Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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      We will mail you new results for this query: wurpublikatie/titelbeschrijving/classificatie/trefwoord/cab/engels==contracts
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    Wie stuurt de herder? : concurrentie of coöperatie? : natuur- en cultuurproductie met schaapskuddes
    Schrijver, R.A.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2708) - 47
    schapen - natuurbescherming - heidegebieden - financiën - contracten - begrazing - erfgoed - nederland - sheep - nature conservation - heathlands - finance - contracts - grazing - heritage areas - netherlands
    Een verkennend onderzoek naar de positie en betekenis van traditioneel werkende herders in de Nederlandse samenleving. Aan de hand van interviews, een workshop en modelberekeningen is een beeld gevormd van de financiële positie van de herders in de sector, van de knelpunten en van de betekenis die de herders hebben voor natuur en cultuurhistorie. De analyse wijst uit dat de traditioneel werkende herders een maatschappelijke meerwaarde leveren die wordt ondergewaardeerd. Er worden diverse oplossingsrichtingen aangedragen en aanbevelingen gedaan voor een structurele herziening van het huidige systeem met korte termijn contracten.
    Understandig trust : longitudinal studies on trust dynamics in governance interactions
    Vries, J.R. de - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Noelle Aarts; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Raoul Beunen; Anne Marike Lokhorst. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571013 - 152
    overtuigingen - governance - longitudinaal onderzoek - natuurbeleid - samenwerking - ruimtelijke ordening - overheid - groepen - contracten - organisatie - beliefs - governance - longitudinal studies - nature conservation policy - cooperation - physical planning - public authorities - groups - contracts - organization
    Trust is generally perceived as an important concept in governance processes where people cooperate, as it enables people to take risks and deal with uncertainties, and it facilitates cooperation. These characteristics are seen as important in new and alternative ways of implementing public policies. These governance approaches focus more and more on network governance and on organising more horizontal interactions. In these contexts, trust is seen as a means to control and manage relations. It is therefore surprising that empirical studies on trust are lacking. Consequently, little is known about how trust emerges and develops in governance processes. This thesis addresses this gap and focuses on the question: How does trust emerge and develop in governance interactions? In answering this question, I take a dynamic perspective on trust. Here, trust is seen as a positive expectation about an actor’s ways of doing. This perspective in particular takes into account the dynamics of governance interactions. In this thesis, I focus on the field of spatial planning, as one of the fields of governance. In planning processes, four aspects are important. First, planning processes consist of a series of interactions that are organised in a certain way and have specific characteristics. Second, in these interactions, various policy instruments are used to guide the process and work towards a collective objective. Third, these interactions take place between groups and their members. These groups have their own identity and related roles and rules that influence the planning process. Fourth, in these interactions, people express trust and distrust to support their ideas, collaboration, or preferred choice. In studying trust dynamics, I focus in the subsequent chapters on these four aspects and how they influence and are influenced by trust dynamics.
    Institutions in the Mexican coffee sector : changes and responses
    Rodriguez Padron, B. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte; Ruerd Ruben, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734181 - 201
    instellingen - institutionele economie - mexico - koffie - landbouwsector - verandering - samenwerking - contracten - diversificatie - onzekerheid - markten - markthandelaars - institutions - institutional economics - mexico - coffee - agricultural sector - change - cooperation - contracts - diversification - uncertainty - markets - market traders

    Keywords: Cooperation, contract arrangements, traders´ performance, market uncertainty, diversification, coffee, Mexico.

