Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Microcredit to women and its contribution to production and household food security
    Namayengo, Mayanja Muyonga Faith - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): G. Antonides, co-promotor(en): J.A.C. van Ophem. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431101 - 235
    credit - women - agricultural production - food security - crop production - animal production - household income - household budgets - food supply - uganda - krediet - vrouwen - landbouwproductie - voedselzekerheid - gewasproductie - dierlijke productie - gezinsinkomen - huishoudbudgetten - voedselvoorziening - uganda

    The contents of this dissertation are based on a quantitative and qualitative survey that was conducted to assess the contribution of microcredit access of women to production and household food security status, and the factors associated with enterprise performance and food security outcomes. In order to do so four main issues were addressed: (a) assessment of the borrowing context and the match or mismatch between lender and borrower goals and objectives; (b) the extent to which taking microcredit affected business input expenditures and performance of non-farm MEs; (c) the extent to which taking microcredit affected production input expenditures and outputs from farming activities; (d) the changes in household food security associated with microcredit.

    The study was conducted among female microcredit clients of BRAC, one of the largest micro lenders in Uganda. The overall study design was a panel approach, involving two waves of data collection. In one analytical approach, baseline data for a group of existing borrowers (Old borrowers=OB) and incoming borrowers (New borrowers=NB) before they received their first loan, was used in a quasi-experimental cross-sectional design to assess the effect of borrowing as the difference between the two groups using propensity score matching (PSM).

    In an alternative approach, two waves of data for the NB and a control group (CG) of women who never borrowed from BRAC or other MFI, was subjected to difference-in-difference analysis (DID), with Kernel matching, to assess differences between borrowers and non-borrowers.

    We found that BRAC reaches poor, less educated subsistence farmers who also run diverse non-farm microenterprises (MEs). The group-lending model BRAC uses is effective in ensuring loan repayment. However, much as BRAC gives out production loans, many women borrow to meet lump-sum monetary needs, in addition to investment in non-farm MEs. High costs of borrowing, limited loan amounts, the stress caused by weekly loan repayment and resolution of lump-sum cash needs were identified as reasons for women to stop borrowing. The diversion of loans to non-production activities, the size and types of businesses, and loan terms and processes were identified and factors that could diminish the contribution of microcredit to ME expansion and income increase.

    Assessment of the effect of borrowing on non-farm ME performance revealed that much as borrowers invested reasonable fractions of received loans into non-farm MEs leading to improvement in monetary worth, the borrowing context, loan repayment terms, type and size of microenterprises did favour higher profits.

    In regard to farm production, borrowing did not lead to extra recurrent crop and animal production expenditures. The prevailing subsistence nature of crop and animal production did not seem to favour extra investment. As such, borrowing did not improve household food availability, through own production.

    Assessment of the effect of borrowing on household food security revealed a decline in food security following the uptake of microcredit. The analysis reveals robustly lower dietary diversity among long-time borrowers than among new borrowers, and larger reductions in dietary diversity scores among new borrowers, after one year, compared to controls. The reduction in dietary diversity was traced to a reduction in animal-source food, fruit and sugar intake. This was partly explained by observation of an apparent shift from own production to reliance on food purchase by households, which is not accompanied by substantial increase in income.

    Overall, we found that taking microcredit did not lead to improved farm and non-farm production or food security among the rural women borrowers studied. This was mainly attributed to nature of activities the women engage in, the loan terms and processes, and the local context the women operate under.

