- Research Institute for Pig Husbandry (2)
- Agrosystems (1)
- Alterra - Animal ecology (1)
- Alterra - Integrated water and catchment management (1)
- Animal Ecology (1)
- Bioinformatics (1)
- CS Corporate Communications & Marketing (1)
- Centre for Crop Systems Analysis (1)
- Centrum voor Landbouwpublicaties en Landbouwdocumentatie (1)
- Communication Science (1)
- Corporate Communications & Marketing (1)
- Corporate Staff (1)
- EPS-4 (1)
- Ecologie en Milieu (1)
- FB BIB CIM / Collection Management (1)
- FB BIB CIM / Research Support (1)
- FB BIB CIM / Student Support (1)
- FB BIB Collectie- en Informatiemanagement (1)
- FB BIB Documentation & Publishing Services (1)
- ICSU World Data Centre for Soils (1)
- ISRIC - World Soil Information (1)
- Integraal water-en stroomgeb.management (1)
- International Soil Reference and Information Centre (1)
- LEI Internationaal Beleid (1)
- LEI Wageningen UR (1)
- Laboratory of Molecular Biology (1)
- Library (1)
- Library Agricultural University (1)
- Library CIM Collection Management (1)
- Library CIM Research Support (1)
- Library CIM Student Support (1)
- Library Collection and Information Management (1)
- Library Research & Education Support (1)
- Library Research and Education Support, Ecucation Support (1)
- Library Research and Education Support, Frontoffice (1)
- Library Research and Education Support, Research Support (1)
- Nursery Stock-Flower Bulbs (1)
- Vakgroep Sociologie (1)
- Wageningen Economic Research (1)
- Wageningen UR Administration Office (1)
- Wageningen UR Library (1)
- A. Dijkstra (1)
- B.S. Ebbinge (1)
- M. Garcia (1)
- W. Gerritsma (2)
- Wouter Gerritsma (1)
- M.N. Groot de (1)
- A.E. Hartemink (1)
- M.H.A. Hoffman (1)
- D.M. Jansen (1)
- A.M.P. Kersten (2)
- C.K. Khoury (1)
- R. Kleis (1)
- P. Leisink (1)
- H.T.L. Massop (1)
- L. Missel (1)
- R. Ramaker (1)
- J.M.S. Renkema (1)
- J.E. Risse (1)
- H.C.G. Ruitenbeek van (1)
- J.H.J. Schaminée (1)
- A. Sikkema (1)
- H. Tap (1)
- Peter Togt van der (1)
- P. Wouters (1)
Het nieuwe meten
Ramaker, R. ; Khoury, C.K. - \ 2015
Resource: nieuwssite voor studenten en medewerkers van Wageningen UR 9 (2015)15. - ISSN 1389-7756 - p. 18 - 19.
publicaties - publiceren - publiciteit - verspreiding van onderzoek - statistiek - onderzoekers - publications - publishing - publicity - diffusion of research - statistics - research workers
Al decennialang wordt wetenschappelijke kwaliteit en invloed op dezelfde manier gemeten. Maar deugt die methode nog wel in een wereld die door digitalisering en social media ingrijpend is veranderd? Altmetrics biedt een alternatief.
Ranking the rankings
Sikkema, A. ; Ruitenbeek, H.C.G. van; Gerritsma, W. ; Wouters, P. - \ 2014
Resource: nieuwssite voor studenten en medewerkers van Wageningen UR 9 (2014)9. - ISSN 1389-7756 - p. 18 - 21.
universiteiten - rangordening - onderwijs - onderzoek - publicaties - universities - ranking - education - research - publications
In een academische wereld die steeds competitiever wordt, willen we graag weten wat ‘de beste’ universiteit is. Verschillende rankings bedienen ons op onze wenken, waaronder Times Higher Education, Sjanghai, QS en Leiden. De kritiek op die lijsten is echter niet mals, ook omdat universiteiten graag selectief shoppen in de resultaten. Toch kunnen we niet om ze heen, meent informatiespecialist Wouter Gerritsma.
