Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Weg met dat onkruid : proeven Dow AgroSciences: 25 procent meer droge stof van bespoten grasland
    Feenstra, J. ; Huiting, H.F. - \ 2016
    Veeteeltvlees 15 (2016)2. - ISSN 1570-3312 - p. 18 - 19.
    graslanden - graslandbeheer - onkruidbestrijding - melkveehouderij - pesticiden - veehouderij - droge stof - graskuilvoer - grasslands - grassland management - weed control - dairy farming - pesticides - livestock farming - dry matter - grass silage
    Onkruidbestrijding in grasland verplaatst zich van het voorjaar naar het na jaar. De groeiende belangstelling voor grasteelt onder veehouders heeft daarmee te maken. ‘Onkruidbestrijding hoort bij beter graslandmanagement’, aldus Hilfred Huiting van PPO.
    Goede verwerking van natuurgras bij oogst en bewaren essentieel voor succes : : themanummer groene grondstoffen
    Durksz, D.L. - \ 2015
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 12 (2015)118. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 28 - 30.
    mestvergisting - mest - biogas - co-vergisting - grasmaaisel - maaien - graslandbeheer - biomassa - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - graskuilvoer - manure fermentation - manures - biogas - co-fermentation - grass clippings - mowing - grassland management - biomass - natural resources - grass silage
    Natuurgras kan uitstekend dienst doen als co-vergister in mestvergisters. Maar dan moeten de oogst en de opslag wel goed gebeuren.
    Low emission feed : opportunities to mitigate enteric methane production of dairy cows
    Hatew, B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Jan Dijkstra; Andre Bannink; Wilbert Pellikaan. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574458 - 228
    melkkoeien - rundveevoeding - methaanproductie - milieueffect - pensfermentatie - voer - zetmeel - maïskuilvoer - graskuilvoer - diervoeding - dairy cows - cattle feeding - methane production - environmental impact - rumen fermentation - feeds - starch - maize silage - grass silage - animal nutrition

    As global demand for high-quality food originating from animal production is expected to rise due to an increasing human population and consumer income level, the expected role of ruminants in meeting this demand brings multiple challenges. Ruminant production needs to adapt to environmental changes and, at the same time, reduce its impact on the environment. Ruminants production systems have a major impact on the environment through the emission of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. Microbial fermentation of feeds in the gastrointestinal tract, known as enteric fermentation, is the main source of CH4 emissions from dairy production. Enteric CH4 emission is strongly related to the amount of feed fermented in the rumen, which depends on feed intake, feed composition and rumen fermentation conditions associated to the intrinsic characteristics of these feeds and the characteristics of the whole diet. Important gaps in knowledge remain however. The prime aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of various feeding strategies to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions of dairy cows.

    First experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of type and level of starch in the concentrate. Inclusion of a high level (53%) of starch in the concentrate that accounted for 40% of the total mixed ration dry matter (DM) produced lower CH4 per unit of estimated rumen fermentable organic matter (eRFOM) than a low level (27% of DM) of starch (43.1 vs. 46.9 g/kg of eRFOM). Methane production per kg of eRFOM also was lower for diets based on rapidly fermentable starch (gelatinized maize grain) compared to diets based on slowly fermentable starch (native maize grain) (42.6 vs. 47.4 g/kg of eRFOM). However, inclusion of 53% of starch in the concentrate from both types of starch did not affect CH4 emission intensity (CH4 Ei) (CH4 emission per kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM). In a subsequent experiment, maize silage was prepared from whole-plant maize harvested at a very early (25% DM), early (28% DM), medium (32% DM) and late (40% DM) stage of maturity and fed to dairy cows as an alternative to concentrate as starch source. Diet consisted of (on DM basis) 75% maize silage, 20% concentrate and 5% wheat straw. Increasing harvest maturity of maize silage linearly decreased CH4 yield (21.7, 23.0, 21.0 and 20.1 g/kg of DM intake) and CH4 emission as a fraction of gross energy intake (6.3, 6.7, 6.3 and 6.0%). Methane Ei tended to decrease linearly with maturity (13.0, 13.4, 13.2 and 12.1 g/kg FPCM). In another experiment grass silage as roughage source was tested. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of N fertilisation of grassland and maturity of grass at cutting on CH4 emission in dairy cows. Two N fertilisation rates (65 vs. 150 kg of N/ha) were examined in combination with three stages of grass maturity (early, 28 days of regrowth; mid, 41 days of regrowth; and late, 62 days of regrowth). Diet contained 80:20 ratio (on DM basis) of grass silage (mainly ryegrass) and concentrate. Dry matter intake decreased with N fertilisation and maturity, and FPCM decreased with maturity but was unaffected by N fertilisation. Methane Ei (mean 15.0 g/kg of FPCM) increased by 31% and CH4 per unit digestible OM intake (mean 33.1 g/kg of DOMI) increased by 15% with increasing maturity. Methane yield (mean 23.5 g/kg of DM intake) and CH4 as a fraction of gross energy intake (mean 7%) increased by 7 and 9% with maturity, respectively, which implies an increased loss of dietary energy with progressing grass maturity. Rate of N fertilisation had no effect on CH4 Ei and CH4 yield.

