Is there life after hype for Jatropha? Exploring growth and yield in Indonesia
Tjeuw, Juliana - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K.E. Giller; M. van Noordwijk, co-promotor(en): M.A. Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431927 - 223
fuel crops - jatropha curcas - crop yield - new crops - feasibility studies - indonesia - cultural methods - cultivation - disincentives - biobased economy - cropping systems - intercropping - brandstofgewassen - jatropha curcas - gewasopbrengst - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - haalbaarheidsstudies - indonesië - cultuurmethoden - teelt - belemmeringen - biobased economy - teeltsystemen - tussenteelt
Jatropha curcas L. is a biofuel crop that has not lived up to expectations due to a combination of hype and disappointment and biophysical factors. This PhD thesis is based on the plant production component of the JARAK programme which aimed to bridge the gap between truth and fiction. This study reviewed the jatropha hype and disappointment and further investigated the hypothesis that jatropha growth and yield are limited by biophysical factors of plant characteristics, cropping systems, and management. My review of the hype and disappointment shows that despite the high expectations fuelled by market pull and technology push, and numerous actors, the commercial potential for jatropha is limited by policy and governance, economics, social, technology, logistical, and environmental. A study of the biophysical components confirms that no current varieties suited to different cropping systems and locations are available. Jatropha aboveground biomass is partitioned predominantly into a structure of stem, branches, and twigs. The below to aboveground biomass ratio was 0.5 and fruit which was found only on productive twigs accounted for the smallest portion of biomass measured. Seed yields were disappointingly small (109 kg ha-1) and were largest in monoculture, followed by intercropping and hedgerows in that order, although yields were influenced by age and management of pruning and fertiliser. Seed yield across the three cropping systems can be predicted using plant height and the number of productive twig/branch, although the number of inflorescence clusters per productive twig may be important. Intercropping between jatropha and maize (Zea mays L.) resulted in competition for resources both belowground and aboveground that reduced maize yields. Shoot pruning was effective in managing aboveground competition, while root pruning and root barriers effectively managed competition belowground. Leaf prunings provided a limited, but positive fertility effect on maize yield comparable to 21 kg N ha-1. Jatropha - maize intercropping has potential for long-term productivity provided management practices such as fertiliser, pruning, and planting density can be developed to minimise competition and enhance complementarity. Based on my review of the jatropha hype and disappointment and my biophysical research results, the planting of jatropha by smallholders, or as a plantation crop cannot be recommended. Once the issues I highlight have been resolved and market confidence restored, jatropha may finally become a commercial source of biodiesel able to provide improved socio-economic and environmental benefits.
Samenstelling van blad, stengel en rhizomen in relatie tot optimaal oogst-tijdstip van Miscanthus x giganteus
Kasper, G.J. ; Kolk, J.C. van der; Putten, J.C. van der - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1022) - 27
brandstofgewassen - biobased economy - miscanthus - grassen - oogsttijdstip - gewasopbrengst - akkerbouw - plantensamenstelling - suikergehalte - lignine - pectinen - droge stof - koolhydraten - stengels - wortelstokken - fuel crops - biobased economy - miscanthus - grasses - harvesting date - crop yield - arable farming - plant composition - sugar content - lignin - pectins - dry matter - carbohydrates - stems - rhizomes
A plurality of components (such as sugars, lignin, pectin) of Miscanthus x giganteus has been studied in stem, leaf, and rhizomes for the harvest times July and January in view of the optimal harvest time. Additional literature search shows that the end of October is the optimum time for harvesting on the basis of the maximum above-ground dry matter yield and sugar yield, and dry matter yield in the next year. It will have to be investigated whether the optimal harvest time also applies to long-term research.