    Towards an inclusive and sustainable economy
    Meijl, Hans van; Ruben, Ruerd ; Reinhard, Stijn - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 44
    food security - food supply - food production - sustainable agriculture - sustainable development - biobased economy - agro-industrial chains - economic development - voedselzekerheid - voedselvoorziening - voedselproductie - duurzame landbouw - duurzame ontwikkeling - biobased economy - agro-industriële ketens - economische ontwikkeling
    One of the major challenges facing global society today is the provision of food, water, energy, healthcare and other resources & services in a world characterised by increasing population, mounting environmental stresses and rising inequality. There is a need for circular and resilient food systems which close material flow loops in the entire supply chain from farm ers to consumers and back. This should be done in a resource-efficient manner that includes all relevant actors. This position paper summarises insights by Hans van Meijl, Stijn Reinhard and Ruerd Ruben from Wageningen Economic Research into what has been dubbed the inclusive and sustainable economy. Therefore, five overarching challenges, five scoping issues, and five beneficial economic principles are discussed. In addition, the authors formulate five key insights regarding feasible policy strategies and attempt to contribute to the analysis of leverage points relevant to upscaling and to anchoring market innovations that sustain sustainable and inclusive agri-food systems.
    Landbouwecoloog Pablo Tittonell ziet geen noodzaak voedselproductie te vedubbelen "kleinschalige landbouw voedt halve wereld"
    Tittonell, Pablo - \ 2016
    food supply - agricultural production - sustainability - small farms - world
    Smaakfestijn Slowfood 2016
    Bas, Noortje - \ 2016
    grain legumes - vegetable legumes - gene banks - legumes - agro-biodiversity - domestication - habitats - food supply - climatic change
    Diversiteit in peulvruchten : op je bord en in de vriezer
    Perspectieven voor kastuinbouw als duurzaamheidssprong in tropen : Low-tech kas in Rwanda leerproject voor bedrijfsleven
    Elings, Anne - \ 2016
    horticulture - protected cultivation - tropics - rwanda - research projects - vegetables - tomatoes - food supply - agricultural education

    Het Nederlands bedrijfsleven en kennisinstellingen zijn betrokken bij het kastuinbouwproject Smart Horticulture Rwanda. Anne Elings van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw hoopt op kansen voor de tuinbouwtoeleveranciers.

    An updated generic architecture describingcompliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains : (D1.2.3)
    Kruize, J.W. ; Robbemond, R.M. ; Verwaart, T. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-061) - ISBN 9789462578289 - 21
    agro-industrial chains - food chains - food supply - computer software - efficiency - business economics - agro-industriële ketens - voedselketens - voedselvoorziening - computer software - efficiëntie - bedrijfseconomie
    In this report a generic architecture is presented comprising an inventory of the most important actors, roles, processes and information that are relevant in the processes of standardisation, certification and compliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains. This architecture becomes part of an architectural framework. The architectural framework aims to reduce the paper -based administration by improving digitalisation of compliance processes and to enable a more efficient and effective data exchange in the field of compliance.
    Sustainability metrics for agri-food supply chains
    Gaitán Cremaschi, D. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Frits van Evert; Miranda Meuwissen. - Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578012 - 244
    food supply - food chains - agro-industrial chains - sustainability - western europe - vietnam - voedselvoorziening - voedselketens - agro-industriële ketens - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - west-europa - vietnam

    Enhancing sustainability in food production requires knowledge about the economic, environmental and social performance of the various stages of agri-food supply chains. An integrated indicator can provide synthetized information about the extent to which food products are sustainably produced and can guide sustainability improvements. The overall objective of this thesis was to perform integrated assessments of relative sustainability performance of (stages of) agri-food supply chains using integrated indicators. To achieve the overall objective this thesis first developed a theoretical framework for benchmarking agri-food supply chains in terms of their relative sustainability performance. Two integrated indicators were proposed, i.e. the Social Profit indicator that integrates sustainability performance indicators using prices and the Technical Inefficiency indicator that uses distance functions. Next, the Social Profit indicator was illustrated for Brazilian soybean meal chains: non-genetically modified (non-GM) and genetically modified (GM) chains. Further, relative sustainability performance (economic and environmental) of specialized potato farms in Germany and the Netherlands was assessed using both the Social Profit indicator and the Technical Inefficiency indicator. Finally, an alternative approach, the Nerlovian Social Profit Inefficiency indicator, was used for the assessment of relative sustainability performance of coffee farms in Vietnam. The results of this thesis suggests that the three proposed integrated indicators can be used in different socio-economic and environmental contexts to capture the multidimensional nature of relative agri-food supply chain sustainability. Their implementation helps to overcome some of the limitations of the single-issue and composite indicators that are commonly used in sustainability assessments such as incommensurability, subjectivity and comparability. The indicators provide information that can be used by businesses, stakeholders and policy makers to identify opportunities for relative sustainability performance improvements of agri-food supply chains.