    The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the institutional environment prevailing in the Mexican coffee sector and its effect on the producers, traders and households. Specific topics we examine are the contract arrangements and trade performance, the factors influencing the growers´ willingness to join a cooperative, the effects of cooperation on price variability, the influence of cooperation on the growers’ welfare, and coffee producers’ response to the falling coffee price through their engagement in diversification activities. To accomplish the main objectives we have used primary and secondary data. We applied ordinarily least squares, logistic, probit and multivariate probit regressions in the analysis. The main findings indicate that farmers were better off under the quota system than they are under the free market. Results also indicate that being a roaster and selling cherry coffee negatively affects traders’ use of contracts, whereas being vertically integrated has a positive effect on contracting. On the other hand, selling cherry coffee, participating in a competitive environment and having contracts positively influence intermediaries’ performance. Other results show that some individual, family and farm factors, as well as variability of the coffee price at the municipal level favour cooperative affiliation; whereas housing conditions, the proportion of farmers in the municipality and the level of producers selling to intermediaries at the municipal level negatively affect prospects for cooperative membership. We discovered overall positive effects of cooperative participation on household welfare through an increase in the price and total coffee income; results also indicate that households responded to the low coffee price periods with an increase in diversification.

    Private food law : governing food chains through contracts law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification schemes
    Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food law series 1871-3483) - ISBN 9789086867301 - 435
    voedsel - recht - privaatrecht - voedselketens - contracten - regulatie - kwaliteitsnormen - boekhoudcontrole - certificering - governance - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - food - law - private law - food chains - contracts - regulation - quality standards - auditing - certification - governance - food legislation
    Since the turn of the Millennium, world-wide initiatives from the private sector have turned the regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. For the first time in legal literature this book analyses private law initiatives relating to the food chain, often referred to as private (voluntary) standards or schemes. Private standards are used to remedy flaws in legislation, in order to reach higher levels of consumer protection than the ones chosen by the EU legislature and to manage risks and liability beyond the traditional limits of food businesses. We see that litigation is no longer solely framed by legislative requirements, but ever more by private standards such as GlobalGAP, BRC, IFS, SQF and ISO. These private standards incorporate public law requirements thus embedding them in contractual relations and exporting them beyond the jurisdiction of public legislators. Other standards focus on corporate social responsibility or sustainability. This book also addresses how private religious standards such as Kosher and Halal play a role in defining specific markets of growing importance. It is noted that organic standards have found an interesting symbioses with public law. Another development on this topic is that food businesses are inspected more often by private auditors than by public inspectors. Effects in terms of receiving or being denied certification far outweigh public law sanctions. In short private law has changed an entire legal infrastructure for the food sector. It emerges as competing with the public law regulatory infrastructure.
    De directeur van de frietfabriek
    Goud, Jan-Kees - \ 2010
    potatoes - business economics - markets - contracts - sales promotion - plant diseases - business management
    CO2 en warmte uit afval (interview met o.a. Frank Kempkes)
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, F. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. - \ 2010
    Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 65 (2010)1. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 36 - 37.
    tuinbouwbedrijven - kassen - kooldioxide - energie - warmte - afval - contracten - reiniging - technieken - rookgassen - warmtekrachtkoppeling - biobased economy - market gardens - greenhouses - carbon dioxide - energy - heat - wastes - contracts - clearing - techniques - flue gases - cogeneration - biobased economy
    'Waste to CO2' is een proces waarbij afval wordt omgezet in energie en zuiver CO2. Theodoor Knook introduceert het proces in de tuinbouw. Hij heeft daarvoor een contractvorm ontwikkeld waarbij telers voor tien jaar worden voorzien van energie en CO2. TNO en TU Delft leverden de kennis voor de gebruikte technieken.
    Workbook Institutional Economics and Economic Organisation Theory; an integrated approach
    Slangen, L.H.G. ; Heringa, P.W. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861200 - 176
    instellingen - economische theorie - sociaal-economische organisatie - contracten - eigendomsrechten - eigendom - institutionele economie - economische organisatietheorie - institutions - economic theory - socioeconomic organization - contracts - property rights - ownership - institutional economics - economic organization theory
    Econometric analyses of microfinance credit group formation, contractual risks and welfare impacts in Northern Ethiopia
    Berhane Tesfay, G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Koos Gardebroek; Tassew Woldehanna. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854258 - 146
    krediet - landbouwhuishoudens - financiële instellingen - econometrie - risico - dynamische modellen - groepen - contracten - armoede - plattelandsbevolking - ethiopië - microfinanciering - panelgegevens - credit - agricultural households - financial institutions - econometrics - risk - dynamic models - groups - contracts - poverty - rural population - ethiopia - microfinance - panel data

    Key words
    Microfinance, joint liability, contractual risk, group formation, risk-matching, impact evaluation, Panel data econometrics, dynamic panel probit, trend models, fixed-effects, composite counterfactuals, propensity score matching, farm households, Ethiopia.

