Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    KringloopWijzer: voordeel voor melkveehouder en natuur
    Haan, Michael de; Oenema, Jouke ; Hilhorst, Gerjan ; Verloop, Koos - \ 2019
    circular agriculture - energy saving - nitrogen - soil management
    ‘Ultradun glas is interessant voor energiezuinige kas van de toekomst ': licht, goed lichtdoorlatend, isolerend maar nog te duur
    Hemming, S. - \ 2018
    energy saving - circular agriculture
    Energiebesparing door lokale verwarming : test op teelttafels bij Elstgeest Potplanten
    Raaphorst, Marcel ; Noort, Filip van - \ 2017
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1439) - 18
    kasgewassen - glastuinbouw - kassen - dieffenbachia - potplanten - sierplanten - verwarming - verwarmingssystemen - energiebesparing - greenhouse crops - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - dieffenbachia - pot plants - ornamental plants - heating - heating systems - energy saving
    On a pot plant nursery three cultivation tables are heated directly with mat heating and one cultivation table is heated indirectly with tube heating. At these four tables the effect is measured on the air temperature below the table, the pot temperature, the energy use and the crop growth of Dieffenbachia. The conclusion is, that with mat heating a lower air temperature can be held under cultivation table to achieve a certain pot temperature. It is estimated that with this lower air temperature 10-30% of heat is saved because less heat disappears to the soil. For Dieffenbachia, the greenhouse air temperature above the pot is more determining for crop development than the pot temperature is. It is expected, that the energy-saving effect of mat heating is larger for plants with a low growth point, for which the pot temperature has more effect on growth.
    Systeemstap naar minimaal energieverbruik Alstroemeria : metingen op praktijkbedrijven en een energiezuinige teeltconcept
    Garcia Victoria, N. ; Zwart, Feije de; Weel, Peter van; Steenhuizen, Johan ; Groot, Marco de - \ 2017
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1372) - 66
    kasgewassen - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - kassen - alstroemeria - energiebehoeften - energiebesparing - verwarming - aanvullend licht - kunstlicht - simulatiemodellen - isolatie (insulation) - evaporatie - greenhouse crops - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - greenhouses - alstroemeria - energy requirements - energy saving - heating - supplementary light - artificial light - simulation models - insulation - evaporation
    Alstroemeria cultivation in The Netherlands requires energy for heating, supplementary light and root cooling. For the program “Greenhouse as Source of Energy” we calculated to which extent the energy demand for growing this crop can be reduced with existing energy saving innovations. Some innovations were tested in practice, others were calculated by means of the greenhouse climate simulation model Kaspro. Results showed that it is possible to save up to 34% energy for heating compared to the reference situation. 40% energy can be saved on electricity for supplementary light and root cooling. However, this strategy leads to a reduced amount of PAR-light in the winter, and 4% less flowers in comparison with the reference. The greatest impact can be achieved by increasing the insulation of the greenhouse by using double screens, reducing the evaporation from the soil, improving the crop hygiene to avoid extra evaporation from crop debris and reduce pest pressure, and implementing controlled dehumidification of the greenhouse air.
    Paprikateelt in de hooggeïsoleerde VenLow Energy kas
    Zwart, H.F. de; Gelder, A. de; Hofland-Zijlstra, J. ; Noordam, M. - \ 2017
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1435) - 34
    paprika's - capsicum annuum - kassen - kasgewassen - glasgroenten - glastuinbouw - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - isolatie (insulation) - broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - sweet peppers - capsicum annuum - greenhouses - greenhouse crops - greenhouse vegetables - greenhouse horticulture - energy saving - energy consumption - insulation - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide
    In order to realise a horticultural sector that operates without the combustion of fossil fuel, the first step is to reduce the demand for heating by improving the insultation of greenhouses. This holds especially for crops that are grown at high temperatures, like sweet pepper. The Venlow Energy greenhouse with its double glass cladding and energy screen is a good example of such a highly insulated greenhouse. This report presents the results of a one year cultivation and serves as a bench mark for the state of the art in energy conserving production of Sweet Pepper in the Netherlands. It shows the greenhouse climate conditions required, and the possibilities to meet these requirements with a low energy consumption and options to realise this from sustainable sources. The application of sustainable energy sources was not tested in practice, but since the exact resources (heat and CO2) required from hour to hour were measured, it is easy to do the math on the amounts and capacities needed. The application of pure CO2 or CO2 from another sustainable source is essential when aiming at a fossil energy free horticulture. Without external CO2 the production will drop substantially, especially because an energy conserving greenhouse has typically a strongly reduced air exchange. But, for the same reason, the amount of CO2 needed to increase the CO2 concentration is quite limited, 25 kg/m² per year in this experiment. With a production of 32.5 kg class I of red Sweet Pepper per m², the experiment has shown that halving the energy consumption compared to the general practice did’nt reduced the production.