    Keywords: Total Factor Productivity, Total Price Recovery, technical inefficiency, agri-food supply chain, externality, social profit.

    'Duurzame voedselvoorziening onmogelijk zonder veehouderij'
    Boer, I.J.M. de; Kernebeek, H.R.J. van - \ 2015
    food supply - sustainability - livestock farming - food consumption - life cycle assessment - land use - animal protein

    Voor optimaal landgebruik is matige consumptie van dierlijk eiwit vereist. Bij een hoge populatiedruk is een veganistische dieet net zo min mogelijk als een dieet met veel dierlijk eiwit. Het aandeel dierlijke producten in het dieet is bij hoge populatiedruk afhankelijk van het aandeel van marginaal land in de beschikbare grond. Zo luidden de conclusies van de lezing van prof. Imke de Boer op een studiedag van FrieslandCampina eerder dit jaar.

    Geëcologiseerde samenleving versus arme mensen
    Gils, S.H. van; Vet, L.E.M. - \ 2015
    Vork 2 (2015)4. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 22 - 29.
    voedselvoorziening - voedselzekerheid - milieueffect - meerlagenteelt - alternatieve landbouw - voedselproductie - agro-ecologie - boeren - inkomen van landbouwers - food supply - food security - environmental impact - multi-layer cultivation - alternative farming - food production - agroecology - farmers - farmers' income
    Niemand weet hoeveel milieubelasting de aarde precies kan hebben, maar een ecologische crisis van ongekende proporties ligt voortdurend op de loer, stellen Stijn van Gils en Louise Vet. Ze pleiten voor radicale veranderingen in de maatschappij. Zo’n ‘geëcologiseerde samenleving’ is volgens hen niet alleen goed voor de aarde, het geeft ook nieuw economisch perspectief. Ralf Bodelier vindt echter dat de ecologen Vet en Van Gils te weinig rekening houden met miljarden armen.
    De permanente groene revolutie van Swaminathan
    Fresco, L.O. ; Rabbinge, R. - \ 2015
    Vork 2 (2015)3. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 66 - 71.
    green revolution - genetic engineering - human feeding - hunger - food supply - scientific research - scientists - society - fertilizers - pesticides - environmental impact - india - netherlands - potatoes - wheat - groene revolutie - genetische modificatie - humane voeding - honger - voedselvoorziening - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - wetenschappers - samenleving - kunstmeststoffen - pesticiden - milieueffect - india - nederland - aardappelen - tarwe
    Het weekblad Time kwalificeerde hem als een van de twintig meest invloedrijke Aziaten van de twintigste eeuw: ‘The father of the Green Revolution used his skills in genetic engineering and his powers of persuasion to make famine an unfamiliar word in Asia’. Tegelijkertijd wees hij al vroeg op de gevaren van een te grote afhankelijkheid van kunstmest en bestrijdingsmiddelen en milieugevolgen daarvan. Dr. Monkombu Sambasivan Swaminathan is een fervent pleitbezorger van de Evergreen Revolution, de permanente groene revolutie. Op 7 augustus werd hij 90 jaar. Louise Fresco en Rudy Rabbinge schetsen zijn enorme betekenis voor wetenschap en samenleving.
    Sustainable Urban Food Provisioning : Policy Brief
    Dubbeling, Marielle ; Wiskerke, J.S.C. ; Moschitz, Heidrun - \ 2015
    urban agriculture - urban areas - participation - food supply - stadslandbouw - stedelijke gebieden - participatie - voedselvoorziening
    Food is an integral part of the urban agenda Growing urbanisation and food insecurity, rising food prices, climate change impacts and resource depletion, have all prompted cities and citizens around the world to develop policy and programmes for more sustainable resilient urban food provisioning.
    Developing the Rotterdam City Region Food System: acting and thinking at the same time
    Schans, J.W. van der - \ 2015
    Urban Agriculture Magazine (2015)29. - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 14 - 17.
    regional food chains - food supply - urban development - rotterdam - urban agriculture - supply chain management - food policy - regionale voedselketens - voedselvoorziening - stadsontwikkeling - rotterdam - stadslandbouw - ketenmanagement - beleid inzake voedsel