    Lack of access to credit is a key obstacle for economic development in poor countries. The underlying problem is related to information asymmetry combined with the poor’s lack of collateral to pledge. New mechanisms in microfinance offer ways to deal with this problem without resorting to collateral requirements. The objective of this thesis is to examine the mechanisms of providing credit through microfinance and assess the long-run borrowing effects on household welfare in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian environment provides a suitable setting to examine these issues. To meet this objective, two unique data sets - a five-wave panel data on 400 and a cross-sectional data on 201 households - from northern Ethiopia are used.
    Borrowing decision is first conceptualized using a dynamic stochastic theoretical framework. Two types of risks involved in joint liability lending are incorporated, i.e., risk of partner failure and risk of losing future access to credit. Empirical analysis using recent dynamic panel data probit techniques show that these contractual risks indeed impede participation in borrowing. The impediment is higher for the poorer, and for new than repeat participants. Second, group formation is analyzed within the framework of alternative microeconomic theories of joint liability where the commonly held hypothesis that groups formed are homogeneous in risk profiles is tested. Empirical results reject this hypothesis indicating that the formation of heterogeneous risk profiles is an inherent feature in group formation and repayment. In fact, there is evidence that borrowers take advantage of established informal credit and saving, and other social networks, which also suggests that group formation outcomes vary depending on underlying socioeconomic contexts.
    Third, the impact of long-term borrowing on household welfare is assessed from the dimension of intensity and timing of participation in borrowing. Panel data covering relatively long period enabled to account for duration and timing concerns in program evaluation. Recent parametric and semi-parametric panel data techniques are innovatively employed to mitigate participation selection biases. Results from both approaches indicate that borrowing has increased household welfare significantly: the earlier and more frequent the participation the higher the impact partly due to lasting effects of credit. This also suggests that impact studies that are based on a single-shot observation of outcomes and that do not account for the timing and duration of participation may underestimate microfinance credit impacts.



    Assessment report contract research Wageningen Animal Sciences Group
    Folstar, P. ; Dekkers, J. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Neindre, P. le; Oldham, J. ; Peters, A. ; Thorns, C. ; Meulepas, W.J.A.M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 79
    landbouwkundig onderzoek - diergeneeskunde - zoölogie - dierhouderij - contracten - onderzoek - toegepast onderzoek - nederland - wetenschap - agricultural research - veterinary science - zoology - animal husbandry - contracts - research - applied research - netherlands - science
    Collectieve versus individuele contracten voor natuurbeheer
    Jongeneel, R.A. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Slangen, L.H.G. ; Guldenmond, A. ; Hees, E. ; Well, E. van - \ 2008
    In: Natuur en landschap in het landelijk gebied: kennis voor beleid / Brouwer, F.M., Dirkx, G.H.P., - p. 44 - 47.