    Energiebrochure bloembollen 2017
    Wildschut, J. ; Braam, Guus ; Smailbegovic, Nesad - \ 2017
    Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland - 60
    energy saving - circular agriculture
    De bloembollensector heeft in 2007 opnieuw een Meerjarenafspraak-energie met de overheid gemaakt. Daarin heeft de bollensector zich verplicht om tussen 2007 en 2011 de energieefficiëntie te verbeteren met 2,2% per jaar en het aandeel duurzame energie te verhogen met 0.4% per jaar. De Meerjarenafspraak is in 2011 verlengd t/m 2012 en is ondertekend door KAVB, Productschap Tuinbouw, Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw & Innovatie (EL&I, nu Economische Zaken, EZ) en RVO.nl. Daarnaast heeft de bollensector in 2008 het Convenant Schone & Zuinige Agrosectoren getekend. In dit convenant is namens de sector de ambitie vastgelegd om ‘in nieuwe bedrijven vanaf 2020 (economisch rendabel) klimaatneutraal te kweken en te telen'. In opdracht van de Stuurgroep MJA-e werken wetenschappelijk onderzoek, praktijkonderzoek en voorlichting aan het ontwikkelen en demonstreren van maatregelen waarmee het bollenvak energie (en dus veel geld) kan besparen en daarmee de CO2-uitstoot te verminderen. In deze brochure vindt u de samenvattingen van de onderzoekprojecten van de afgelopen jaren gegroepeerd in 4 thema’s; Algemeen, drogen & bewaren, broeierij en duurzame energietechnieken
    Vochtbeheersing in kassen en terugwinning van latente energie : Een verkenning naar vochtbeheersing in kassen en de mogelijkheden van het terugwinnen van de energie die opgesloten zit in de gewasverdamping
    Weel, P.A. van; Zwart, H.F. de; Voogt, J.O. - \ 2016
    Wageningen UR Gastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1421) - 76
    kassen - kastechniek - tomaten - glastuinbouw - ontvochtiging - energiegebruik - energiebesparing - ventilatie - greenhouses - greenhouse technology - tomatoes - greenhouse horticulture - dehumidification - energy consumption - energy saving - ventilation
    Dehumidification of a greenhouse by ventilation increases the energy input with 8-10 m3/m2.year of natural gas to compensate the heat losses. This study shows different methods to reduce those energy losses. A 25% reduction in ventilation is obtained by using heat exchangers connected to plastic distribution ducts or by using the Ventilationjet system. The sensible heat from the exhaust air can be used to heat the incoming outside air to greenhouse temperature. Heat exchangers with 100% efficiency to do that are available. The latent heat included in the water vapour leaving the greenhouse can be recovered by means of a condensating wall. A good working priciple is the Dewpoint Heat Exchanger in which outside air is wettened to reach the lowest possible temperature and then used to cool down the greenhouse air far below the temperature where condensation begins. The recovered latent heat must be stored in a water tank to use it in the heating pipes. Another approach is to skip ventilation and use a set of a cold and warm heat exchanger connected to a heat pump or to use a salt water absorber. The absorber opens the possibility to use solar or wind energy to dehumidify the greenhouse and collect 100% of the sensible and latent heat.