    The city region of Rotterdam is located in the western part of the Netherlands, bordering the North Sea. It contains the municipality of Rotterdam and several neighbouring municipalities, with about 1.2 million inhabitants. Rotterdam hosts Europe’s largest sea port as well as a large (inland-oriented) river port. Shipped through the ports into Europe (by barge, rail or lorry) are goods including food (e.g., exotic fruits and vegetables, juices, rapeseed and palm oil) and feed products (soybeans, grains, tapioca).
    Green vegetable supply in Dar es Salaam
    Wegerif, M.C.A. - \ 2015
    Urban Agriculture Magazine (2015)29. - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 65 - 67.
    farmers - farmers' income - livelihoods - urban agriculture - food supply - vegetables - rural urban relations - tanzania - peasant farming - boeren - inkomen van landbouwers - middelen van bestaan - stadslandbouw - voedselvoorziening - groenten - relaties tussen stad en platteland - tanzania - landbouw bedrijven in het klein
    This article constructs a picture of green vegetable growing and supply in Dar es Salaam by looking at the lives and work of a small trader and an urban farmer. It reveals the importance of a range of distribution and trade networks and the integration of a wider city region, alongside urban and periurban production, for the large-scale supply of these vegetables to urban eaters. The livelihood benefit for the many actors involved is clear as are some of the threats emerging as the city changes.
    Paniek over Peak Food
    Koning, N.B.J. - \ 2015
    Vork 2 (2015)2. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 10 - 15.
    voedselproductie - voedselconsumptie - voedselzekerheid - voedselvoorziening - hulpbronnen - landbouw - agrarische economie - food production - food consumption - food security - food supply - resources - agriculture - agricultural economics
    Het kon niet uitblijven. De groei van de voedselproductie stagneert en na Peak Oil dreigt nu Peak Food. Onzin, vindt Niek Koning, die zogenaamde peak is een van de toppen in een langjarige golfbeweging op de landbouwmarkten. Toch zijn er genoeg redenen om je zorgen te maken over de wereldvoedselvoorziening en is het hoog tijd voor een aanpak die verder gaat dan gemakzuchtig marktdenken of biologische alternatiefjes.
    How does the fruit and vegetable sector contribute to food and nutrition security?
    Joosten, F.J. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. ; Sertse, Y. ; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2015
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 2015-076) - 57
    voedselzekerheid - fruit - groenten - landbouwsector - tuinbouw - geslacht (gender) - voedselvoorziening - ontwikkelingslanden - food security - fruit - vegetables - agricultural sector - horticulture - gender - food supply - developing countries
    The Dutch Food & Business Knowledge Platform (F&BKP) commissioned an explorative study regarding the existing knowledge base from development practice and research about the potential of the Fruit and Vegetables (F&V) sector to contribute to Food & Nutrition Security (FNS) in the context of (a) sustainable development (i.e. economic, social, ecological and gender equity) and (b) the Dutch international cooperation agenda (i.e. combining aid, trade and investments). The outcome of this explorative study is reflected in this document. The findings and recommendations in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Food & Business Knowledge Platform.
    Alternative Food Networks (AFNs) in Calabria : a sociological exploration of interaction dynamics
    amico, S. D' - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke; G. Gulisano, co-promotor(en): Bettina Bock; Stefano Pascucci. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572713 - 269
    voedsel - sociale netwerken - gemeenschappen - voedselvoorziening - voedselgroepen - consumenten - participatie - boeren - markten - landbouw - calabrië - italië - food - social networks - communities - food supply - food groups - consumers - participation - farmers - markets - agriculture - calabria - italy

