze minder voorspelbaar in arbeid zijn, storingsgevoeliger in productie, hogere milieubelasting (NH3 en stof) hebben en een hogere kostprijs van de eieren. Tot eind jaren 90 verliep de omschakeling naar dit soort systemen erg langzaam, maar nadat de EU-richtlijn voor het houden van leghennen in 1999 van kracht werd, is in Nederland veel geïnvesteerd in alternatieve systemen. De ontwikkelingen naar welzijnsvriendelijke houderij van leghennen is geen Nederlandse aangelegenheid. Dit bleek uit de wijziging in de Europese regelgeving, die in 1999 is doorgevoerd. Deze legt de huisvesting van leghennen in kooien aan banden en verbiedt het huidige batterijsysteem per 1 januari 2012. Vanaf die datum is alleen de huisvesting in alternatieven (scharrel/volière) of in verrijkte kooisystemen toegestaan. Het Nederlandse bedrijfsleven heeft de roep naar welzijnsvriendelijkere huisvestingssystemen voor leghennen onder anderen vertaald naar een opdracht voor het Praktijkonderzoek om de verrijkte kooisystemen te onderzoeken en te ontwikkelen. Als uitgangspunt voor de systemen gold dat ze gebaseerd moesten zijn op het kooiprincipe en minimaal moesten voldoen aan de eisen zoals die in de EU-richtlijn van juli 1999 zijn geformuleerd. Dit onderzoek heeft vorm gekregen in het Project Verrijkte kooien voor leghennen, ook wel kortweg bekend onder de naam Project 1030 (het aanvankelijke interne projectnummer). Gezien de korte termijn waarop bedrijfsleven en politiek informatie moesten hebben over verrijkte kooisystemen, is gekozen voor een proefopzet, waarbij veel verschillende systemen zijn getest. Het Ingrepenbesluit bepaalt dat in nieuwe houderijsystemen die men na 1 september 2001 in gebruik neemt geen dieren mogen worden opgezet die een snavelbehandeling hebben ondergaan. Voor alternatieve houderijsystemen is echter een uitstel van 5 jaar verleend. Dit geldt niet voor kooisystemen (dus ook verrijkte kooien), omdat de kleinere groepsgrootte verenpikkerij en kannibalisme daar beter beheersbaar maakt. Hoewel de groepen dieren in kooien kleiner zijn dan in alternatieve houderijsystemen moet men echter wel rekening houden met dit potentiële pikkerijprobleem. Dit gegeven was aanleiding om extra aandacht te besteden aan het houden van ongekapte hennen en het voorkómen van verenpikkerij en kannibalisme. Het toepassen van verschillende verlichtingssystemen is daarom onderwerp van onderzoek geweest. Het eerste en belangrijkste doel van het onderzoek aan verrijkte kooisystemen was het testen ervan en het opdoen van ervaringen met verschillende ontwerpen. Ook binnen elk kooisysteem zijn diverse varianten getest om te zien welke het beste functioneert. Daarbij is ervaring opgedaan die breder gaat dan alleen dat bewuste systeem, zodat ook algemenere conclusies mogelijk zijn. De hoofdvraag van het onderzoek was telkens: hoe functioneert een systeem. De punten waarnaar we keken zijn: Wat zijn de productieresultaten? Hoe is de eikwaliteit? Wat is de uitval en in het bijzonder de uitval door pikkerij? Hoe functioneren het legnest, de strooiselruimte, de zitstokken en het nagelgarnituur? Hoe gedragen de dieren zich: gebruiken ze het strooisel, het legnest en d
Kannibalisme onder sardinella's
Mantingh, I.T. - \ 2003
Visserijnieuws 23 (2003)22. - ISSN 1380-5061 - p. 37 - 37.
sardinella - migratie - mauritanië - kannibalisme - visserijbiologie - zeevisserij - migration - mauritania - cannibalism - fishery biology - marine fisheries
Verslag van het RIVO onderzoek in Mauritanië naar de biologie van sardinella. Om de migratiepatronen van de Sardinella aurita in de Noord-west-Afrikaanse wateren te achterhalen zijn gegevens van Nederlandse trawlers en lokale kano's gebruikt. Ook ontdekte men kannibalisme onder sardinella's
Ander licht biedt geen soelaas: pikkerij bij onbehandelde kalkoenen blijft probleem
Veldkamp, T. - \ 2000
De Pluimveehouderij 30 (2000)45. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 10 - 11.
pluimveehouderij - kalkoenen - diergedrag - kannibalisme - lichtsterkte - kunstmatige verlichting - poultry farming - turkeys - animal behaviour - cannibalism - light intensity - artificial lighting
Onderzoek van PP naar de invloed van verschillende typen verlichting (groen-blauwe lampen, TL-verlichting, gloeilampen, natrium/TL-verlichting) op verwondingen en uitval door pikkerij bij kalkoenen
Geen of milde snavelbehandelingen bij leghennen in batterijen
Emous, R.A. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Niekerk, Th.G.C.M. van - \ 2000
Beekbergen : Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij (PP uitgave : praktijkonderzoek pluimveehouderij 88) - 95
hennen - kippen - snavelkappen - batterijkooien - batterijhuisvesting - kannibalisme - abnormaal gedrag - dierenwelzijn - hens - fowls - debeaking - battery cages - battery husbandry - cannibalism - abnormal behaviour - animal welfare
Het Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij 'Het Spelderholt' (PP) heeft onderzoek gedaan naar de problematiek van het snavelkappen van leghennen in legbatterijen. Tevens is gekeken naar alternatieve snavelbehandelingen die het welzijn van de dieren zo minmogelijk aantasten en tegemoet komen aan de wensen van de pluimveehouder.
