Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Hemp for textiles : plant size matters
    Westerhuis, W. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Tjeerd-Jan Stomph; Jan van Dam. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577879 - 234
    cannabis sativa - fibre plants - textile fibres - textiles - photoperiod - hemp - plant fibres - plant density - harvesting date - sowing date - biobased materials - cannabis sativa - vezelgewassen - textielvezels - textiel - fotoperiode - hennep - plantenvezels - plantdichtheid - oogsttijdstip - zaaitijd - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen

    Abstract

    Key words: Cannabis sativa L., day length sensitivity, fibre hemp, genotype, harvest time, plant density, plant weight, primary fibres, secondary fibres, sowing date, textiles.

    Westerhuis, W. (2016) Hemp for textiles: plant size matters, PhD thesis. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 234 pp. With English and Dutch summaries.

    Fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to cotton and synthetic fibres as a raw material for textile yarn production in the European Union. The agronomic options to manipulate plant development and crop growth with the aim to optimise hemp long fibre production were investigated. Field trials with factors sowing density, sowing date, harvest time and variety were conducted. Stems were traditionally processed by retting, drying, breaking, and scutching. Following standard protocols, almost 1500 hemp stem samples were analysed. Varieties differ widely in their fibre content, but this thesis shows that when variety and plant size are known, the amounts of fibres, wood, and retting losses are known. The dry weight of the stems at harvest, not the factors underlying this weight, are determinant. In retted stems the dry matter is split–up into fibres and wood in a fixed way. The options to manipulate this ratio by crop management, given variety, are very small and for practical reasons they can be neglected. In fibre hemp two bast fibre types occur. Primary or long fibres are valuable for yarn spinning. Secondary fibres are too short and their presence hampers the production of fine yarns. This thesis shows that the secondary fibre front height increases with plant weight. Although a causal relationship between secondary fibre formation and flowering does not exist, the secondary fibre front is found higher in flowering plants when compared to non–flowering plants of the same height. This is likely to be caused by the higher weight or momentum of flowering plants as compared with non–flowering plants of the same height. Consequently, a harvest before flowering is preferable. This was shown in a greenhouse experiment, in which the short–day response of hemp was used to create size ranges of flowering and non–flowering plants. To produce high–quality raw materials for textile production, short crops should be grown. The options to produce plants with the desired size are manifold. Since sowing density, sowing date, and harvest time do not have an additional effect on the primary fibre content besides the indirect effect through stem weight, any combination of these factors could be chosen to optimize plant size.

    Hennep in Europa
    Loo, E.N. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen UR, Plant Breeding
    vezelgewassen - hennep - agrarische geschiedenis - vezels - textiel - biobased economy - fibre plants - hemp - agricultural history - fibres - textiles - biobased economy
    Samenvatting van de geschiedenis van de hennepteelt en de hedendaagse mogelijkheden van hennep.
    Minder onkruiddruk van ongebruikte percelen
    Dalfsen, Pieter van - \ 2014
    biomass production - fibre plants - fuel crops - fodder crops - economic viability - weed control - biobased economy
    Met vlas naar een biobased economie: omgeving Enschede
    Coninx, I. ; Vries, E.A. de; Agricola, H.J. ; Doorn, A.M. van; Spijkerman, A. ; Elbersen, B.S. ; Kranendonk, R.P. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - 38
    vlas - vezelgewassen - olieleverende planten - twente - regionale ontwikkeling - regionale economie - karteringen - agro-industriële ketens - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - flax - fibre plants - oil plants - twente - regional development - regional economics - surveys - agro-industrial chains - biobased materials - biobased economy
    Al zoekende naar hernieuwbare grondstoffen om producten te ontwikkelen wordt duidelijk dat vlas heel wat potenties biedt. Een aantal partijen in en rondom Enschede is daar alvast van overtuigd en klaar voor de volgende stap: een biobased vlascluster ontwikkelen in omgeving Enschede. Het Ministerie van Economische Zaken is enthousiast over deze ambitie en wil met dit onderzoek de partijen een steun in de rug geven om de volgende stap te maken. Concreet is het onderzoek gericht op de volgende vragen: - Is het mogelijk om een schaalsprong te maken in vlasteelt in omgeving Enschede ten behoeve van de biobased productontwikkeling in de regio? - En zo ja, welke instrumenten kunnen daartoe ingezet worden? Over deze vragen bundelt deze notitie een grote hoeveelheid van beschikbare informatie om de partijen te helpen om tot focus te komen. Ook worden aanbevelingen gemaakt over de route die bewandeld kan worden om de biobased vlascluster te realiseren, zoals welke acties en projecten gerealiseerd moeten worden, alsook welke financieringsinstrumenten beschikbaar zijn om deze acties te realiseren. Ook geven we suggesties over een organisatiestructuur die deze vlascluster kan realiseren.