Assessing the case for sequential cropping to produce low ILUC risk biomethane : final report
Peters, Daan ; Zabeti, Masoud ; Kühner, Ann-Kathri ; Spöttle, Matthias ; Werf, Wopke van der; Stomph, Jan - \ 2016
Utrecht : ECOFYS Netherlands - 39
methane - biofuels - sequential cropping - farmers' associations - biogas - ancillary enterprises - farm management - agricultural energy production - transport - biobased economy - fuel crops - biomass production - methaan - biobrandstoffen - estafetteteelt - boerenorganisaties - biogas - nevenactiviteiten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - energieproductie in de landbouw - transport - biobased economy - brandstofgewassen - biomassa productie
In recent years and especially since the COP - 21 climate agreement reached in Paris last year, efforts to mitigate climate change accelerate. All sectors need to contribute in order to achieve the well below 2 degree climate target. The agricultural sector is relevant for climate change in various ways. Like the agricultural sector, the transport sector is also responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Advanced biofuels and biogas produced from wastes and residues can play an increasingly important role in the transport mix. In Italy, 600 Italian farmers are organised in the Italian Biogas Council (Consorzio Italiano Biogas e Gassificazione, CIB). Some years ago, CIB members developed a concept that they coined Biogasdoneright. In collaboration with various research institutes they seeked for a way to combine biogas feedstock production with crop production for food and feed as a way to generate additional income in a sustainable manner. The core of the Biogasdoneright concept is that farmers apply sequential cropping by growing a winter cover crop on land that was previously fallow during winter time, while maintaining the main crop production during summer time as previously. Multiple claims can be made about Biogasdoneright, for example related to the large potential role for biogas in our future energy system. This project focussed on the most relevant claims related to the use of biomethane in transport, with a focus on sustainability aspects.
Targets and tools for optimizing lignocellulosic biomass quality of miscanthus
Weijde, R.T. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Luisa Trindade; Oene Dolstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578388 - 231
miscanthus - bioethanol - biomass - biofuels - lignocellulose - fuel crops - plant breeding - cell walls - cell wall components - genetic diversity - genetic variation - biomass conversion - biobased economy - miscanthus - bioethanol - biomassa - biobrandstoffen - lignocellulose - brandstofgewassen - plantenveredeling - celwanden - celwandstoffen - genetische diversiteit - genetische variatie - biomassaconversie - biobased economy
Miscanthus is a perennial energy grass characterized by a high productivity and resource-use efficiency, making it an ideal biomass feedstock for the production of cellulosic biofuels and a wide range of other biobased value-chains. However, the large-scale commercialization of converting biomass into cellulosic biofuel is hindered by our inability to efficiently deconstruct the plant cell wall. The plant cell wall is a complex and dynamic structure and its components are extensively cross-linked into an unyielding matrix. The production of biofuel depends on the extraction, hydrolysis and fermentation of cell wall polysaccharides, which currently requires energetically and chemically intensive processing operations that negatively affect the economic viability and sustainability of the industry. To address this challenge it is envisioned that the bioenergy feedstocks can be compositionally tailored to increase the accessibility and extractability of cell wall polysaccharides, which would allow a more efficient conversion of biomass into biofuel under milder processing conditions.
Extensive phenotypic and genetic diversity in cell wall composition and conversion efficiency was observed in different miscanthus species, including M. sinensis, M. sacchariflorus and interspecific hybrids between these two species. In multiple experiments a twofold increase in the release of fermentable sugars was observed in ‘high quality’ accessions compared to ‘low quality’ accessions. The exhaustive characterization of eight highly diverse M. sinensis genotypes revealed novel and distinct breeding targets for different bioenergy conversion routes. The key traits that contributed favourably to the conversion efficiency of biomass into biofuel were a high content of hemicellulosic polysaccharides, extensive cross-linking of hemicellulosic polysaccharides (revealed by a high content of trans-ferulic acids and a high ratio of arabinose-to-xylose), a low lignin content and extensive incorporation of para-coumaric acid into the lignin polymer.
Lignin is widely recognized as one of the key factors conveying recalcitrance against enzymatic deconstruction of the cell wall. The incorporation of para-coumaric acid into the lignin polymer is hypothesized to make lignin more easily degradable during alkaline pretreatment, one of the most widely applied processing methods that is used to pretreat biomass prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Previous studies have shown that reducing lignin content is often implicated in reduced resistance of plants to lodging. We hypothesize that extensively cross-linked hemicellulosic polysaccharides may fulfil a similar function in supporting cell wall structural rigidity and increasing the content of hemicellulosic polysaccharides may be a way to reduce lignin content without adversely affecting cell wall rigidity. This strategy can be used to improve biomass quality for biobased applications, as hemicellulosic polysaccharides are more easily degradable during industrial processing than lignin. Furthermore, hemicellulosic polysaccharides adhere to cellulose, which negatively affects the level of cellulose crystallinity. Crystalline cellulose is harder to degrade than its more amorphous form. Therefore the reduction of cellulose crystallinity is another mechanism through which increasing the content of hemicellulosic polysaccharides positively contributes to cell wall degradability. These results provided new insights into the traits that may be targeted to improve the quality of lignocellulose feedstocks.