Studiedagen konijnenhouderij, leghennenhouderij, broederij en vermeerdering
Anonymous, - \ 1998
Beekbergen : Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij (PP uitgave : praktijkonderzoek pluimveehouderij 74) - 42
dierhouderij - konijnen - oestrus - pluimveehouderij - hennen - snavelkappen - kannibalisme - batterijhuisvesting - salmonella - pluimveevoeding - huisvesting van kippen - vleeskuikenouderdieren - ammoniakemissie - animal husbandry - rabbits - poultry farming - hens - debeaking - cannibalism - battery husbandry - poultry feeding - chicken housing - broiler breeders - ammonia emission
Teksten van de inleidingen gehouden op de studiemiddagen van 17 t/m 19 juni 1998.
Kannibalisme bij biologische legkippen (Samenvatting)
Wouw, S. van de; Koene, P. - \ 1995
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 110) - ISBN 9789067543989 - 14
biologische landbouw - hennen - pluimveehouderij - kannibalisme - diergedrag - huisvesting van kippen - organic farming - hens - poultry farming - cannibalism - animal behaviour - chicken housing
De biologische leghennenhouderij heeft hoge uitvalspercentages ten gevolge van kannibalisme. Het kannibalisme uit zich voornamelijk in de vorm van cloacapikken. De uitval varieert van een paar procent tot soms boven de twintig procent. Er is goede hoop dat de uitval met enkele maatregelen teruggebracht kan worden tot onder de vijf procent. Deze maatregelen houden onder andere in: goede raskeuze (vooralsnog Isabrown in plaats van Hysex), beperken van lichtinval, een grondsubstraat nemen dat het grondpikken stimuleert, de kippen in kleine groepen huisvesten en het verwijderen van aangepikte kippen.
Kannibalisme bij biologische legkippen.
Wouw, S. van der; Koene, P. - \ 1995
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 109) - ISBN 9789067543965 - 66
kannibalisme - hennen - biologische landbouw - pluimveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - diergedrag - huisvesting van kippen - cannibalism - hens - organic farming - poultry farming - animal welfare - animal behaviour - chicken housing
In dit vijf-maands onderzoek is getracht van zoveel mogelijk kanten de problematiek van het kannibalisme bij kippen te benaderen om zodoende een zo goed mogelijk onderzoek te verkrijgen van alle kanten van deze problematiek. Allereerst is een overzicht gemaakt van de kennis die aanwezig is in de wetenschappelijke literatuur op dit gebied. Ten tweede is kort aandacht besteed aan de aanbevelingen die staan vermeld in boeken over management van pluimveehouderijbedrijven. Ten derde zijn, om de kennis van de veehouders zelf te verzamelen, een enquête en bedrijfsbezoeken uitgevoerd. Tevens is een drietal experimenten uitgevoerd op twee bedrijven om enkele hypotheses te testen.
Invloed van de sociale klasse op het voedingsgedrag
Edema, J.M.P. - \ 1982
Voeding 43 (1982)7. - ISSN 0042-7926 - p. 239 - 240.
kannibalisme - consumentengedrag - voedingsgewoonten - voedsel - voedselconsumptie - voedselinkoop - voedingsmiddelen - prijzen - inkopen - cannibalism - consumer behaviour - feeding habits - food - food consumption - food purchasing - foods - prices - purchasing
Nieuwe Voedingsleer, 2e herz. dr.
Hartog, C. den; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. ; Hartog, A.P. den - \ 1980
Utrecht : Spectrum (Aula : het wetenschappelijke boek 616) - ISBN 9789027453730
voedingswaarde - voedsel - voedingsmiddelen - voedselsamenstelling - kwaliteit - eigenschappen - voedingsfysiologie - voedselhygiëne - voedingstoestand - consumptiepatronen - voedselinspectie - voedingsgewoonten - kannibalisme - overheidsbeleid - voedselvoorziening - voeding - wetgeving - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedingseducatie - voedingsinformatie - nutritive value - food - foods - food composition - quality - properties - nutrition physiology - food hygiene - nutritional state - consumption patterns - food inspection - feeding habits - cannibalism - government policy - food supply - nutrition - legislation - food legislation - nutrition education - nutrition information
Naar strategieen van voedingsvoorlichting : een evaluatie- en literatuuronderzoek
Westmaas-Jes, M.M. - \ 1977
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): A.W. van den Ban. - Wageningen : Veenman - 199
onderwijs - informatie - gezondheidszorg - medische voorzieningen - sociale voorzieningen - producten - voedselhygiëne - voedingstoestand - consumptiepatronen - voedingsgewoonten - kannibalisme - voedingswaarde - voedsel - voedingsmiddelen - voedselsamenstelling - kwaliteit - eigenschappen - gezondheid - gebreken - voedselbereiding - eten koken - maaltijden - borden - nederland - technische informatie - sociale problemen - education - information - health care - medical services - social services - products - food hygiene - nutritional state - consumption patterns - feeding habits - cannibalism - nutritive value - food - foods - food composition - quality - properties - health - defects - food preparation - cooking - meals - dishes - netherlands - technical information - social problems