    This thesis aims to advance the understanding of identities and roles of Alternative Food Networks (AFNs). It focusses on AFNs which operate in contexts where traditional aspects are still dominant within the local agrifood systems, and which act on both food provisioning and raising awareness about civic issues. This research examines the identities and roles of AFNs by shedding light on the dynamics of the organisation and implementation of their activities. For this, the thesis firstly adapts a theoretical and methodological framework – Interaction Ritual (IR) theory - for the investigation of social phenomena, starting by unveiling the functioning of their internal dynamics; secondly, it operationalises and applies the selected theoretical and methodological framework in order to analyse GAS M which is a case of an AFN. Namely it is a case of ‘Gruppo di Acquisto Solidale’ (Solidarity Purchasing Group - GAS).

    Below the main contributions and recommendations of this research are synthesised.

    1) This research contributes to the body of knowledge on AFNs by generating insight into the identity of an AFN which operates in a context of a traditional agrifood system, attributes to both consumers and consumer-based civil society organisations leading roles, and works on both food provisioning and activities of civic relevance. The research demonstrates that the identity of GAS M is not clearly defined. Instead, it is continuously re-shaped in response to the varying combination of material and civic activities and interests. The mentioned activities and interests attract different groups of people. It is especially the small group that manages GAS M that is interested in civic activities. Often people in this group choose the organisational arrangements that are in line with their interests so their interests override other people’s interests. GAS M is undergoing a process of ideological and material selection which, together with the pre-eminence of civic interests, has three main implications: a) the equity of the food provisioning system recreated by GAS M is reduced; b) its role as a creator of occasions where producers and consumers can satisfy their needs of buying and selling products with specific physical features is reduced. Furthermore, while its role in building community and creating spaces for socialising and learning is supported, it only reaches people sharing certain interests; c) the durability of GAS M and its likelihood of expansion are limited.

    2) The second result and contribution of this research is theoretical and methodological.

    First of all, the study contributes to refining IR theory. It represents a first attempt to apply the IR model in a study of AFN activities. The research reinterprets IR theory in an explorative and strictly dynamic-centred way. It operationalises the guidelines of IR theory for the collection and analysis of data that result naturally from normal everyday AFN interactions. Furthermore, this approach provides analytical tools to ascertain the intensity of AFNs’ activities, what attracts attention in these activities, which sort of attention, and what its significance is. 

    Secondly, this research has contributed towards advancing the existing body of research into AFN dynamics. Previous studies have focussed on processes of negotiating meaning in order to understand AFN identities and roles. Following IR theory, this research goes beyond the negotiation of meaning by analysing not only the content of interaction but also its intensity. In doing so the study shows not only which issues influence AFN identities and roles, but also which activities play an important role. In addition, the study provides insight into the dynamics of power and inclusivity in AFN interaction that is, among others, reflected in decision making about activities. Unlike previous studies which have looked into these questions by interviewing actors and relying on their rationalisations, this study explores these questions through the analysis of normal every day activities and interactions, and what is also being indicated as ‘natural data’. In this way, this research contributes to overcoming actors’ personal preferences and ideas, which may bias their rationalisations about these matters.