    Kokos als volvelds groeimedium geeft beste resultaten bij lisianthus
    Raaphorst, Marcel - \ 2016
    horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - cut flowers - eustoma grandiflorum - substrates - cultural methods - copra - agricultural research - growing media - energy saving - environmental protection - fertilizer application - water use
    Het Nieuwe Gewas : sturen van de plantvorm voor verhoogde lichtbenutting
    Gelder, Arie de; Janse, Jan ; Warmenhoven, Mary - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1407) - 62
    tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - kasgewassen - glasgroenten - glastuinbouw - energiebesparing - plantenontwikkeling - gewasteelt - licht - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum - greenhouse crops - greenhouse vegetables - greenhouse horticulture - energy saving - plant development - crop management - light
    Wageningen UR Greenhouse horticulture searched in the “The New Crop” project for the crop structure that best contributes to the goal of energy-efficient production and therefore energy saving, by removing 33, 44 or 55% of the leaves at a young stage. On October 10th 2014 the experiment started with topped plants of the tomato variety Brioso grafted on Maxifort. Dry matter production was lowest in the very open crop, however partitioning to the fruits was highest in that treatment. Therefore, this crop produced in the winter under assimilation lighting most. In summer, the standard treatment was the best and the production in this treatment was highest. The plants in the very open treatment were shorter and had smaller leaves than the plants of the standard treatment. This is might be due to a different red: far red ratio of light in the crop. Leaf picking at a young stage contributes to better distribution of assimilates to the fruits. This can be used as a crop management measure as the plant in winter develops too much leaves. The project was funded by the Dutch energy transition program “Kas als Energiebron”.
    Green Business Benefits : analyse van natuurpraktijken door Nederlandse bedrijven
    Vreke, Jan ; Coninx, Ingrid ; Och, Renze van - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2768) - 25
    bedrijven - energiebesparing - natuur - nederland - businesses - energy saving - nature - netherlands
    Energiebesparing met LED belichting in gerbera : resultaten van 1ste jaar LED onderzoek
    García, Nieves ; Weerheim, Kees ; Helm, Frank van der; Kempkes, Frank ; Visser, Pieter de; Groot, Marco - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Report GTB 1389) - 66
    gerbera - glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - kassen - kastechniek - teelt onder bescherming - energiebesparing - led lampen - kunstlicht - kunstmatige verlichting - licht - verlichting - gerbera - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - greenhouses - greenhouse technology - protected cultivation - energy saving - led lamps - artificial light - artificial lighting - light - lighting
    In the winter 2013-2014 Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture conducted studies on energy saving opportunities in the cultivation of gerbera, CV Kimsey. The research was funded by the program Greenhouse as Energy Source from the Ministry of Economic Affairs and LTO Glaskracht. The contribution of LED lighting, LED interlighting, a lower intensity of the light installation, and light integration was investigated. An electricity savings of 45% was the target. By using LED lighting a 20% electricity savings are possible in exchange for a small production loss (2.3%) and some additional heat demand (9%). By installing 80 instead of 100 μmol light gerbera growers can save another 20% energy costing only 3.9% production without sacrificing quality. The targeted PAR sum for light integration was too high to contribute to electricity savings. The use of 20 μmol LED interlighting in combination with 60 μmol top light (LED or SON-T) resulted in significantly less production (9%) and lower flower quality: shorter and lighter, smaller diameter and a lower % of dry matter) than 80 μmol top light.
    Filmpje: Paprika, schermen bij tropisch weer, geen binnenrot
    Gelder, A. de - \ 2016
    Kasalsenergiebron.nl
    paprika's - gewasproductie - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - gewaskwaliteit - glastuinbouw - teeltsystemen - sweet peppers - crop production - energy saving - energy consumption - crop quality - greenhouse horticulture - cropping systems
    Het weglaten van de minimumbuis en het gebruik van twee energieschermen elke nacht, ook tijdens de warmste dagen in augustus, waren de opvallendste aspecten tijdens het onderzoek ‘Paprika energiezuinig met een goede kwaliteit’. Aat Dijkshoorn (LTO Glaskracht Nederland), Jeroen Zwinkels (Delphy), Arie de Gelder (Wageningen University & Research) en telers Danny van der Spek (Paprikakwekerij Van der Spek) en Maikel van den Berg (Quality Peppers) vertellen in dit filmpje over deze opvallende resultaten van het onderzoek.