Cardiovascular diseases account for a large part of total mortality: in 1974 45.7% of all deaths in the Netherlands were due to these diseases. As at least part of these diseases is man-made, the need for prevention is often stressed. The Netherlands Heart Foundation has many activities which aim at getting people to change their way of life if it increases their susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. One of these activities is a nutrition educational project, started in 1972. Dieticians work with members of various organizations to improve eating habits.

The literature was reviewed to answer the following questions:
- what influences people's nutrition and health behaviour?
- which of these influences can be changed by nutrition and health education?

These two questions are studied to acquire information with which a more systematic policy of nutrition education can be established.

Chapter 2. and 3. deal with nutrition behaviour, roughly defined as 'ways in which people act with regard to their food'. It includes choice of food, how and where food is prepared and consumed etc. (2.1.). As nutrition behaviour is part of human behaviour in general, Chapter 2. sums up some theoretical ideas about changing human behaviour from consistency theories, social judgment theories, functional theories and learning theories (2.2.1.). Implications for nutrition and health education are as far as possible explicitly stated.

Some learning theories are dealt with more extensively (2.2.2.), because:
- their concepts of (selective) reinforcement, modeling etc. can be applied in practice,
- they offer many cause-and-effect relations of behaviour that have been experimentally tested,
- many extension programmes are already based on the applications of these theories.

Chapter 2. ends with a summary of what is known about the development of nutrition behaviour specifically (2.2.3.). The results are not impressive; much more research in this field is needed.