    Bamboo : Analyzing the potential of bamboo feedstock for the biobased economy
    Poppens, R.P. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2013
    NL Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs - 32
    bamboos - bambusa - applications - biobased economy - biobased materials - biobased chemicals - fibre plants - bamboes - bambusa - toepassingen - biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - vezelgewassen
    Bamboos are a large group of rapidly growing woody grasses, that can be sustainably managed in short-cycled harvesting schemes in many parts of the world. Bamboo stands can be managed by individual producers and its production does not require large investments. This makes bamboo an ideal crop for rural development, especially in developing countries. Bamboo plants are among the most versatile and widely utilized plants, with applications varying from edible shoots to soil protection and construction. Bamboo technical properties are also favorable for biobased applications, such as paper, bio-chemicals and bio-energy.
    Inkomensvergelijking vezelgewassen versus graan
    Wolf, P.L. de; Brink, L. van den; Spruijt, J. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten (PPO 518) - 13
    vlas - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - bedrijfseconomie - rendement - vezelgewassen - hennep - akkerbouw - biobased economy - subsidies - markteconomie - flax - farm income - business economics - returns - fibre plants - hemp - arable farming - biobased economy - subsidies - market economics
    In 2012 is de verwerkingssteun voor o.a. vezelvlas en vezelhennep volledig ontkoppeld. Dat betekent dat deze steun wordt omgezet in een vaste inkomenstoeslag voor de teler, die daarvoor niet langer verplicht is om vlas of vezelhennep te telen. Daardoor dreigt de teelt van vlas en vezelhennep het af te leggen tegen financieel aantrekkelijkere teelten. In dit onderzoek worden de financiële aspecten voor agrarische ondernemers berekend, om het ministerie van EL&I te informeren bij beleidsvorming. Omdat de beide teelten regionaal geconcentreerd zijn, wordt de vergelijking gemaakt voor vlasteelt in Zuidwest Nederland en voor vezelhennep voor het Noordoostelijk zand- en dalgebied.
    Deder-Camelina Sativa / Eiwit en oliepad
    PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
    camelina sativa - olieleverende planten - planten met oliehoudende zaden - vezelgewassen - voedergewassen - eiwitbronnen - gewassen - akkerbouw - biobased economy - camelina sativa - oil plants - oilseed plants - fibre plants - fodder crops - protein sources - crops - arable farming - biobased economy
    Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas deder. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
    Olievlas- Lunum usitatissimum / Eiwit en oliepad
    PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
    vlas - linum usitatissimum - olieleverende planten - planten met oliehoudende zaden - vezelgewassen - biobased economy - gewassen - akkerbouw - flax - linum usitatissimum - oil plants - oilseed plants - fibre plants - biobased economy - crops - arable farming
    Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas olievlas. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
    Gierst- Panicum Miliaceum / Eiwit en oliepad
    PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
    gierst - panicum miliaceum - graansoorten - voedselgewassen - vezelgewassen - gewassen - akkerbouw - biobased economy - millets - panicum miliaceum - cereals - food crops - fibre plants - crops - arable farming - biobased economy
    Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas gierst. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
    Oliehennep - Cannabis Sativa / Eiwit en oliepad
    PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
    hennep - cannabis sativa - olieleverende planten - planten met oliehoudende zaden - vezelgewassen - medicinale planten - voedergewassen - gewassen - akkerbouw - biobased economy - hemp - cannabis sativa - oil plants - oilseed plants - fibre plants - medicinal plants - fodder crops - crops - arable farming - biobased economy
    Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas Oliehennep. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
    Graansorghum-SorghumBicolor / Eiwit en oliepad
    PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
    sorghum bicolor - gewassen - graansoorten - voedselgewassen - voedergewassen - brandstofgewassen - vezelgewassen - akkerbouw - biobased economy - sorghum bicolor - crops - cereals - food crops - fodder crops - fuel crops - fibre plants - arable farming - biobased economy
    Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas Graansorghum. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
    Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 16 Fibres
    Brink, M. ; Achigan-Dako, E.G. - \ 2012
    Wageningen, Netherlands : PROTA Foundation/CTA (Plant resources of tropical Africa 16) - ISBN 9789290814818 - 602
    vezelgewassen - plantenvezels - soorten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantengeografie - plantenmorfologie - biologische naamgeving - taxonomie - plantenvermeerdering - tropisch afrika - fibre plants - plant fibres - species - plant genetic resources - phytogeography - plant morphology - biological nomenclature - taxonomy - propagation - tropical africa
    This volume deals with the fibres of Tropical Africa. 515 ‘primary use’ fibres are described in 248 review articles. Many of the articles are illustrated with a geographic distribution map and a line drawing of the habit.