    Despite the importance of in vitro gas production technique for evaluating feeds, in vitro study as a stand-alone approach was considered inadequate to fully evaluate the potential effect of feeds and rumen fermentation modifiers on CH4 production, because in vitro studies are frequently performed separately rather than in parallel with in vivo studies. To test this hypothesis, both in vitro and in vivo CH4 measurements were measured simultaneously using cows in the first experiment that were fed (and adapted to) the same dietary material used as a substrate for in vitro incubation, as donor for microbial inoculum. It was found that 24-h in vitro CH4 (mL/g of incubated organic matter) correlated well with in vivo CH4 when expressed per unit of eRFOM (R2 = 0.54), but not when expressed per unit of organic matter ingested (R2 = 0.04). In the same experiment, results showed that incubation of the same substrate with rumen inocula obtained from donor cows adapted to different diets produced a variable amount of CH4 suggesting that it is important to consider the diet of the donor animal when collecting rumen inocula for in vitro incubation. Even though the in vitro technique has limitations to represent in vivo conditions, it is useful for screening of large sets of animal feeds or feed additives to be used as a CH4 mitigation strategy. In this thesis, two in vitro experiments were conducted to examine the effects of variation in structural composition of condensed tannins (CT) in sainfoin accessions collected from across the world on CH4 production, and CT extracts obtained from a selected sainfoin accessions on CH4 production. Results revealed substantial variation among CT in their effect on in vitro CH4 production and this variation was attributed to differences in chemical structure of CT. Condensed tannins evaluated in this thesis showed to have potential to reduce in vitro CH4 production, but require further investigations to fully evaluate their in vivo effects.

    In conclusion, results from the research work conducted in this thesis show that changes in the basal diet of dairy cows and in roughage production management can substantially reduce the amount of enteric CH4 produced and thereby influence the impact of dairy production on the environment.

    Aandachtspunten voor een betere ruwvoerteelt
    Verloop, J. ; Oenema, J. - \ 2015
    V-focus 12 (2015)3. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 38 - 39.
    melkveehouderij - voedergewassen - gewasteelt - ruwvoer (forage) - graskuilvoer - maïskuilvoer - bemesting - dairy farming - fodder crops - crop management - forage - grass silage - maize silage - fertilizer application
    Koeien & Kansen-deelnemers besteden in ‘Productieslag’ extra aandacht aan de teelt van gras en mais om een maximale productie te realiseren met de beschikbare meststoffen. Op elk bedrijf zoeken veehouders, samen met hun adviseurs en onderzoekers, naar punten waar verbeteringen mogelijk zijn.
    Onderzoek naar betere schatting van de dichtheid van gras- en maiskuilen
    Zom, R.L.G. ; Abbink, G.W. ; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 872) - 46
    graskuilvoer - kuilvoer - maïskuilvoer - dichtheid - voorraden - veevoeder - voedingswaarde - kuilvoerkwaliteit - lineaire modellen - regressieanalyse - grass silage - silage - maize silage - density - stocks - fodder - nutritive value - silage quality - linear models - regression analysis
    This report describes the results of a study on the possibilities to estimate the density of grass en maize silages for calculation of the fodder stock more accurately than the current table values. During ensiling the amount of crop of 104 grass silage clamps, 42 maize silage clamps and 108 big bales (54 round and 54 square) were weighted and after ensiling the dimensions were measured and the chemical composition was analysed. For round and square bales a new regression formula was derived, which estimates the density more accurate than the current table values. It is recommended to calculate the density of round en square bales with the following formula: Density (kg/m3) = 994.81 - 0.5335 x dry matter content (g/kg) - 1.196 x crude fibre content (g/kg ds). For grass en maize silage in clamps and bunker silo’s no new model could be derived which estimated the density more accurately than the current table values.