    Consultancy genereren basiskennis fotosynthese aardbei
    Kaiser, E. ; Janse, J. - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1411) - 22
    aardbeien - fragaria ananassa - teelt onder bescherming - kasgewassen - glastuinbouw - fotosynthese - energiebesparing - licht - kooldioxide - strawberries - fragaria ananassa - protected cultivation - greenhouse crops - greenhouse horticulture - photosynthesis - energy saving - light - carbon dioxide
    To save electricity and CO2 during strawberry production, more knowledge about the photosynthesis of greenhouse-grown strawberry plants is necessary. This was tackled by measuring light- and CO2-dependent photosynthesis responses and by conducting a literature study in which several parameters of leaf-level photosynthesis were compared. From measurements conducted between middle of March and middle of May 2016 it was concluded that the rate of photosynthesis and electron transport was comparable between young and old leaves, while stomatal conductance in young leaves was always higher. Light- and CO2- saturated photosynthesis rates were higher in older leaves. Furthermore, a decrease of photosynthesis rates was visible in April, which may have been caused by acclimation of leaf biochemistry to elevated CO2 concentrations in the greenhouse. Conclusions from the literature study were that light saturation was reached at ~1000 μmol m-2 s-1 and that CO2 saturation was reached at ~1100 μmol mol-1. Average photosynthesis rates at these conditions were 18 and 35 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The average quantum yield of photosynthesis was ~0.06 μmol CO2 μmol-1 PAR, which is comparable to other, fast growing greenhouse crops (e.g. cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper). Large knowledge gaps about the course of photosynthesis during complete growing seasons remain.
    Duurzaamheid als leidraad voor roos : vervolg onderzoek Perfecte Roos: energiezuinig geteeld
    Gelder, Arie de; Warmenhoven, Mary ; Knaap, Edwin van der; Burg, Rick van der - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1412) - 50
    rozen - teelt onder bescherming - kasgewassen - glastuinbouw - duurzame landbouw - energiebesparing - elektriciteit - assimilatie - kunstlicht - kunstmatige verlichting - verlichting - koelen - meeldauw - geïntegreerde bestrijding - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - roses - protected cultivation - greenhouse crops - greenhouse horticulture - sustainable agriculture - energy saving - electricity - assimilation - artificial light - artificial lighting - lighting - cooling - mildews - integrated control - integrated pest management
    The project Sustainable rose cultivation aimed to achieve a sustainable and energy efficient rose cultivation by a controlled use of assimilation lighting, an optimum use of the cooling and an integrated control strategy for mildew. The production came to 320 stems.m-2 average weight 54 grams. The branch length and bud size varied through the season. There was no saving on electricity. There was a significant saving on heat. The improvement of the energy efficiency was totally determined by the reduction of the heat consumption. The light utilization efficiency was 2:44 g.mol-¹ and increased compared to the previous year. Cooling and forced ventilation had a positive effect on the stem elongation in the autumn. The installation with forced ventilation from above combined with the screen had a favourable effect on the climate, especially in the humidity control under a largely (95-98%) closed screen. The payback period of the investment in airconditioning is within 3 years.
    Plantmonitoring op basis van fotosynthese sensoren : ontwikkelen en testen van sensoren
    Dieleman, Anja ; Bontsema, Jan ; Jalink, Henk ; Snel, Jan ; Kempkes, Frank ; Voogt, Jan ; Pot, Sander ; Elings, Anne ; Jalink, Vincent ; Meinen, Esther - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1405) - 86
    teelt onder bescherming - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - sensors - fotosynthese - kooldioxide - energie - energiebesparing - verlichting - kunstlicht - kunstmatige verlichting - ventilatie - kunstmatige ventilatie - fluorescentie - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - protected cultivation - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - sensors - photosynthesis - carbon dioxide - energy - energy saving - lighting - artificial light - artificial lighting - ventilation - artificial ventilation - fluorescence - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum
    The basic process for crop growth and production is photosynthesis. Measuring crop photosynthesis is therefore important to monitor the status of the crop and whether the greenhouse climate is set to the needs of the crop. In this project, two monitoring systems for crop photosynthesis were developed and tested. (1) The crop photosynthesis monitor is a soft sensor that can calculate the CO2 uptake of an entire crop. The basis for these calculations are the balance between CO2 supply and CO2 loss via ventilation and crop photosynthesis. By measuring the CO2 concentration and humidity inside and outside the greenhouse, the crop photosynthesis can be calculated. (2) The CropObserver is a fluorescence sensor that measures the light use efficiency of photosynthesis of a large crop area (3 x 3 m2). The crop receives light pulses from a laser in the top of the greenhouse, the sensor measures the fluorescence signal of the crop. Both sensors were tested in a tomato crop in 2014 with promising results. The sensors functioned without problems and delivered patterns of daily photosynthesis which matched the reference measurements reasonably well up to well.