    Research news : industrial fibre crops
    Dam, J.E.G. van - \ 2008
    vezelgewassen - verwerking - plantenvezels - biobased economy - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - fibre plants - processing - plant fibres - biobased economy - scientific research
    Poster met informatie over onderzoek dat de Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group (AFSG) van Wageningen UR uitvoert naar het gebruik van vezelgewassen.
    Annual fibre crop systems : EU ENFA project (SSPE-CT-2005-006581)
    Lips, S.J.J. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group
    fibre plants - agro-industrial chains - natural fibres - flax - hemp - kenaf - european union - biobased materials - biobased economy - environmental impact - vezelgewassen - agro-industriële ketens - natuurlijke vezels - vlas - hennep - kenaf - europese unie - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - milieueffect
    This report is the final report of WP26 on the annual fibre crops systems as studied in the EU ENFA project (SSPE-CT-2005-006581). The ENFA project aims to develop a dynamic agricultural and forest sector model for the integrated economic and environmental assessment of non-food alternatives in European agriculture and forestry. This report includes a description of fibre crop production chains of long and short fibres, as well as a market description of fibre crop products, with emphasis on flax, hemp and kenaf. Also environmental aspects of these chains and the regulations concerning fibre crops are addressed.
    Report of a Working Group on Fibre Crops (Flax and Hemp)
    Bas, N. ; Pavelek, M. ; Maggioni, L. ; Lipman, E. - \ 2007
    Rome, Italy : Bioversity International - 28
    genenbanken - vezelgewassen - vlas - hennep - databanken - plantenverzamelingen - gene banks - fibre plants - flax - hemp - databases - plant collections
    Members of the newly established ECPGR Working Group on Fibre Crops (Flax and Hemp), in the framework of Sugar, Starch and Fibre Crops Network, met for the first time at Wageningen, the Netherlands on 14–16 June 2006. Fifteen participants from the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Romania took part in the meeting to discuss flax and hemp national collection status reports as well as flax and hemp international databases development.
    Fytotoxiciteit, nematotoxiciteit, en microbiele stabiliteit van getorreficeerd gras
    Zoon, F.C. ; Kok, C.J. ; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 380) - 30
    groeimedia - plantenresten - grassen - phragmites - vezelgewassen - fytotoxiciteit - torrefactie - growing media - plant residues - grasses - phragmites - fibre plants - phytotoxicity - torrefaction
    Hemicellulose biosynthesis and degradation in tobacco cell walls
    Compier, M.G.M. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Jean-Paul Vincken. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789085042785 - 120
    nicotiana tabacum - tabak - hemicellulosen - biosynthese - degradatie - celwanden - xylaan - transgene planten - plantenveredeling - vezelgewassen - nicotiana tabacum - tobacco - fibre plants - xylan - hemicelluloses - cell walls - biosynthesis - degradation - transgenic plants - plant breeding
    Natural fibres have a wide range of technological applications, such as in paper and textile industries. The basic properties and the quality of plant fibres are determined by the composition of the plant cell wall. Characteristic for fibres are thick secondary cell walls, which consist of cellulose microfibrils in a matrix of lignin and hemicelluloses. The major hemicellulose component of the dicot secondary wall is xylan. This component can establish tight interactions with cellulose and covalent bonds with lignin and is thereby involved in strengthening of the wall. Since high amounts of hemicelluloses as well as lignins have a negative effect on the industrial processing of fibres, the development of plants with altered cell wall composition is of great value. This thesis focuses on modification of the hemicellulose (in particular xylan) content and thereby also the attachment of lignin in the cell wall.Different approaches to generate transgenically modified plants with altered xylan composition have been examined. (i) Decreasing the expression levels of putative xylan synthases, responsible for the polymerisation of the xylan backbone. (ii) Degradation of already deposited xylan polymers by the introduction of xylan degrading enzymes (xylanases). In our research, tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) is used as a model species, since it is widely used in fundamental cell wall research. Once interesting results are obtained in tobacco, technologies can be transferred into economically more important species, such as flax ( Linum usitatissimum ) and poplar ( Populus spp). 