    "Gras levert meer op dan melk"
    Galama, Paul - \ 2015
    dairy farming - grassland management - grass silage - crop yield - grazing - milk production - maximum yield
    Grass silage in diets for organic growing-finishing pigs
    Bikker, P. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Vermeer, H.M. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der - \ 2014
    In: Proceedings of the 4th ISOFAR Scientific Conference ‘Building Organic Bridges’, at the Organic World Congress. - - p. 815 - 818.
    graskuilvoer - varkens - varkenshouderij - ruwvoer (roughage) - groei - prestatieniveau - biologische landbouw - varkensvoeding - grass silage - pigs - pig farming - roughage - growth - performance - organic farming - pig feeding
    In this study, organically raised pigs received an increasing proportion of grass silage up to 10 and 20% dry matter in the daily ration in the grower and finisher period, respectively, to determine the effects of grass silage on feed intake and growth performance. The pigs receiving a mixture of grass silage and compound feed ingested 0.3 kg DM/d (13% of their daily ration) as grass silage and realised a similar daily net energy intake as pigs fed compound feed only. However, the silage fed pigs realised a lower daily gain (37 g/d) and a lower calculated net energy utilisation (1.6 MJ/kg) for gain and a lower dressing percentage (1.1%) of the carcass. The optimal feeding system and the nutritive value of grass silage for growing pigs requires further investigation to improve the silage intake and clarify and minimise the loss in animal performance.
    Juiste bepaling van kuildichtheden t.b.v. voorraadberekening voor BEX en BEP : samenvatting van het onderzoek
    Schooten, H.A. van; Abbink, G. - \ 2014
    [Wageningen] : Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 9
    wetenschappelijk onderzoek - gewasproductie - graskuilvoer - maïskuilvoer - stikstof - fosfaat - melkveehouderij - scientific research - crop production - grass silage - maize silage - nitrogen - phosphate - dairy farming
    De Bedrijfsspecifieke Excretie (BEX) van stikstof en fosfaat en de Bedrijfsspecifieke gebruiksnorm fosfaat (BEP) kunnen alleen goed worden berekend met een nauwkeurige en robuuste schatting van de hoeveelheden geproduceerd, aangevoerd en verbruikt ruwvoer. Dit is een onderzoek uitgevoerd door Blgg AgroXpertus en Wageningen UR Livestock Research, samen met loonwerkers en melkveehouders waarbij de werkelijke ruwvoervoorraden van verschillende praktijkkuilen in kaart zijn gebracht door het wegen van het gewas tijdens het inkuilen. Doelstelling van dit onderzoek is het ontwikkelen van een nauwkeuriger methode voor dichtheidsbepaling van kuilen in de praktijk.
    Juiste bepaling van de dichtheid van ingekuild ruwvoer voor de voorraadberekening van BEX en BEP = Determination of silage density to estimate roughage supplies for BEX and BEP
    Zom, R.L.G. ; Abbink, G.W. ; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 677) - 19
    graskuilvoer - maïskuilvoer - ruwvoer (roughage) - voorraden - grass silage - maize silage - roughage - stocks
    This report describes the results of a desk study on opportunities to improve the determination of the density of grass and maize silages. It is concluded that it is possible to develop a model (based on feed parameters) which estimates the density more accurate than the current tablebased method. Therefore, it is recommended to develop new calibration datasets based on silage densities as measured in common practice.