Brouwer, J.H.D. ; Renkema, J.M.S. ; Kersten, A.M.P. - \ 2014
[Wageningen] : Wageningen UR Library - 42
computer software - bibliografieën - databanken - indexeren - literatuur - publicaties - documentatie - bibliographies - databases - indexing - literature - publications - documentation
Een leven met rotganzen (interview met Bart Ebbinge )
Kleis, R. ; Ebbinge, B.S. - \ 2014
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 8 (2014)16. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 10 - 10.
ganzen - fauna - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - siberië - publicaties - geese - scientific research - siberia - publications
Veertig jaar onderzocht Bart Ebbinge (Alterra) rotganzen. Hier in ons land, maar vooral ook op zijn vele expedities naar Siberië, waar de vogels in de zomer broeden. Op 7 april vond bij uitgeverij Atlas in Amsterdam de presentatie plaats van De rotgans, een weerslag van vier decennia studie. De rotgans, paperback, 368 blz, ISBN 9789045091600
Text mining for metabolic reaction extraction from scientific literature
Risse, J.E. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ton Bisseling; Jack Leunissen, co-promotor(en): P.E. van der Vet. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739001 - 138
metabolomica - gegevensanalyse - databanken - text mining - publicaties - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - moleculaire biologie - thesauri - enzymen - metabolieten - metabolomics - data analysis - databases - text mining - publications - scientific research - molecular biology - thesauri - enzymes - metabolites
Science relies on data in all its different forms. In molecular biology and bioinformatics in particular large scale data generation has taken centre stage in the form of high-throughput experiments. In line with this exponential increase of experimental data has been the near exponential growth of scientific publications. Yet where classical data mining techniques are still capable of coping with this deluge in structured data (Chapter 2), access of information found in scientific literature is still limited to search engines allowing searches on the level keywords, titles and abstracts. However, large amounts of knowledge about biological entities and their relations are held within the body of articles. When extracted, this data can be used as evidence for existing knowledge or hypothesis generation making scientific literature a valuable scientific resource. To unlock the information inside the articles requires a dedicated set of techniques and approaches tailored to the unstructured nature of free text. Analogous to the field of data mining for the analysis of structured data, the field of text mining has emerged for unstructured text and a number of applications has been developed in that field.
This thesis is about text mining in the field of metabolomics. The work focusses on strategies for accessing large collections of scientific text and on the text mining steps required to extract metabolic reactions and their constituents, enzymes and metabolites, from scientific text. Metabolic reactions are important for our understanding of metabolic processes within cells and that information provides an important link between genotype phenotype. Furthermore information about metabolic reactions stored in databases is far from complete making it an excellent target for our text mining application.
In order to access the scientific publications for further analysis they can be used as flat text or loaded into database systems. In Chapter 2we assessed and discussed the capabilities and performance of XML-type database systems to store and access very large collections of XML-type documents in the form of the Medline corpus, a collection of more than 20 million of scientific abstracts. XML data formats are common in the field of bioinformatics and are also at the core of most web services. With the increasing amount of data stored in XML comes the need for storing and accessing the data. The database systems were evaluated on a number of aspects broadly ranging from technical requirements to ease-of-use and performance. The performance of the different XML-type database systems was measured Medline abstract collections of increasing size and with a number of different queries. One of the queries assessed the capabilities of each database system to search the full-text of each abstract, which would allow access to the information within the text without further text analysis. The results show that all database systems cope well with the small and medium dataset, but that the full dataset remains a challenge. Also the query possibilities varied greatly across all studied databases. This led us to conclude that the performances and possibilities of the different database types vary greatly, also depending on the type of research question. There is no single system that outperforms the others; instead different circumstances can lead to a different optimal solution. Some of these scenarios are presented in the chapter.
