Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Zo kies je een gezonde en sociale hond
    Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 21 p.
    animal welfare - pets - dogs - animal behaviour - animal housing - animal health - animal nutrition - animal breeding
    Deze interactieve brochure van Platform Fairfok geeft een overzicht van beschikbare informatie, diensten of producten van organisaties die zich actief inzetten voor de gezonde en sociale hond in Nederland.
    Advies toetsingskader positieflijst zoogdieren
    Hellebrekers, L.J. ; Staman, Jan ; Boer, Sietse de; Foppen, R. ; Kik, Marja ; Knapen, F. van; Koolhaas, J. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Zeeland, Yvonne van; Peet, G.F.V. van der; Hopster, H. - \ 2019
    Wetenschappelijke Adviescommissie Positieflijst - 28 p.
    animal welfare - pets - hobby animals - animal housing - animal health - animal behaviour - animal nutrition - legislation - regulations - domestic animals
    Het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit (LNV) beoogt invulling te geven aan een lijst met diersoorten die door eenieder in of om het huis gehouden mogen worden (‘de Positieflijst’). Daartoe heeft LNV in de herfst van 2017 een groep onafhankelijke wetenschappelijk deskundigen gevraagd op persoonlijke titel te participeren in een Wetenschappelijke Adviescommissie Positieflijst (WAP). LNV heeft de WAP de opdracht verstrekt om te adviseren over een vereenvoudigde, wetenschappelijk valide, toetsingskader voor de positieflijst huisdieren. Randvoorwaarden hierbij zijn dat de systematiek voldoende goed uitvoerbaar is (eenvoudig, tijd- en kostenefficiënt) én dat de systematiek voldoet aan de Nederlandse en Europese wettelijke vereisten en aan wetenschappelijke validiteit. De taken van de adviescommissie bestaan uit:• het ontwikkelen van het toetsingskader;• het opstellen van inhoudelijke criteria als onderscheidende basis voor het toetsingskader;• de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing van de criteria van het toetsingskader;• de onderlinge weging van de criteria.Het resultaat van deze opdracht is een advies over een toetsingskader dat wetenschappelijk goed is onderbouwd en praktisch bruikbaar is om diersoorten naar potentiële risico’s te identificeren en vervolgens te ordenen. De systematiek dient te kunnen worden toegepast op zoogdieren, maar kan tevens als basis dienen voor de beoordeling van vogels, reptielen en amfibieën. LNV heeft de WAP gevraagd de intrinsieke waarde, zoals omschreven in de Wet Dieren, als uitgangspunt te nemen bij de ontwikkeling van het toetsingskader. Het welzijnsbegrip in het toetsingskader omvat, naast diergezondheid, ook de mogelijkheid om natuurlijk gedrag te vertonen en de fysieke integriteit. De beoordeling volgens het toetsingskader leidt tot een lijst van diersoorten die zijn gerangschikt naar potentiële risico’s voor dierenwelzijn/diergezondheid en voor gevaar (zoönosen, letsel) voor mens en dier.
    Fairfok Quiz : Basisschool
    Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Dierenwelzijnsweb - 4 p.
    animal welfare - dogs - pets - domestic animals - animal health - animal behaviour - selective breeding - teaching materials - elementary schools
    Kattenkwaad: in huis poeslief, buiten een moordmachine
    Debrot, A.O. - \ 2018
    animal welfare - pets - cats - animal behaviour
    Cavia kan longontsteking veroorzaken
    Heijne, M. - \ 2017
    animal welfare - pets - animal health
    Open normen licht bij het bedrijfsmatig houden van gezelschapsdieren : praktische handvatten voor de controle op het voldoen aan ethologische en fysiologische behoeften van honden en konijnen
    Ruis, Marko A.W. ; Borg, Joanne A.M. van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 981) - 42
    honden - konijnen - licht - kunstlicht - dierenwelzijn - dierhouderij - gezelschapsdieren - diergedrag - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - dogs - rabbits - light - artificial light - animal welfare - animal husbandry - pets - animal behaviour - animal housing - animal health
    This report describes the development of practical tools for inspectors to monitor compliance with the target welfare regulations with regard to provison of light for dogs and rabbits that are kept and sold commercially. On the basis of a literature study on the influence of light on the welfare and functioning of dogs and rabbits, and in the context of the situation in practice, tools were developed to supervise and advice in a systematic way. By this the inspector can make an informed assessment about whether or not enforcing rules on the provision of light.
    Farewell symposium Kor Oldenbroek
    Windig, Jack - \ 2017
    animal welfare - pets - dogs - animal breeding methods - genetics - animal health
    Breeding healthy dogs with genomics / Presentation
    Positiefljst
    Wageningen Livestock Research, ; Groen Kennisnet, - \ 2017
    Wageningen UR Livestock Research
    dierenwelzijn - gezelschapsdieren - huisdieren - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - diervoeding - diergezondheid - zoönosen - wetgeving - animal welfare - pets - domestic animals - animal housing - animal behaviour - animal nutrition - animal health - zoonoses - legislation
    Per 1 juli 2017 is de Positieflijst van kracht. Op de Positieflijst zijn alle diersoorten opgenomen die zijn beoordeeld in het kader van artikel 2.2 eerste en tweede lid van de Wet dieren. Deze website geeft informatie over de Positieflijst.
    Het fokken in kleine populaties
    Oldenbroek, Kor - \ 2016
    animal welfare - pets - animal health
    Dat doet hij normaal nooit! : Les over welzijn van honden
    Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 4
    dierenwelzijn - gezelschapsdieren - honden - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - diergezondheid - lesmaterialen - animal welfare - pets - dogs - animal housing - animal behaviour - animal health - teaching materials
    Het dier en de dood
    Stassen, Elsbeth - \ 2016
    animal ethics - killing of animals - moral values - lifespan - short life - pets - human-animal relationships - animals - animal welfare - animal health