Chapter 3. deals with the factors influencing nutrition behaviour. The data, collected from many different fields - (social) psychology, sociology, extension education, home economics, marketing - have been structured in a model after Langenheder (3.1.). In this chapter a distinction is made between the following factors:
a. 'objective' data in the physical and social surroundings as well as in man himself (3.2.),
b. culture (3.3),
c. indirect communication and direct social interaction (3.4.),
d. internal psychological structure: cognitions, motivation etc. (3.5.).

The 'objective' data roughly fix the limits of nutrition behaviour.

Culture is an important moulding agent, because it permeates all other factors, especially social interaction. It gives rise to typical patterns of nutrition; an ideal-type of Dutch menu is given in section 3.3.

Indirect communication, mainly but not uniquely transferred by mass media, can change a person's nutrition behaviour (3.4.1.), but only if:
- selective processes hardly work,,
- the message of the media covers a field unknown to the receiver (new products for instance),
- persons are already actively looking for the information they accidentally receive via mass media,
- the decisions to be made are relatively unimportant for the individual,
- mass communication contributes - in the long term - to norm setting for certain kinds of (nutrition) behaviour.

Direct social interaction is a very powerful influence (3.4.2.). Nearly every individual strives towards harmonious relations with his or her surroundings by fulfilling role obligations, coming up to expectations, in short by being not too different from 'normal'. Many of the values and norms developed in continuous interaction with others, have become fully internalized and are therefore resistant to change.

In dealing with the influence of cognitions on nutrition behaviour (3.5.1.), a distinction is made between factual knowledge (of ingredients, or categories of food products: the basic five etc.) and the more extensive cognitions, of which experience and all kinds of reality testing are part. A clear relation exists between nutrition behaviour and these extensive cognitions, while the relation between factual, more theoretical knowledge and nutrition behaviour is mostly non-existent.

As second part of the internal psychological structure the relations between people's needs and motives, and nutrition behaviour are analysed (3.5.2.). Four models are presented, two of which relate to nutrition. Generally nutrition has a (symbolic) function in creating physiological security (biologic needs); it fulfils the need for sensoric pleasure, emotional security (attention, acceptance) and for sociological security (status, self-expression).

The third aspect discussed is how people value certain goals and the actions to reach those goals (3.5.3.). Special attention should be paid to the discrepancy that often exists between goals of the extension organization and those of people themselves.

A separate part of section 3.5. is devoted to the question how attitudes - part of the internal structure - relate to behaviour. From much, often contradictory, literature the following conclusions were drawn:
- a relation between attitudes and behaviour exists, but is very complex,
- many more variables than attitudes determine behaviour,
- how and to what extent these other variables interact with behaviour is yet largely unknown.

After the chapters dealing with nutrition behaviour, chapter 4. clarifies the concept of extension. We defined extension as systematically planned communication, to be distinguished from other ways of influencing people's behaviour when high priority is given to the interests and well being of clients. Extension work has been chosen as an instrument for prevention of cardiovascular disease from a practical and ethical point of view, as well as for reasons of effect and efficiency (4.2.).

We defined two sets of goals for nutrition education (4.3.). The first set of goals is that:
- people should realize their actual nutrition behaviour,
- people should become aware of the consequences of that behaviour.
- people should decide on alternative behaviour.

The second set of goals is more structure-oriented, namely:
- to reorganize the existing (structural) forces influencing nutrition behaviour into a direction more positive to health, so that the alternative behaviour meant in the first set is really possible. Thus it is necessary for extension programmes - short-term and long-term - to be directed towards the public as well as towards policy makers (Fig. 10).

At the moment health education is given by various groups of people (4.4.). A distinction is made into four categories:
a. those working in the health system for which education is an integral part of their job: general practitioners, dentists, (district)nurses etc.,
b. those working in specialized health fields for which education is an important part of their job: dieticians, drug educators, dental hygienists etc.,
c. those not working in the health system but whose work touches on health aspects: teachers, youth leaders etc.,
d. those working as advisers and consultants for the professionals, mentioned under a., b. an c.: health education consultants.

A more integrated health education is essential for long-term success.