    At the start of the work described in this thesis, genes involved in hemicellulose backbone biosynthesis were not identified yet. This favoured the use of a set of candidate genes, the cellulose synthase-like genes ( Csl s), which are generally suggested to be involved in the biosynthesis of the non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides. Plants contain at least eight families of Csl s ( CslA though H ), which all show the conserved motifs common to polymerizing β-glycosyltransferases. In order to investigate the function of six Csl families ( CslA , B , C , D , E and G )we introduced Inverted Repeat (IR) constructs, based on potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) Csl cDNA sequences into tobacco. If one of the Csl family members is coding for a xylan synthase, this strategy consequently provides us with transgenic tobacco plants with altered xylan levels.Sugar compositional analysis of cell wall material isolated from in vitro grown IR transformants revealed a reduction of xylose exclusively in the CslG transformants. These data led us to speculate about the involvement of CslG in xylan biosynthesis. Microscopic analysis of stem samples from mature CslG transformants revealed some very local effects like the multiplication of ray cells, enlargement of the size of vessels and the occurrence of abnormal fibres with thin walls and unusually high starch content. This result could indicate the tissue- or cell-type specificity of the CslG gene. Sugar compositional analyses of mature CslG plants were rather ambiguous and a second series of in vitro grown CslG transformants did not confirm the decrease of xylose that was observed during the initial screening. Additionally, the absence of tobacco CslG sequence information did not allow us to link the reduced xylose levels with altered CslG mRNA expression levels. Therefore, it required searching for tobacco CslG genes.We report the isolation of full length tobacco CslE and CslG cDNA sequences from a cDNA library, constructed from mRNAs isolated from a xylogenic suspension cell culture of tobacco. The proteins encoded by the NtCslE and NtCslG cDNA clones, contain eight putative transmembrane domains, alternating conserved and variable domains, and the processive glycosyltransferase signature. Southern blot analysis revealed that the tobacco CslEand CslG gene families consist of two to four and at least three genes, respectively. Gene expression studies in wild type tobacco tissues showed that CslE expression was highest in tissues associated with secondary wall biosynthesis, whereas CslG mRNA levels were highest in tissues undergoing primary wall formation. An involvement for CslG in xylan biosynthesis in tobacco, as indicated by the heterologous IR approach, is not supported by the gene expression analysis.

    Apart from modifying the xylan content by down regulation of putative xylan backbone synthesizing enzymes, a second strategy to generate transformants with altered xylan composition was applied. This strategy involved the specific degradation of the xylan polymers, which are already deposited in the cell wall, by the introduction of a xylanase. We describe the heterologous expression of AtXyn2 , a modular enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana , consisting of four contiguous CBM22 modules at the N-terminus, joined to a glycoside hydrolase Family 10 (GH10) catalytic domain, into tobacco. The full length AtXyn2 as well as a derivative, comprising the catalytic GH10 domain lacking the four CBMs, was ectopically expressed in tobacco.An N-terminal signal peptide and RGS×(HIS) 6 -tag mediatedtranslocation into the cell wall and detection of the protein. Although both transgenes were successfully expressed in tobacco, presence of the corresponding proteins could not be demonstrated. We speculate that this could be caused by removal of the RGS×(HIS) 6 -tag due to either post-translational processing of AtXyn2 in tobacco or due to cleavage of the epitope-tag by a tobacco protease. Our data showed that tobacco transformants, expressing the complete AtXyn2 protein, possessed a significantly higher wheat xylan and HE-cellulose degrading activity than wild type tobacco. This result indicated that AtXyn2 displays a dual hydrolytic activity towards specific β-1,4-linked xylans and glucans. Since the catalytic activity was inversely proportional to the AtXyn2 transcript level, we speculate that high amounts of AtXyn2, or released oligosaccharides, could result in a negative feedback mechanism and subsequent inactivation or degradation of the enzyme. The cellulose degrading activity of AtXyn2 appeared to be even higher than the xylan degrading activity. This raises the question whether AtXyn2 should be considered as a cellulase instead of a xylanase. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the truncated AtXyn2 protein did not show an altered hydrolytic activity against any of the substrates tested. It can therefore be concluded that the presence of the CBM22 domains adjacent to the catalytic module seems to play an essential role in the enzyme activity.Based on our results and additional information found in literature, we propose a model, which might explain the regulation of AtXyn2 activity in the plant cell wall. This model suggests that the CBM22 domains are responsible for immobilization of the enzyme in proximity of the substrate and for correct folding and stability of the protein. The enzyme activity is in turn suggested to be regulated by post-translational cleavage by an endoprotease.   