    Elke dag worden in ons land duizenden dieren gedood. Het lijkt iets vanzelfsprekends.

    Maar dat is het niet, zegt hoogleraar Dier en samenleving

    Elsbeth Stassen. Dieren doden roept altijd vragen op. Vragen die moeilijk

    te beantwoorden zijn. Een nieuw boek helpt een handje.

    Fokken, wat is dat?
    Oldenbroek, Kor - \ 2016
    animal welfare - pets - dogs - animal health - animal behaviour - animal breeding - genetics
    Dierenwelzijnsweb : (digitale) ontmoetingsplaats gezelschapsdieren
    Ruis, Markus - \ 2015
    animal welfare - education - pets - animal housing - animal health - animal nutrition - animal behaviour
    Hereditary disorders in pedigree dogs and look-a-likes
    Zeeland, C.W.M. Van; Beerda, B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 317) - ISBN 9789461738882 - 51
    dogs - dog breeds - genetic disorders - pedigree - disease prevalence - animal breeding - animal welfare - animal health - pets - honden - hondenrassen - genetische stoornissen - stamboom - ziekteprevalentie - dierveredeling - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - gezelschapsdieren
    Handleiding Certificeerbare Eenheid Herpeten : nadere invulling benodigde kennis en vaardigheden : november 2015
    Bras, R.J. ; Kuperus, S. ; Rossem, R. van; Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 895) - 50
    dierenwelzijn - reptielen - amphibia - gezelschapsdieren - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - diervoeding - diergedrag - animal welfare - reptiles - amphibia - pets - animal health - animal housing - animal nutrition - animal behaviour
    Zeker de laatste jaren is er veel veranderd in de manier waarop we dieren willen houden, simpelweg door de toename van kennis. Ook het welzijn van dieren is hierbij een steeds grotere rol gaan innemen. Om te bepalen wat welzijn inhoudt en welke kennis nodig is bij het houden van dieren is de wetgeving aangepast. Er worden nu een aantal eisen gesteld, samengevat in de zogenoemde vakbekwaamheid. Deze vakbekwaamheid moet gaan waarborgen dat enkel opgeleide mensen dieren kunnen, en mogen verhandelen. Zowel de kennisoverdracht als het vertrouwen in dierenspeciaalzaken en andere verkooppunten zal hiermee toenemen. In het traject naar vakbekwaamheid is een document als deze onmisbaar, het geeft de garantie dat ‘vakbekwaamheid’ inhoud heeft en overal hetzelfde betekent.
    Maillard reaction products in pet foods
    Rooijen, C. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Guido Bosch; Peter Wierenga. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575523 - 182
    gezelschapsdieren - huisdierenvoer - maillard-reactie - voedselverwerking - voedingswaarde - diergezondheid - lysine - stoom - omhullen - verteerbaarheid - voedselchemie - voedertechnologie - pets - pet foods - maillard reaction - food processing - nutritive value - animal health - lysine - steam - pelleting - digestibility - food chemistry - feed technology

    Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which a reducing sugar binds to a free reactive amino group of an amino acid. In intact proteins, the ε-amino group of lysine is the most abundant free amino group. The reaction reduces the bioavailability of lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products. The aim of this thesis was to determine the occurrence and progression of the Maillard reaction during the manufacturing of pet foods, the subsequent impact on nutritive value of the food, and the bioavailability of Maillard reaction products in cats.