Most of what has been said in Chapter 1. to 4. about nutrition behaviour applies to health behaviour. Yet Chapter 5. explicitly deals with health behaviour, mainly because many efforts to influence nutrition behaviour are part of more extensive health education activities. We can say every nutrition behaviour is health behaviour, because all nutrition behaviour eventually influences people's health. Then we talk about health-related behaviour. If nutrition behaviour is purposefully meant to maintain or promote health, we talk about health-directed behaviour (5.1. and 5.2.).

Section 5.3. presents two social-psychological models and some more sociological ideas about health behaviour and their implications for influencing it. The two models are the health belief model (HBM) and a related model after Jaccard. Variables in the HBM are:
- the perceived susceptibility to a certain disease,
- the perceived seriousness,
- evaluation of actions and their benefits,
- evaluation of barriers to action.

Jaccard's model puts more emphasis on an individual's intention for certain health behaviour, determined by:
- his perception of the consequences of performing that behaviour,
- the value he attaches to these consequences,
- his beliefs about what relevant others think he should do,
- his motivation to comply with those others.

In both models, most clearly in Jaccard's one, the influence of social norms is very important.

In addition to the HBM the role of fear is discussed. Three kinds of variables determine the effects of a fear-approach:
- characteristics of the receiver: vulnerability, self-image, self-confidence, tolerance of stress etc.,
- the degree of fear: a certain degree of emotional arousal seems necessary for success (behaviour change) but the relationship is not linear. The optimum degree of fear depends on personality and situational variables,
- characteristics of the specific message: simple changes in behaviour can be brought about by a high-fear-approach. To achieve more complex (more important?) changes, a low-fear-approach seems more effective.

The results of our search for an integrated sociological view on health behaviour have been somewhat disappointing. With a few exceptions we only found ideas about certain role-configurations in relation to health, but mostly with the emphasis on disease or illness. More research is needed into the processes underlying unhealthy habits of large parts of the population and into changes in these habits (consumption of too much alcohol, preference for too many calories etc.).

The final chapter (6.) integrates a number of considerations and ideas from earlier chapters, resulting in a model for a nutrition and health educational policy (Fig. 15.). In section 6.1. a few views on the concept of strategy are mentioned. A division into three kinds of strategy is presented:
- power strategy,
- persuasive strategy,
- re-educative strategy.

The power strategies use sanctions and control to change behaviour, the persuasive strategies use rational, emotional and moral appeals.

The re-educative strategies try to change values and norms, so that internalization of changed values leads to changes in behaviour.

Section 6.2. gives 14 barriers to changing people's nutrition behaviour, where possible with implications for extension programmes.

To give an idea of nutrition education at present, section 6.3. presents a selection of three kinds of programmes: person-oriented, structure-oriented and integrated programmes. Special attention is given to the methods used in the treatment of obesity.

Section 6.4. 'towards a policy of nutrition education' is organized according to the stages of the model (Fig. 15): a. information and diagnosis, b. goals and target groups, c. content, d. methods, e. structure of the extension organization and f. evaluation.

Each stage is discussed in general and in relation to the nutrition educational project of the Netherlands Heart Foundation.

The stage of collecting information is aimed at problemdiagnosis, as well as at getting a rough idea of the kind of strategy one is going to choose: power, persuasive or re-educative. Not only health-related date have to be collected but also extension-related data.

The goals of an extension programme (communication goals!) are distinguished into changes in knowledge, attitudes or behaviour. Within target groups a distinction is made between final groups: clients and institutions, and intermediary ones: the public, government, commercial firms and professionals.

We categorize the content of the extension programme according to whether the goal is to make people aware of something, to inform, to advise or to persuade.

For the methods the usual distinction into mass, group and individual methods is used. Because we summarized which method is suitable for certain goals, it is possible to deduce special combinations of methods from (communication) goals stated.

Every extension programma must be backed by some kind of a structured organization. Whether the structure is permanent or temporary, certain functions have to be fulfilled: leaders (managers, advocates, financers, technicians, administrators, organizers) and supporters (workers, donors, symphatizers).

Evaluation is possible from various aspects; we can consider the input into a programme, the results, the adequacy of the results, the balance of performance to input and the process.

The appendix lists considerations to be taken into account in designing a policy of nutrition and health education.

Check title to add to marked list

Show 20 50 100 records per page

 
Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.