    landbouw - contracten - natuurbescherming - samenwerking - agrarisch natuurbeheer - agriculture - contracts - nature conservation - cooperation - agri-environment schemes
    In dit onderzoek staat de vraag centraal of collectieve contracten in vergelijking met individuele contracten efficiënter zijn en/of een grotere ecologische effectiviteit hebben. Daarbij is bijzondere aandacht gegeven aan de rol die agrarische natuurverenigingen kunnen spelen
    Contract Farming in Developing Countries: An overview
    Bijman, J. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, Department of Business Administration (Working Paper / Wageningen University, Department of Business Administration ) - 28
    contractlandbouw - landbouwkundig onderzoek - economische impact - plattelandsontwikkeling - contracten - arbeidscontracten - contracteconomie - contract farming - agricultural research - economic impact - rural development - contracts - labour contracts - contract economics
    This paper presents a review of the literature on contract farming (CF), focusing on recent empirical research on the economic impact of CF. The paper starts with an explanation of the phenomenon of CF, providing definitions, typologies, models and objectives. Using a Transaction Costs Economics framework, the paper explains for which products and market CF seems most suitable. The empirical literature on CF is assessed by answering three questions: Why do smallholders engage in CF? Are smallholders included in or excluded from CF arrangements? What impact does CF have on smallholder income and rural development? Finally, the paper identifies the conditions under which smallholders are most likely to benefit from CF schemes.
    Economische en ecologische effectiviteit van gebiedscontracten
    Slangen, L.H.G. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Guldemond, J.A. ; Hees, E.M. ; Well, E.A.P. van - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 84) - 82
    contracten - collectieve overeenkomsten - milieueffect - nederland - agrarisch natuurbeheer - contracts - collective agreements - environmental impact - netherlands - agri-environment schemes
    Dit onderzoek verkent zowel analytisch als kwantitatief de verschillen in de ecologische effectiviteit en de doelmatigheid (economische efficiency) tussen individuele en collectieve gebiedscontracten. De eigenschappen van individuele en collectieve contracten blijken onderling nauwelijks te verschillen. Voor een collectief contract, met een agrarische natuurvereniging (ANV) als intermediair, kunnen in vergelijking tot individuele contracten activiteiten zoals het afsluiten van een contract, screening en monitoring relatief efficiënt worden uitgevoerd. Bij een collectief contract zijn bovendien de private transactiekosten voor de deelnemers relatief laag. Dit komt door schaaleffecten en de samenbundeling van expertise in de ANV’s. Ook de ecologische effectiviteit is bij een ANV relatief goed gewaarborgd omdat men reputatie wil opbouwen en handhaven. In dat kader past men maatregelen toe zoals locatiespecifieke pakketsturing (bijvoorbeeld mozaïekbeheer), inventarisatie en monitoring, resultaatbeloning, stimuleren van zwaardere pakketten en flexibiliteit. Voor botanische pakketten is de toename van de effectiviteit door collectieve contracten overigens minder groot dan voor weidevogelbeheer. Trefwoorden: collectieve contracten, ecologie, agrarische natuurverenigingen
    Institutional design of agri-environmental contracts in the European Union: the role of trust and social capital.
    Polman, N.B.P. ; Slangen, L.H.G. - \ 2008
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55 (2008)4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 413 - 430.
    landbouwbeleid - besluitvorming - contracten - motivatie - agrarisch natuurbeheer - agricultural policy - decision making - contracts - motivation - agri-environment schemes - farmer participation - scheme - information - governance - policy - rules
    Assessing potential uptake of agri-environmental schemes based on farm and farmer characteristics only results in an incomplete analysis because it neglects the effects of motivational issues of the institutional design of contracts, as set up by the government, and of social capital. In this paper we describe contract choice using a trivariate probit model and taking into account farm and farmer characteristics and motivational issues. Motivational issues in this study include the perception of institutional design, the use of extension services, trust in the government, and preferences for stable policies. Results show that besides farm and farmer characteristics these factors are important for the likelihood of enrolling in agri-environmental contracts. They do not influence every contract type in the same way and further decisions to conclude different contract types are connected. If farmers perceive the design of an agri-environmental scheme as weak or favour a stable policy they are less likely to conclude contracts for biodiversity protection. Farmers who do not trust the government are less likely to conclude contracts for less intensive practices. Involvement in general networks increases the probability of contracting for wildlife and landscape management and less intensive practices whereas this factor is not important for biodiversity protection. The results suggest that taking into account motivational issues and differentiating towards different contract types can increase effectiveness and efficiency of agri-environmental schemes.