    Philosophising about The New Crop : 'Open crop can bring forward production and save energy'
    Gelder, Arie de - \ 2016
    horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables - tomatoes - plant development - crop production - energy saving - yields - leaf area - agricultural research

    Research into the extreme removal of leaves from tomato plants has yielded surprising results. Not only does it seem possible to bring forward production by removing extra leaves but it also saves energy. The challenge now will be to see if the results achieved in research units at Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture can be reproduced in practice

    2SaveEnergy-Gewächshaus- Produktion und Energieverbrauch
    Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Janse, J. - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1404) - 46
    greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - greenhouse technology - energy saving - energy consumption - isolation - isolation techniques - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum - glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - kastechniek - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - isolatie - isolatietechnieken - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum
    Energy savings through a greenhouse cover of insulation glass requires a large investment. In the search for a cheaper alternative by a consortium of companies consisting of VDH Plastic Greenhouses, Van der Valk Horti Systems, AGC Chemicals Europe en Boal Systems a Glass-Film-greenhouse cover, better known as the 2SaveEnergy greenhouse concept was realized in summer 2014. The combination of clear glass with a diffuse ETFE film and a double screen mounted at a distance of only a few centimetres, in the year 2015, resulted in a low energy consumption and a better than expected good tomato production. During cultivation, the principles of the new cultivation methods were used. With respect to the common practice, the energy consumption was more than 50% lower at a minimum equal production.
    Teelt en energie 2SaveEnergy kas
    Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Janse, J. - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1402) - 42
    glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - kastechniek - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - isolatie - isolatietechnieken - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - greenhouse technology - energy saving - energy consumption - isolation - isolation techniques - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum
    Energy savings through a greenhouse cover of insulation glass requires a large investment. In the search for a cheaper alternative by a consortium of companies consisting of VDH Plastic Greenhouses, Van der Valk Horti Systems, AGC Chemicals Europe en Boal Systems a Glass-Film-greenhouse cover, better known as the 2SaveEnergy greenhouse concept was realized in summer 2014. The combination of clear glass with a diffuse ETFE film and a double screen mounted at a distance of only a few centimetres, in the year 2015, resulted in a low energy consumption and a better than expected good tomato production. During cultivation, the principles of the new cultivation methods were used. With respect to the common practice, the energy consumption was more than 50% lower at a minimum equal production.
    ‘Controlled removal of moisture results in energy savings’ : energy balance highlights the losses
    Raaphorst, Marcel ; Zwart, Feije de - \ 2016
    horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - dehumidification - energy balance - energy saving

    By using a model to show the energy balance in a greenhouse you can see at a glance where the energy losses are likely to arise. Evaporation uses expensive energy and this rushes out the vents when a grower opens them to reduce the relative humidity. This can be done differently say Dutch researchers of Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture. The more uniform the greenhouse climate the more the relative humidity can be allowed to rise.

    Verhoging van energie-efficiency bij intensieve glastuinbouw productiesystemen : ontwikkeling van high-tech sensorsystemen voor monitoring en besturing van energiezuinige kassen: Fibre Bragg glasvezelsensoren
    Balendonck, J. ; Janssen, H.J.J. ; Zwart, H.F. de; Schriek, L. ; Toet, P. ; Bezemer, R.A. ; Ruijs, M.N.A. - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1392) - 78
    teelt onder bescherming - kasgewassen - kassen - intensieve productie - energiebesparing - sensors - temperatuur - relatieve vochtigheid - protected cultivation - greenhouse crops - greenhouses - intensive production - energy saving - sensors - temperature - relative humidity
    Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture and TNO conducted a study on the application of Fibre Bragg optic sensors to measure temperature and relative humidity in greenhouses at high spatial density. Sensors, incorporated in an experimental enclosure, were evaluated under practical conditions in a greenhouse at Bleiswijk (NL). Their performance appeared to be similar to that of existing wireless electronic sensors. In order to save energy when using their heating, growers may so obtain relative humidity at higher spatial density and grow at a higher average humidity level. Sensors indicate at an early stage if there is condensation and consequently a higher risk on diseases somewhere in the greenhouse. Rule of thumb is that every percent increase in the humidity will yield about 3.5% of energy or 1 m³ natural gas equivalents. In addition to energy saving, investing in a distributed monitoring network also has an economic advantage. Another advantage is that fiber-optic sensor networks can be extended to larger areas and with other sensor types at little more costs. However, little research and no practical experience is gained with fiber optic sensors in greenhouses. More research is still needed in order to arrive at a system ready for practice.
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