    Rumen fermentation profile and intestinal digestibility of maize and grass silages
    Ali, M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): John Cone; Gert van Duinkerken. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736581 - 157
    melkkoeien - maïskuilvoer - graskuilvoer - pensfermentatie - verteerbaarheid - darmfysiologie - chemische samenstelling - diervoeding - voedingsfysiologie - dairy cows - maize silage - grass silage - rumen fermentation - digestibility - intestinal physiology - chemical composition - animal nutrition - nutrition physiology

    Maize and grass silages are commonly used as major feed materials for dairy cows in Europe and are becoming common parts of dairy cow rations in other parts of the world. Thenutritive value of maize and grass silages varies greatly due to variation in chemical composition. A combination of different factors such as the use of various cultivars, fertilization practices, growing conditions, harvesting technology, maturity at harvest and ensiling conditions cause this variation in chemical composition. The first aim of this thesis was to investigate relationships between the chemical composition and the in situ rumen degradation characteristics and in situ mobile nylon bag digestibility of dietary nutrients of maize and grass silages. Maize and grass silages with a broad range in chemical composition and quality parameters were selected from different Dutch commercial farms. The broad range in the chemical composition of the maize and grass silages resulted in a large variation in rumen degradable fractions of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and starch. The intestinal digestibility of CP, NDF and/or starch was affected by the concentration of these components in the maize and grass silages, by the rumen incubation time and the rumen escape content. Regression equations were developed describing relationships between the chemical composition and the in situ ruminal and postruminal degradation characteristics of dietary nutrients of maize and grass silages. A number of the developed regression equations presented in this thesis can be used for accurate and rapid estimation of the ruminal and postruminal degradation characteristics of dietary nutrients of maize and grass silages, without conducting time consuming and expensive in situ experiments. The second aim of this thesis was to determine whether three cows are sufficient to cover the variation between individual cows in in situ rumen degradation characteristics of dietary nutrients of maize and grass silages. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found between individual cows for a number of parameters of DM, OM and CP of maize silages, indicating that four or more cows should be used for nylon bag incubations of maize silages. For grass silages, no significant differences (P>0.05) between individual cows were found for all the parameters of DM, OM, CP and NDF. The results suggest that using three cows are sufficient for nylon bag incubations of grass silages and pooling of rumen incubated residues is allowed to obtain a representative sample. The third aim of this thesis was to compare two fractionation methods; the washing machine method and a modified method, for nitrogen (N) and starch fractions of maize silages and N fractions of grass silages. The N and/or starch fractions of maize and grass silages determined, using the washing machine method (washing with water for 40 min) and the modified method (shaking with buffer solution for 60 min) were compared. The different methodological approaches of both methods resulted in different values for the washout (W), the soluble (S) and the non-washout (D+U) fractions of N of maize and grass silages and for the W, the insoluble washout (W-S) and the D+U fractions of starch of maize silages. The loss of insoluble small particles of starch was less during shaking of nylon bags in buffer solution, compared to washing nylon bags in the washing machine. Therefore, large differences were found between the D+U fractions of starch determined by both methods compared to the D+U fractions of N of maize silages. The developed regression equations for W, S and D+U fractions of N in grass silages and for D+U fractions of starch in maize silages determined by both methods can be used for rapid estimation of these fractions from chemical characteristics of maize and grass silages. The information on nutrient bioavailability of maize and grass silages presented in this thesis can be used to more accurately formulate dairy ration in terms of maintenance, health and production of dairy cows.

    Effect van koolzuurgas en stikstofgas toevoegen in geopende gras- en maïskuilen op aerobe stabiliteit = Effect of addition of carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas in opened grass and maize silage on aerobic stability
    Wikselaar, P.G. van; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 697) - 14
    maïskuilvoer - graskuilvoer - kooldioxide - stikstof - veehouderij - maize silage - grass silage - carbon dioxide - nitrogen - livestock farming
    This report describes the results of research on the effect of adding carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas in opened grass and maize silages on the aerobic stability.The study was carried out with mini silos.
    Ingekuild gras voor biologisch gehouden vleesvarkens = Grass silage in diets for organic growing-finishing pigs
    Bikker, P. ; Binnendijk, G.P. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 603)
    varkenshouderij - varkens - varkensvoeding - biologische landbouw - graskuilvoer - voedersystemen - pig farming - pigs - pig feeding - organic farming - grass silage - feeding systems
    The supply of a mixed ration of grass silage and concentrate to growing-finishing pigs reduced the growth performance and feed utilisation. Further improvements of the feeding system would be required to substantially reduce the feed costs.