However, evaluation of complex biochemical traits for selection purposes is hindered by the fact that their accurate quantification is a costly, lengthy and laborious procedure. To overcome these limitations an accurate and high-throughput method was developed based on near-infrared spectroscopy. Through extensive calibration we developed accurate prediction models for a wide range of biomass quality characteristics, which may be readily implemented as a phenotyping tool for selection purposes.
Additionally, progress through breeding may substantially be improved by marker-assisted selection, which will reduce the need for the evaluation of genotype performance in multi-year field trials. To this end, a biparental M. sinensis mapping population of 186 individuals was developed and genotyped using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. A total of 564 short-sequence markers were used to construct a new M. sinensis genetic map. Cell wall composition and conversion efficiency were observed to be highly heritable and quantitatively inherited properties. This is the first genetic study in miscanthus to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for biomass quality properties and is a first step towards the application of marker-assisted selection for biomass quality properties.
Through the evaluation of a diverse set of miscanthus genotypes in multiple locations we demonstrated that in addition to genotypic variation, growing conditions may have a substantial influence on cell wall composition and conversion efficiency. While further research is needed to identify which specific environmental parameters are responsible for the observed effects, these results clearly indicate that the environmental influence on biomass quality needs to be taken into account in order to match genotype, location and end-use of miscanthus as a lignocellulose feedstock. Moreover, significant genotype-by-environment interaction effects were observed for cell wall composition and conversion efficiency, indicating variation in environmental sensitivity across genotypes. Although the magnitude of the genotypic differences was small in comparison to genotype and environmental main effects, this affected the ranking of accession across environments. Stability analysis indicated some stable accessions performed relatively across diverse locations.
In addition to trialing miscanthus in diverse locations, we also evaluated miscanthus biomass quality under drought conditions for a number of reasons: 1) drought stress is linked to a differential expression of cell wall biosynthesis genes, 2) incidence of drought events is increasing due to climate change, 3) irrigation is likely to be uneconomical during the cultivation of miscanthus and 4) miscanthus has many characteristics that make it a crop with a good potential for cultivation on marginal soils, where abiotic stresses such as drought may prevail. Drought stress was shown to result in a large reduction in cell wall and cellulose content and a substantial increase in hemicellulosic polysaccharides and cellulose conversion rates. We hypothesized that the reduction in cellulose content was due to an increase in the production of osmolytes, which are well-known for their role in plant protection against drought. The results indicated that drought stress had a positive effect on the cell wall degradability of miscanthus biomass.
Overall the compendium of knowledge generated within the framework of this thesis provided insights into the variation in biomass quality properties in miscanthus, increased our understanding of the molecular, genetic and environmental factors influencing its conversion efficiency into biofuel and provided tools to exploit these factors to expand the use of miscanthus as a lignocellulose feedstock.
Illusions, hunger and vices: smallholders, environmentalism and the green agrarian question in Chiapas' biofuel rush
Castellanos-Navarrete, A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576094 - 221
biofuels - fuel crops - food vs fuel - mexico - peasant farming - oil palms - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - brandstofgewassen - voedsel versus brandstof - mexico - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - oliepalmen - biobased economy
Vergeet de windmolens, allemaal aan de zeewier-energie
Swam, K. van; Brandenburg, W.A. - \ 2015
zeewieren - zeewierenteelt - bio-energie - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - brandstofgewassen - biobased economy - seaweeds - seaweed culture - bioenergy - new crops - sustainability - fuel crops - biobased economy
Koen van Swam en Willem Brandenburg bij Van Liempt Live over de energie van de toekomst. Vergeet windmolens, we moeten aan de zeewier-stroom, rechtstreeks uit de Noordzee.