    3) Finally, this research gives some recommendations for further research. It advises to study more cases of AFN in order to check to what extent the results of this case-study may be generalizable.  Furthermore, it offers some inputs on how the approach can be used so as to consider a broader variety of cases in the analysis. Secondly, this research invites future researchers look into what influences the intensity of AFNs’ activities and contributes to their stabilisation, and to explore the causal relationship between civic and material activities and interests.


    Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables
    Waldhauer, N. ; Broek, W.H.A.M. van den; Soethoudt, J.M. ; Boerrigter, H.A.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1548) - ISBN 9789462574038 - 15
    hydrocultuur - voedselzekerheid - verliezen na de oogst - internationale samenwerking - proefprojecten - kosten-batenanalyse - egypte - voedselvoorziening - hydroponics - food security - postharvest losses - international cooperation - pilot projects - cost benefit analysis - egypt - food supply
    This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the improvement of food security in Egypt in general and the reduction of post-harvest losses in particular.
    Stadslandbouw in kantoorpanden: Optie of utopie?
    Spruijt, J. ; Jansma, J.E. ; Vermeulen, T. ; Haan, J.J. de; Sukkel, W. - \ 2015
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO Rapport 623) - 33
    stadslandbouw - utrecht - kantoren - voedselproductie - voedselvoorziening - industrieterreinen - onderzoeksprojecten - teeltsystemen - cultuurmethoden - urban agriculture - utrecht - offices - food production - food supply - industrial sites - research projects - cropping systems - cultural methods
    In potentie zou stadslandbouw leegstaande kantoorgebouwen een nieuwe bestemming kunnen geven. Op papier zijn er volop kansen: veel leegstand, productieruimte dicht bij stedelijke afzetmarkt, maatschappelijke belangstelling voor lokale producten en beschikbaarheid van geavanceerde teelttechnieken (LED, aquaponics). Uit verschillende hoeken (o.a. Provinciale Staten Utrecht en de gemeenteraad van Nieuwegein) komt de vraag of stadslandbouw leegstaande kantoren en industrieterreinen inderdaad weer een duurzame, productieve en maatschappelijke bestemming kan geven. Hoofdvraag voor de provincie Utrecht is: is stadslandbouw een substantieel alternatief voor leegstaande kantoorgebouwen? Het rapport richt zich op de plantaardige productie (incl. biobased productie), aquacultuur en de kweek van insecten, omdat hiervan de meeste expertise is en omdat deze vormen van stadslandbouw maatschappelijk geaccepteerd zijn. Benutting van daken, (buiten-) wanden of buitenruimten van gebouwen voor landbouw krijgt beperkt aandacht in deze studie.
    Innoveerkracht 2014: Jan Willem van der Schans, Wageningen UR
    Schans, J.W. van der - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    stadslandbouw - voedselproductie - voedselketens - innovaties - duurzaamheid (durability) - voedselvoorziening - urban agriculture - food production - food chains - innovations - durability - food supply
    Jan-Willem van der Schans geeft een presentatie over het voedselvraagstuk en wat we hier aan kunnen doen? Elk jaar verliest de wereld bijna een derde van haar voedsel. Zijn voedselsystemen te ontwikkelen die effectiever en efficiënter zijn? Welke maatregelen kunnen waar in de keten (van landbouw en oogst, tot verwerking, distributie en consumptie) worden genomen? Jan Willem van de Schans zijn kijk op het voedselvraagstuk en gaat met het publiek in discussie.
    'Wie zegt eigenlijk dat de voedselproductie moet verdubbelen?'
    Tittonell, Pablo - \ 2014
    food production - food security - food consumption - eating patterns - food supply - agricultural production - agricultural production systems

    Grootschalige intensieve landbouw gaat de wereld niet voeden, stelt Pablo Tittonell, sinds vorig jaar hoogleraar Farming Systems Ecology aan de Wageningen Universiteit. Het model dat na de oorlog is ontwikkeld in Nederland en West- Europa is niet houdbaar en zeker niet geschikt om naar andere landen te exporteren. Joost van Kasteren interviewt hem.

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