    Inkuilmanagement en emissie van broeikasgassen op bedrijfsniveau
    Schooten, Herman van - \ 2011
    dairy farming - grass silage - greenhouse gases - emission - grasslands - conservation
    Fate of fatty acids during ensiling: relationship with milk fat composition of dairy cows
    Khan, N.A. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): John Cone; V. Fievez. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859581 - 158
    melkkoeien - melkvet - melksamenstelling - vetzuren - kuilvoerbereiding - graskuilvoer - maïskuilvoer - stabiliteit - voer - ruwvoer (forage) - rundveevoeding - diervoeding - dairy cows - milk fat - milk composition - fatty acids - silage making - grass silage - maize silage - stability - feeds - forage - cattle feeding - animal nutrition

    Transition of dairy cows from grazing to silage based rations significantly increases the saturated: unsaturated fatty acids (FA) ratio and decreases the content of beneficial C18:1 cis-9, C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat. This is partly related to a lower polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) supply from ensiled forages. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the scope of increasing the content PUFA in grass and maize silages, and to establish relationships between silage quality on the one hand and the FA content and composition, post-ensiling stability of PUFA, and milk FA composition of dairy cows on the other hand. The first focus of this thesis was to quantify the variation in FA content and composition in grass (n = 101) and maize (n = 96) silages, randomly sampled from commercial dairy farms in the Netherlands, and use multivariate analysis to identify the causes of this variation. The FA content and composition of grass and maize silages were highly variable, and this variation was primarily caused by differences in plant maturity at harvest. Silages made from younger grass and maize have higher contents of C18:3n-3.Most of the variation in FA content in the ensiled forages was caused by differences in plant maturity at harvest. Changes in FA content and composition were investigated in stover (leaves and stem) and ears (cob, shank and husks) in a set of maize genotypes, grown on sandy and clay soils and harvested at 14, 42, 56, 70, and 84 days after flowering (DAF). The contents of C18:3n-3 and total FAs in the stover dry matter (DM) declined at a slow rate up to 56 DAF and then decreased rapidly during 56–84 DAF. On the other hand the content of C18:2n-6 and total FAs in the ears DM increased up to 56 DAF and thereafter remained more or less constant. The maximum amount of PUFA in silage maize can be harvested around 56 DAF. Identifying pre and post-ensiling processes that optimize the stability of PUFA was the next goal. The stability of FA were investigated in untreated and mechanically bruised perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), wilted under field conditions for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h, or wilted under controlled climate conditions at three temperatures (15, 25 or 35 °C) and two light (dark or light) regimes to DM contents of 425, 525 or 625 g/kg. The oxidation of FAs during wilting of grass was mainly caused by the duration of the wilting, wilting temperature only provoked small differences, whereas mechanical bruising of grass and light intensity did not affect the changes in FA contents. The highly esterified lipids of forages are extensively hydrolysed in the silo. Therefore, the post-ensiling stability of FAs was investigated in grass and maize silages, with a wide range in qualities, exposed to air for 0, 12, and 24 h. Exposure of grass and maize silages to air results in a quantitatively small, but consistent decline in the contents of major unsaturated FAs with a concomitant increase in the proportion of C16:0. The final study evaluated the effects of feeding maize silages, ensiled at different maturities, in combination with a high or low degradable carbohydrate concentrate on nutrient intake, milk production, and composition of milk and milk fatinearly lactating dairy cows. Maize maturity at harvest at a DM content of 300-420 g/kg fresh weight, did not affect the production performance of dairy cows, but resulted in decreased contents of C18:3n-3 and total n-3 and a decreased n-6:n-3 ratio in the milk fat of dairy cows.

    Effect van inkuilmanagement op emissie van broeikasgassen op bedrijfsniveau = Effect of ensiling management on emission of greenhouse gases at farm level
    Schooten, H.A. van; Philipsen, A.P. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 403) - 33
    melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - ruwvoer (roughage) - graskuilvoer - voederkwaliteit - conserveerkwaliteit - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - dairy farming - ammonia emission - roughage - grass silage - forage quality - canning quality - farm income
    This report described the losses during harvesting, storage and feed out period of grass silage. It was estimated that there was a considerable risk of extra losses due to aerobic deterioration and moderate conservation. Farmrelated computations showed that economics and emission of greenhouse gases went together in limiting extra losses. For an average farm with 100 dairy cows, net return to labour and management may decrease by €3000 to €5000 as a result of aerobic deterioration and moderate conservation. The extra emission of greenhouse gases remained limited at approximately 1.5%.