Plant breeding for a biobased bconomy
Trindade, Luisa - \ 2015
plant breeding - biobased economy - plant composition - fuel crops - oil plants - rubber plants
JATROPT (Jatropha curcas: Applied and Technological Research on Plant Traits) : Final report EU FP7 Grant 245236 (2010-2013)
Loo, E.N. van; Jongschaap, R.E.E. - \ 2014
Plant Research International - 31
jatropha curcas - fuel crops - plant breeding - new crops - genetic improvement - yield increases - biofuels - biobased economy - jatropha curcas - brandstofgewassen - plantenveredeling - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - genetische verbetering - oogsttoename - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy
JATROPT aimed to improve jatropha production systems through developing advanced genetics tools for breeding and for development of jatropha agro-systems.
Minder onkruiddruk van ongebruikte percelen
Dalfsen, Pieter van - \ 2014
biomass production - fibre plants - fuel crops - fodder crops - economic viability - weed control - biobased economy
Genetics and bioenergy potential of forage maize: deconstructing the cell wall
Torres, A.F. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Luisa Trindade; Oene Dolstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570375 - 202
zea mays - maïs - voedergewassen - plantengenetica - bio-energie - celwanden - bioethanol - bioconversie - industriële grondstoffen - brandstofgewassen - zea mays - maize - fodder crops - plant genetics - bioenergy - cell walls - bioethanol - bioconversion - feedstocks - fuel crops
Despite gaining prominence in scientific spheres and political agendas worldwide, the production of biofuels from plant biomass is yet to achieve an economic stronghold in the renewable-energy sector. Plant lignocellulose has evolved to resist chemical and enzymatic deconstruction, and its conversion into liquid fuels requires energetically stringent processes that currently render the industry economically and environmentally unviable.
To address this challenge, experts have envisioned the development of advanced bioenergy crops which require lower energetic and chemical inputs for their effective fractionation. At its core, this approach requires an in-depth understanding of the composition, synthesis and breeding amenability of the plant cell wall; the principal constituent of total plant dry biomass and the most recalcitrant fraction of the crop at physiological maturity to deconstruction. To this end, the primary aim of this thesis was to dissect and elucidate the biochemical and genetic factors controlling cell wall characteristics relevant to the development of bioenergy grasses with improved processing quality for cellulosic based fuel production. A focus on maize was warranted as it currently represents the de facto model system for bioenergy crop research; offering an unrivalled platform to underpin the complex genetic architecture of cell wall biosynthesis, develop advanced bioenergy-crop breeding strategies and translate cell wall research into innovations and commercial products.
This thesis exposed that the biomass-to-fuel conversion of crops is a highly complex trait dependent on both, the balance and synergy between multiple cell wall components, and the inherent effectiveness of the conversion technology. Concerning the production of cellulosic ethanol via the combined operations of dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification, our results revealed that the chemical mechanisms affecting biomass conversion efficiency depend on pretreatment severity. Whereas at harsh pretreatments biomass conversion efficiency was primarily influenced by the inherent efficacy of thermochemical cell wall deconstruction, at milder pretreatments, maximum fermentable glucose release was observed for maize genotypes exhibiting systematic cell wall changes leading to higher ruminal cell wall digestibility. These results confirmed that the selection and use of cellulosic feedstocks that best match the processing conditions used in the industry can aid in reaching industrial goals aimed at improving the commercial and environmental performance of cellulosic fuels.
In turn, the exhaustive characterization of a forage maize doubled haploid (DH) population demonstrated the vast degree of genetic diversity in maize cell wall composition and bioconversion potential amenable to breeding. Principally, these findings suggest that natural diversity in the biochemical composition of the maize cell wall and its physical properties is primarily ascribed to variation in the balance, monomeric make-up, and extent of cross-linking of non-cellulosic cell wall polymers (i.e. lignin and hemicellulose). Indeed, correlation analyses confirmed that the extent of enzymatic depolymerization of maize biomass was strongly and negatively associated to the concentration of cell wall phenolics, but positively impacted by the degree of glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) glycosylation and extent of hemicellulose-to-hemicellulose cross-linking. Our results also showed that natural variation in cell wall content and composition is quantitatively inherited and putatively ascribed to the segregation of multiple genetic loci with minor additive effects. In our population, genotypic diversity for cell wall composition and quality was found to be controlled by 52 quantitative trait loci (QTLs). From eight QTLs regulating bioconversion properties, five were previously unidentified and warrant further investigation.