    Land lease contracts: properties and the value of bundles of property rights
    Slangen, L.H.G. ; Polman, N.B.P. - \ 2008
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55 (2008)4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 397 - 412.
    contracten - pachtovereenkomsten - huurovereenkomsten - eigendomsrechten - regulatie - huurders - pachtrecht - liberalisatie - contracts - farm leases - leases - property rights - regulation - tenants - tenants' rights - liberalization
    Contracts are mechanisms for carrying out transactions. Leasing land is a voluntary transaction in which property rights - such as user and income rights - are transferred from landowners to tenants. The bundle of property rights transferred within a lease transaction varies with the type of contractual arrangement. Analysis shows that for the landowner the value of the bundle of property rights to land is determined by the type of lease contract. Landowners prefer lease contracts with as little regulation as possible. Lease regulation can be characterized as a `handbook¿ for concluding lease contracts. However, reducing regulation requires a shift in co-ordination mechanisms from that of the handbook to that of the `invisible hand¿ (prices) and `handshake¿ (e.g., mutual adjustment). Making use of the handshake and price as co-ordination mechanisms implies that the importance of trust and reputation will increase for both tenant and landowner. In 2007, the Dutch government introduced two new types of formal lease that rely less on handbook co-ordination. Whether a more liberalized lease system will lead to a change in the area leased not only depends on landowners but also on tenants, because contracts are two-sided mechanisms.
    Climate Change and the Stability of Water Allocation Agreements
    Ansink, E.J.H. ; Ruijs, A.J.W. - \ 2007
    Milano : Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (Note di lavoro della Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei = Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei working paper series 16.2007) - 34
    watertoewijzing - waterbeheer - watergebruik - contracten - watervoorziening - rivieren - rivierwater - overeenkomsten - water allocation - water management - water use - contracts - water supply - rivers - river water - agreements
    We analyse agreements on river water allocation between riparian countries. Besides being efficient, water allocation agreements need to be stable in order to be effective in increasing the efficiency of water use. In this paper, we assess the stability of water allocation agreements, using a game theoretic model. We consider the effects of climate change and the choice of a sharing rule on stability. Our results show that both a decrease in mean riverflow and an increase in the variance of riverflow decrease the stability of an agreement. An agreement where the downstream country is allocated a fixed amount of water has the lowest stability compared to other sharing rules.
    Balancing the people, profit and planet dimensions in international marketing channels : a study on coordinating mechanisms in the Nile perch channel from Lake Victoria
    Kambewa, E. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp; Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Aad van Tilburg; Paul Ingenbleek. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046233 - 187
    sustainability - marketing channels - natural resources - society - environment - value theory - quality - world - food chains - contracts - fishermen - middlemen - fisheries - lates niloticus - lakes - kenya - networks - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - marketingkanalen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - samenleving - milieu - waardetheorie - kwaliteit - wereld - voedselketens - contracten - vissers - tussenpersonen - visserij - lates niloticus - meren - kenya - netwerken
    Keywords: people, profit, planet, marketing channels, contracts, sustainability, quality,LakeVictoria, conjointanalysis.

    Sustainable development hinges on a combined focus of its impact on society (people), the environment (planet) and to its economic value (profit). Increasingly, it is being recognized that these people, profit and planet dimensions are interlinked and an important challenge for public and private policy is to take them jointly into account. This inter-linkage is particularly evident in international channels that build on scarce natural resources from developing countries, which is the focus of this thesis. Specifically, we focus on how international marketing channels can be organized in order to enhance the balance between the people, profit and planet dimensions of the sustainable development such that small-scale primary producers from developing economies are integrated into the international marketing channels in a way that adds to the profitability of the channel and the welfare of the local communities, without compromising the sustainability of natural resources. We focus on contracts as mechanism to stimulate welfare, sustainability and quality at primary stages of the channel. We apply a number of theoretical approaches namely transaction costs economics, social - and network theory, and property rights theory to develop and test arguments for contracts to stimulate sustainable and quality-enhancing practices. We undertook both case study and conjoint analysis to develop and test our arguments.