    Opname van gras- en mengkuil door dragende biologische zeugen
    Bikker, P. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Binnendijk, G.P. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 439) - 33
    biologische landbouw - zeugen - zwangerschap - voersamenstelling - graskuilvoer - kuilvoer - gerst - maïs - voeropname - organic farming - sows - pregnancy - feed formulation - grass silage - silage - barley - maize - feed intake
    In this study it was determined whether the concentrate allowance of pregnant sows can be partly replaced by the supply of grass silage of grass silage mixed with barley or CCM.
    Onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden om via de voeding de methaan- en ammoniakemissie te verminderen op een aantal praktijkbedrijven in de buurt van Wanroij
    Valk, H. ; Bannink, A. ; Verstraten, J. - \ 2011
    [S.l.] : S.n. - 40
    melkveebedrijven - veevoeding - samenstelling - graskuilvoer - maïs - ruwvoer (forage) - dairy farms - livestock feeding - composition - grass silage - maize - forage
    Op een vijftal melkveehouderij bedrijven in de buurt van Wanroij en Oploo is het effect van voedingsmaatregelen op de methaan- en ammoniakemissie nader bekekenbekeken. De bedrijven voerden verschillende hoeveelheden gras- en snijmaïskuil, variërend van alleen graskuil tot alleen snijmaïskuil als ruwvoer in het rantsoen
    Benutting van najaarsgras in de geitenhouderij
    Eekeren, N.J.M. van - \ 2010
    biologische landbouw - geitenhouderij - herfst - graskuilvoer - hooi - grasbrokken - eiwit - voersamenstelling - organic farming - goat keeping - autumn - grass silage - hay - grass pellets - protein - feed formulation
    Door weersomstandigheden is najaargras vaak moeilijk in te kuilen. Aan de andere kant bevat najaarsgras, door het hogere klaveraandeel, juist het eiwit wat de geiten in het rantsoen hard nodig hebben. Darm Verteerbaar Eiwit (DVE) is vaak een knelpunt op melkproducerende biologische bedrijven. Door gras kunstmatig te laten drogen, kan het eiwit in grasklaver als DVE benut worden. In dit dossier leest u meer over verschillende afwegingen om najaarsgras in te kuilen of kunstmatig te laten drogen, en eventueel in brok te laten persen.
    Verteerbaarheid en voederwaarde van diverse kwaliteiten graskuil en van CCM bij biologische zeugen = Digestibility and nutritive value of several qualities of grass silage and of CCM in organic housed gestating sows
    Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Diepen, J.T.M. van - \ 2010
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 342) - 16
    zeugen - zwangerschap - biologische landbouw - voersamenstelling - graskuilvoer - kuilvoer - droge stof - energetische waarde - varkenshouderij - sows - pregnancy - organic farming - feed formulation - grass silage - silage - dry matter - energy value - pig farming
    The chemical composition, digestibility and energy value of five qualities of grass silage and of CCM (Corn cob mix) were investigated in organic housed gestating sows. The dry matter content of the five grass silages varied between 21.3 and 24.9%. The energy value per kg dry matter varied between 0.78 and 0.95. Energy value per kg dry matter and daily dry matter intake were highest in grass silage with a yield of 2.2 ton dry matter per ha and lowest in grass silage with a yield of 5.0 ton dry matter per ha.
    Krapper bemesten gras : celwandvertering punt van zorg
    Sebek, L.B.J. ; Bannink, A. - \ 2010
    V-focus 7 (2010)3. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 26 - 27.
    melkveehouderij - melkvee - mest - graskuilvoer - diervoedering - diervoeding - bemesting - dairy farming - dairy cattle - manures - grass silage - animal feeding - animal nutrition - fertilizer application
    Uitvoering van de mestwetgeving kan tot gevolg hebben dat grasproducten minder goed door de koe benut worden. Dat blijkt uit resultaten van proefbedrijf De Marke (V-focus februari 2009). Om vermindering van de melkproductie te voorkomen zal in de praktijk het rantsoen aangevuld worden met aangekocht (kracht)voer. Het is echter de vraag of dat een goede keuze is bij een toenemende druk om de bemesting te verminderen en om de uitstoot van ammoniak en broeikasgassen te verminderen. Logischer lijkt het om onder die omstandigheden te kiezen voor het beter benutten van het zelfgeteelde gras.
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