Despite the apparent complexity of cell wall genetics, however, the high heritability and environmentally stability of cell wall compositional and degradability properties guarantee high selection efficacy during the development of superior DH/inbred material, and predispose that multi-environment testing will only be necessary at advanced stages of bioenergy-maize breeding programs. Moreover, because genetic variation for complex cell wall characteristics appears to be predominantly additive, preliminary selection at the inbred level will expectedly lead to successful hybrid selection; thereby minimizing the need for recurrent test-crossing procedures and evaluations. In this regard, maize cell wall bioconversion efficiency constitutes an excellent selection criterion for immediate application in modern maize breeding programs.
Ultimately, the convergence of classical selection schemes with inexpensive genotyping, advanced biometric models, high-throughput cell wall phenotyping and doubled haploid (DH) production technologies can accelerate development and commercial release of maize cultivars for bioenergy applications. To play a determinant role in the development and realization of sustainable and cost-effective cellulosic fuel processing technologies, however, novel dual-purpose maize cultivars (i.e. delivering both, grain for feed or food and fiber materials for bioconversion) will have to surpass the performance in lignocellulose processing quality and biomass yields of the best elite germplasm. These prospects seem realistic as the parallel advance of grain yield and stover productivity and quality characteristics is a feasible undertaking. Conceptually, the advance of superior bioenergy cultivars (surpassing the performance of modern elite material) would allow us to make the currently available biomass-to-fuel conversion systems more cost-effective and sustainable, and may also have favorable consequences for the ideal size and geographical distribution of biofuel refineries.
A mutation breeding program to improve the quality of the oil crop Crambe abyssinica
Cheng, J. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Elma Salentijn; Robert van Loo. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739629 - 180
crambe abyssinica - plantenveredeling - moleculaire veredeling - veredelingsprogramma's - mutaties - olieleverende planten - brandstofgewassen - biobased economy - crambe abyssinica - plant breeding - molecular breeding - breeding programmes - mutations - oil plants - fuel crops - biobased economy
Since C. abyssinica is considered to be an ideal crop for industrial oil, further improving the value of crambe oil is of importance. The value of crambe oil can be improved by increasing the C22:1 content or reducing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). To improve crambe oil by a non-GM approach, a mutant population (12,480 lines) was established from the EMS-treated seeds of C. abyssinica cv. ‘Galactica’. Furthermore, the mutants in CaFAD2 were detected by 454-amplicon sequencing and Illumina sequencing.
Woodfuel for urban markets in the Congo Basin: a livelihood perspective
Schure, J.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Freerk Wiersum; P. Levang. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461737717 - 186
hout - markten - stadsomgeving - brandhout - brandstofgewassen - huishoudens - afrika - energie - ontwikkelingslanden - biobased economy - wood - markets - urban environment - fuelwood - fuel crops - households - africa - energy - developing countries - biobased economy
Hout is de belangrijkste energiebron van huishoudens in sub-Sahara Afrika en het gebruik van houtskool in stedelijke gebieden groeit. Deze dissertatie maakt deel uit van een nieuwe generatie van houtenergie-studies sinds de begin jaren 2000. De hernieuwde interesse komt voort uit de erkenning, dat handel in houtenergie mogelijk bijdraagt aan het oplossen van armoede en energieproblemen. Waar in het verleden houtenergie- studies zich nog voornamelijk concentreerden op het kappen voor eigen huishoudelijk gebruik en productievraagstukken, is er nu meer aandacht voor de rol van stedelijke vraag en commercie. Dit omvat het potentieel van houtenergie als bron van inkomsten. Omdat houtenergie-studies zich traditioneel meer gericht hebben op de kwetsbare droge en semi-aride gebieden in de wereld, is er weinig informatie over het karakter en het ontwikkelingsperspectief van de handel in Afrika’s tropische humide bos regio’s. Deze dissertatie analyseert houtenergie als een bron van levensonderhoud in de context van stedelijke brandhoutbevoorrading in het Kongobekken.
Azolla: from floating fern to renewable resource
Werf, Adrie van der - \ 2013
azolla - fuel crops - aquatic biomass - biomass production - new crops
Documentary september 2013
Bio-fuels, potential and drawbacks. Which crops for what feedstock and where do we grow them?