    A situational analysis of the context in which primary producers operate lead to a conclusion that primary producers (i.e., fishermen) fail to implement sustainable and quality-enhancing practices because of major bottlenecks that they face such as the degradation of natural resources (i.e., fisheries), limited access to production facilities, information asymmetries and ineffective enforcement. An empirical analysis at fishermen and middlemen levels shows that they are open to contracts as mechanisms to stimulate sustainable and quality-enhancing practices. This is true especially if such contracts provide production facilities, price information, bring fishermen closer to international channels and allow private policy enforcement of sustainable practices. However, both fishermen and middlemen have idiosyncratic preferences for the particular types of contracts. This implies that they should be offered a choice among different contracts. An analysis of channel members in the downstream part of the channel show that in order to create a situation in which fishermen and middlemen are engaged in sustainability and quality-enhancing contracts, downstream channel members and other stakeholders should be engaged in and/or support micro-projects that may enable fishermen to solve the market failures that they face. The channel members farther downstream however may need stakeholder pressure, e.g. from special interest groups to be involved in addressing the market failures in the upstream.
    Contracting for sustainability An analysis of the Lake Victoria-EU Nile perch chain
    Kambewa, E. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860371 - 176
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - marketingkanalen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - samenleving - milieu - waardetheorie - kwaliteit - wereld - voedselketens - contracten - vissers - tussenpersonen - visserij - lates niloticus - meren - kenya - netwerken - sustainability - marketing channels - natural resources - society - environment - value theory - quality - world - food chains - contracts - fishermen - middlemen - fisheries - lates niloticus - lakes - kenya - networks
    Tweede scherm vereist leerproces
    Dieleman, J.A. ; Esmeijer, M.H. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Reijnders, C.E. ; Ruijs, M.N.A. - \ 2006
    Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 2006 (2006)43. - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 34 - 35.
    kassen - thermische schermen - aardgas - brandstoffen - contracten - klimaatregeling - glastuinbouw - energiebesparing - greenhouses - thermal screens - natural gas - fuels - contracts - air conditioning - greenhouse horticulture - energy saving
    Door de komst van kassen zijn telers niet langer afhankelijk van het weer. Die afhankelijkheid van toen is tegenwoordig ingeruild voor een nieuwe afhankelijkheid: het gascontract. Energie besparen om te overleven blijkt bittere noodzaak. Een scherm helpt daarbij en een tweede scherm helpt nog meer, maar dat laatste vereist wel een bepaald leerproces over schermen
    Teelthandleiding graszaad
    Borm, G.E.L. - \ 2005
    Kennisakker.nl 2005 (2005)15 juni.
    grassen - zaadbehandeling - zaadproductie - teeltsystemen - contracten - zaadkeuring - markten - akkerbouw - graszaden - teelthandleidingen - grasses - seed treatment - seed production - cropping systems - contracts - seed certification - markets - arable farming - grass seeds - cultivation manuals
    In deze teelthandleiding wordt aandacht besteed aan: graszaad in het algemeen, de contracten, de keuring en de markt van het graszaad binnen de EU
    De kloof tussen wens en werkelijkheid : hoe realistisch is prestatiesturing in het ruimtelijk beleid?
    Ark, R.G.H. van - \ 2005
    ROM : maandblad voor ruimtelijke ontwikkeling 23 (2005)11. - ISSN 1571-0122 - p. 32 - 33.
    regionale planning - besluitvorming - ruimtelijke ordening - contracten - prestatieniveau - regional planning - decision making - physical planning - contracts - performance
    In haar streven naar slagvaardiger, effectiever en efficiënter beleid verwacht de overheid veel van strategieën en instrumenten uit het bedrijfsleven, zoals prestatiesturing en contracten. De sturingsmogelijkheden zijn echter beperkt.
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