    In Chapter 2, the scientific literature was reviewed to investigate the current state of knowledge on the Maillard reaction and its potential effect on the nutritive value of pet foods and on pet health. Determination of the difference between total and reactive lysine by chemical methods provides an indication of the Maillard reaction in pet foods. Studies reported that the proportion of reactive lysine is on average 73% (range 39 – 100%) of total lysine, and that foods for growing dogs may be at risk of supplying less lysine than the animals require. The endogenous analogues of Maillard reaction products, advanced glycation end-products, have been associated with age-related diseases in humans, such as diabetes and impaired renal function. In dogs, data indicate higher advanced glycation end-product contents in plasma from dogs suffering from canine diabetes mellitus compared with healthy control animals. In addition, elevated levels of advanced glycation end-products in tissue proteins in dogs were observed for a number of diseases. To date it was unknown to what extent Maillard reaction products were present in pet foods, and whether dietary Maillard reaction products can be associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes and impaired renal function in pet animals. As the Maillard reaction is induced by processing, changing processing conditions should have an influence on the severity of the reaction. However, effects of processing conditions on the difference in total and reactive lysine contents in pet foods were inconsistent and did not always correspond to model systems. Processing temperature was reported to be the most important factor followed by moisture level. In addition, differences between total and reactive lysine were observed in several ingredients commonly used in pet foods. Reviewing the literature indicates that it is unknown to which extent the Maillard reaction occurs and whether Maillard reaction products are present in pet foods. There might be a risk for certain foods not meeting minimal lysine requirements. It is also unknown what the exact effect of processing on the Maillard reaction is in pet foods.

    The experiment described in Chapter 3 was designed to evaluate whether commercial pet foods meet minimal lysine requirements. Sixty-seven extruded, canned and pelleted commercially available dog and cat foods formulated for growth and maintenance were analysed using conventional amino acid analysis and O-methylisourea as reagent for reactive lysine. Sixty out of the 67 foods in this study, regardless of the type of processing technology used, contained a lower reactive lysine than total lysine content. On average, pelleted and extruded foods contain lower reactive to total lysine ratios compared to canned foods (0.85, 0.89, and 0.93, respectively). All cat foods and foods for adult dogs met minimal lysine requirements. However, eight dry foods for growing dogs contained reactive lysine contents between 96 and 138% of the minimal lysine requirement, indicating that reactive lysine has to be between 62 and 104% digestible to meet minimal requirement. Considering the variability in reactive lysine digestibility, these foods could be at risk of not meeting minimal lysine requirements for growing dogs.

    In Chapter 4, the foods from Chapter 3 were used to quantitate the Maillard reaction products fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and the cross-linked amino acid lysinoalanine (LAL) using UPLC-MS. In all foods, Maillard reaction products and LAL were found but in highly variable amounts. Type of processing seems to be a key factor for the concentration of FL, CML and HMF, with on average higher amounts in canned foods than pelleted and extruded foods (on a dry matter basis). The contents of CML and HMF found in commercial pet foods are, on average, within the range reported in processed human food products. Average daily intake (mg/kg body weight0.75) of HMF was 122 times higher for dogs and 38 times higher for cats than the calculated average intake for adult humans. Average daily intake of CML was comparable to the intake of adult humans.

    As Chapters 3 and 4 indicated that pelleted foods contain more Maillard reaction products than extruded foods, despite the less severe production process, an experiment was designed to gain insight in the effect of steam pelleting on the Maillard reaction in a dog food (Chapter 5). The aim was to examine the effect of conditioning temperature (65 and 90°C) and die hole length (ø 5 × 45, 65, and 80 mm) during pelleting processing of a standard dry dog food on selected indicators of the Maillard reaction (total lysine, reactive lysine, FL, CML, HMF, LAL), browning development and CIE-Lab colour. Steam pelleting did not cause a significant loss of reactive lysine and change of absorbance values. This indicates that the effect of steam pelleting on the nutritive value of the foods is low. However, steam pelleting did increase the content of Maillard reaction products. The formation of the Maillard reaction products was associated with an increase in temperature and die hole length during the steam pelleting process. The unprocessed ingredient mix already contained a larger difference between reactive and total lysine, and contents of Maillard reaction products than was induced during steam pelleting. Therefore, the choice of the ingredients used in this study mainly determines reactive lysine content and Maillard reaction products in the pet food formulation.