Jongschaap, Raymond - \ 2013
bioenergy - biofuels - fuel crops - biomass production - biobased economy - land use - food vs fuel
Switchgrass Ukraine : overview of switchgrass research and guidelines
Elbersen, H.W. ; Kulyk, M. ; Poppens, R.P. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Kraisvitnii, P. ; Galytska, M. ; Rii, O. ; Roik, M.V. ; Kurylo, V.L. ; Morozov, O.V. ; Smirnykh, V.M. ; Gorobets, A.M. ; Gerasymenko, O.V. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 26
brandstofgewassen - panicum virgatum - biomassa productie - teelt - cultuurmethoden - veldproeven - oekraïne - biobased economy - proeven op proefstations - fuel crops - panicum virgatum - biomass production - cultivation - cultural methods - field tests - ukraine - biobased economy - station tests
Between 2008 and 2013 switchgrass experiments have been conducted in Ukraine which have showed what varieties are locally adapted, how switchgrass can be established, what yields may be expected, what row space should be used, what seeding rate is optimal, etc. In the experiments the Ukrainian experts have gained much experience in establishing switchgrass and in management of switchgrass. This has made it possible to make a description of switchgrass management in Ukraine and to establish with success large fields. Further information is still needed, especially with respect to efficient harvesting on a larger scale and storage and conversion into pellets and conversion to energy.
Reed harvesting from wetlands for bioenergy : technical aspects, sustainability and economic viability of reed harvesting in Ukraine
Sluis, T. van der; Poppens, R.P. ; Kraisvitnii, P. ; Rii, O. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Galytska, M. ; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra report 2460) - 88
phragmites - oogsten - brandstofgewassen - wetlands - certificering - biomassa productie - indirecte veranderingen van landgebruik - oekraïne - biobased economy - phragmites - harvesting - fuel crops - wetlands - certification - biomass production - indirect land use change - ukraine - biobased economy
In this report the different aspects of reed and reed lands are discussed related to sustainable harvesting of biomass. This is based on a pilot project for Poltava Oblast, funded by Agency NL of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. Within the ‘Pellets for Power project’ several areas were identified, to test the approach and criteria applied for NTA8080. This report shows that ILUC free reed harvesting is possible. Reed in the project area is harvested on land not used currently for agricultural purposes. The wetland should be maintained as much as possible in its natural state, and protected against fires. Based on this, it is concluded that the requirements for NTA8080 can be met. Biomass harvesting is in support of wetland protection, and can result in increased biodiversity, provided that the necessary precautions are taken, as described in the ‘best practices’. In this way reed harvesting for biofuels also contribute to social wellbeing, increase income for local communities, and at the same time decrease greenhouse gas emissions.
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) : a perennial biomass grass for efficient production of feedstock for the biobased economy
Elbersen, H.W. ; Poppens, R.P. ; Bakker, R.R.C. - \ 2013
panicum virgatum - brandstofgewassen - biomassa productie - biobased economy - panicum virgatum - fuel crops - biomass production - biobased economy
Poster met informatie over switchgrass. Er wordt een vergelijking gemaakt met Miscanthus.
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) : a perennial biomass grass for efficient production of feedstock for the biobased economy
Elbersen, H.W. ; Poppens, R.P. ; Bakker, R.R.C. - \ 2013
Utrecht : NL Agency - 27
panicum virgatum - brandstofgewassen - teelt - teelthandleidingen - biomassa productie - biobased economy - akkerbouw - panicum virgatum - fuel crops - cultivation - cultivation manuals - biomass production - biobased economy - arable farming
Teelthandleiding van Switchgrass. Er wordt ingegaan op het huidige gebruik als biomassagewas, teeltmanagement, oogst en logistiek, toepassingen, economie en duurzaamheid.
Hermans, J. ; Visser, C.L.M. de; Meuffels, G.J.H.M. ; Huijbregts, T. ; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Kohrman, E. - \ 2013
bio-energie - projecten - brandstofgewassen - landbouwkundig onderzoek - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - akkerbouw - biobased economy - bioenergy - projects - fuel crops - agricultural research - sustainability - arable farming - biobased economy
Folder met het wie, wat en waarom van het project Energieboerderij.
Meuffels, G.J.H.M. - \ 2013
koolzaad - brandstofgewassen - rassenproeven - teelt - olieleverende planten - biobased economy - akkerbouw - rape - fuel crops - variety trials - cultivation - oil plants - biobased economy - arable farming
Poster met onderzoeksinformatie.