    The thesis is concluded with a general discussion on the outcome of the different approaches to generate tobacco transformants with reduced xylan content. Although both approaches initially seemed to be very promising, we were not successful in altering the xylan level in the cell wall. The drawbacks related to the down regulation of Csl candidate genes are discussed. Alternative approaches are therefore essential to identify xylan synthases and to modulate the xylan content in the cell wall. Various strategies to identify and characterise genes involved in hemicellulose biosynthesis are discussed. The heterologous expression of AtXyn2 was expected to result in a reduction of the xylan level in the cell wall. However, the dual substrate activity and the regulation of AtXyn2 activity, make this enzyme less suitable for reduction of the xylan content. Heterologous expression of well-studied microbial xylanases could be a suitable alternative to degrade xylan polymers in planta
    Vezelvlassector in opmars
    Stokkers, R. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Waal, B.H.C. van der - \ 2005
    Agri-monitor (2005)5. - ISSN 1383-6455
    vlas - vezelgewassen - linum usitatissimum - agrarische economie - biobased economy - flax - fibre plants - linum usitatissimum - agricultural economics - biobased economy
    Ondanks de stijgende vraag naar vlasvezels blijft de groei van de Nederlandse vezelvlassector achter bij landen als België en Frankrijk. Relatief hoge kosten van grond en arbeid zijn de belangrijkste knelpunten. Oplossingsrichtingen, zoals samenwerking binnen de sector en promotie van vlasproducten, kunnen de positie van de Nederlandse vezelvlassector verbeteren
    Product development from renewable resources : agro-food chain entering construction market
    Dam, J.E.G. van - \ 2005
    Sustainable Building 1 (2005)1. - ISSN 1568-2919 - p. 22 - 25.
    bouwmaterialen - natuurlijke vezels - productontwikkeling - vervangbare hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - vezelgewassen - biobased economy - building materials - natural fibres - product development - renewable resources - sustainability - fibre plants - biobased economy
    For a long time, building with materials of organic origin apart from wood, was not seen as suitable for mainstream construction. However, recent developments in research and technology have provided scientific insight into performance and led to the development of professional products for the construction industry. Production facilities are being built and new products introduced onto the market. However, there are many more options available which should be investigated, as discussed by Jan van Dam.
    Vezelvlassector in opmars; Een analyse van de belangrijkste knelpunten en oplossingsrichtingen
    Stokkers, R. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Waal, B.H.C. van der - \ 2005
    onbekend : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 2, Bedrijfsontwikkeling en concurrentiepositie ) - ISBN 9789052429694 - 66
    agrarische economie - landbouwsector - vlas - verwerking - industrie - marktconcurrentie - innovaties - nederland - frankrijk - belgië - vezelgewassen - biobased economy - agricultural economics - agricultural sector - flax - processing - industry - market competition - innovations - netherlands - france - belgium - fibre plants - biobased economy
    Onderzoek naar de concurrentiepositie van de Nederlandse vlassector ten opzichte van België en Frankrijk. Met behulp van een SWOT-analyse worden de sterke en zwakke punten van en de kansen en bedreigingen voor de Nederlandse vlasteelt en -verwerking in kaart gebracht. Door de middel van een confrontatie van deze sterke en zwakke punten met de kansen en bedreigingen zijn oplossingen ontwikkeld en vertaald in concrete acties om de concurrentiekracht van de Nederlandse vlassector te verbeteren. This is the report of an investigation into the competitiveness of the Dutch flax industry relative to Belgium and France. By means of a SWOT analysis, we have mapped out the strengths and weaknesses of the Dutch flax growing and processing industry, its opportunities and the threats that it faces. By means of a confrontation between these strengths and weaknesses on the one hand and the opportunities and threats on the other, we have developed solutions are developed and translated them into concrete actions to improve the competitiveness of the Dutch flax industry.
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