    As it is unknown to which extent extrusion processing influences the Maillard reaction in pet foods, the effect of extrusion processing on selected indicators of the Maillard reaction was determined (Chapter 6). The extrusion parameters temperature (140 and 165°C), moisture content (200 and 300 g/kg) and screw speed (100 and 200 rpm) were applied to two dry dog foods formulated using either intact or hydrolysed proteins. Extrusion processing in general results in a decrease in total and reactive lysine and an increase in FL, CML, HMF and LAL content. However, this effect appeared more pronounced in the diet containing hydrolysed protein. Decreasing temperature and moisture content led to higher total and reactive lysine contents, and less Maillard reaction products in the dog foods. Increasing screw speed had a positive influence on total and reactive lysine, but a negative influence on Maillard reaction products. As was found in Chapter 5, the unprocessed ingredient mixtures in this experiment contained already more Maillard reaction products than was induced during extrusion processing.

    Whether the Maillard reaction products reported in pet foods are physiologically relevant in pet animals depends on the bioavailability of these components. Therefore, urinary excretion was studied in adult cats fed commercial moist and dry foods containing varying amounts of FL, CML and the amino acid LAL (Chapter 7). A pilot study was first conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of the Maillard reaction products when changing diets with contrasting contents of Maillard reaction products. An adaptation time of 1 d was deemed sufficient in adult cats. The short adaptation time indicates an effective urinary excretion of Maillard reaction products. In the main study, six commercially processed dry and six moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in two parallel randomized, 36-day, balanced Latin square designs. Urine was collected quantitatively and FL, CML and LAL were analysed in foods and collected urine using HPLC-MS. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry and moist foods. For LAL, no significant relationship was observed. The observed increase in urinary excretion with increasing dietary intake indicates that dietary Maillard reaction products are absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract of cats and excreted in the urine. Minimum apparent absorption based on urinary excretion (assuming 100% of the excreted component originates from the diet) of FL, CML and LAL was found to range between 8 to 23%, 25 to 73% and 6 to 19%, respectively. Urinary recovery (% ingested) showed a negative relationship with daily intake for FL, CML and LAL in the dry foods and for CML and LAL in the moist foods. The observed decrease in urinary recovery with increasing intake suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism or urinary excretion.

    The studies reported in this thesis are one of the first to determine Maillard reaction products in pet foods and the bioavailability of FL, CML and LAL in cats. In addition, the results highlight the importance of reactive lysine measurement in foods for growing dogs used as weaning diets. Contribution of the absorption of dietary Maillard reaction products to the pathogenesis of various health conditions requires further study, as well as the potential role of restriction of dietary Maillard reaction products in prevention and treatment of long-term health implications. Extrusion and pelleting processing do increase the Maillard reaction, however, choice of ingredients appears to have a larger effect on the content of Maillard reaction products and can, therefore, be a useful strategy for pet food manufacturers that want to decrease the content of Maillard reaction products in their pet foods.

    Huisdierenlijst is eerste stap
    Maanen, G. van; Hopster, H. ; Dijkstra, V. ; Stassen, E.N. - \ 2015
    Bionieuws 25 (2015)3. - ISSN 0924-7734 - p. 12 - 13.
    dierenwelzijn - gezelschapsdieren - animal welfare - pets
    Inteelt-scanner voor rashonden
    Windig, Jack - \ 2015
    breeds - animal genetics - kinship - animal breeding - dogs - animal health - animal welfare - genetic disorders - pets
    Leerboek fokkerij en genetica voor het HBO
    Oldenbroek, Kor - \ 2015
    teaching materials - animal breeding - animal genetics - animal breeding methods - livestock farming - professional education - animal welfare - animal health - animal production - pets - dogs - cats - dairy cattle - pigs - poultry - horses
    Als de kat van huis is ... : zwerfkatten in Nederland: een inventarisatie
    Neijenhuis, F. ; Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 316) - 95
    katten - verwilderde katten - zwerfdieren - huisdieren - gezelschapsdieren - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - cats - feral cats - stray animals - domestic animals - pets - animal welfare - animal health
    Het doel van dit Wageningen UR Wetenschapswinkel-project is het inventariseren van de omvang van het zwerfkattenprobleem in Nederland, de karakteristieken van de problematiek, de betrokken stakeholders en de mogelijkheden voor aanpak van het zwerfkattenprobleem. Dit onderzoek is in opdracht van Stray Animal Foundation Platform uitgevoerd door deelvragen uit te zetten bij (groepen) studenten en het o.a. via een enquête verkrijgen van de aantallen (op)gevangen katten in Nederland.
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