Among the conclusions of Chapter 2is that conventional data mining techniques do not work for the natural language part of a publication beyond simple retrieval queries based on pattern matching. The natural language used in written text is too unstructured for that purpose and requires dedicated text mining approaches, the main research topic of this thesis. Two major tasks of text mining are named entity recognition, the identification of relevant entities in the text, and relation extraction, the identification of relations between those named entities. For both text mining tasks many different techniques and approaches have been developed. For the named entity recognition of enzymes and metabolites we used a dictionary-based approach (Chapter 3) and for metabolic reaction extraction a full grammar approach (Chapter 4).
In Chapter 3we describe the creation of two thesauri, one for enzymes and one for metabolites with the specific goal of allowing named entity identification, the mapping of identified synonyms to a common identifier, for metabolic reaction extraction. In the case of the enzyme thesaurus these identifiers are Enzyme Nomenclature numbers (EC number), in the case of the metabolite thesaurus KEGG metabolite identifiers. These thesauri are applied to the identification of enzymes and metabolites in the text mining approach of Chapter 4. Both were created from existing data sources by a series of automated steps followed by manual curation. Compared to a previously published chemical thesaurus, created entirely with automated steps, our much smaller metabolite thesaurus performed on the same level for F-measure with a slightly higher precision. The enzyme thesaurus produced results equal to our metabolite thesaurus. The compactness of our thesauri permits the manual curation step important in guaranteeing accuracy of the thesaurus contents, whereas creation from existing resources by automated means limits the effort required for creation. We concluded that our thesauri are compact and of high quality, and that this compactness does not greatly impact recall.
In Chapter 4we studied the applicability and performance of a full parsing approach using the two thesauri described in Chapter 3 for the extraction of metabolic reactions from scientific full-text articles. For this we developed a text mining pipeline built around a modified dependency parser from the AGFL grammar lab using a pattern-based approach to extract metabolic reactions from the parsing output. Results of a comparison to a modified rule-based approach by Czarnecki et al.using three previously described metabolic pathways from the EcoCyc database show a slightly lower recall compared to the rule-based approach, but higher precision. We concluded that despite its current recall our full parsing approach to metabolic reaction extraction has high precision and potential to be used to (re-)construct metabolic pathways in an automated setting. Future improvements to the grammar and relation extraction rules should allow reactions to be extracted with even higher specificity.
To identify potential improvements to the recall, the effect of a number of text pre-processing steps on the performance was tested in a number of experiments. The one experiment that had the most effect on performance was the conversion of schematic chemical formulas to syntactic complete sentences allowing them to be analysed by the parser. In addition to the improvements to the text mining approach described in Chapter 4I make suggestions in Chapter 5 for potential improvements and extensions to our full parsing approach for metabolic reaction extraction. Core focus here is the increase of recall by optimising each of the steps required for the final goal of extracting metabolic reactions from the text. Some of the discussed improvements are to increase the coverage of the used thesauri, possibly with specialist thesauri depending on the analysed literature. Another potential target is the grammar, where there is still room to increase parsing success by taking into account the characteristics of biomedical language. On a different level are suggestions to include some form of anaphora resolution and across sentence boundary search to increase the amount of information extracted from literature.
In the second part of Chapter 5I make suggestions as to how to maximise the information gained from the text mining results. One of the first steps should be integration with other biomedical databases to allow integration with existing knowledge about metabolic reactions and other biological entities. Another aspect is some form of ranking or weighting of the results to be able to distinguish between high quality results useful for automated analyses and lower quality results still useful for manual approaches. Furthermore I provide a perspective on the necessity of computational literature analysis in the form of text mining. The main reasoning here is that human annotators cannot keep up with the amount of publications so that some form of automated analysis is unavoidable. Lastly I discuss the role of text mining in bioinformatics and with that also the accessibility of both text mining results and the literature resources necessary to create them. An important requirement for the future of text mining is that the barriers around high-throughput access to literature for text mining applications have to be removed. With regards to accessing text mining results, there is a long way to go for many applications, including ours, before they can be used directly by biologists. A major factor is that these applications rarely feature a suitable user interface and easy to use setup.
To conclude, I see the main role of a text mining system like ours mainly in gathering evidence for existing knowledge and giving insights into the nuances of the research landscape of a given topic. When using the results of our reaction extraction system for the identification of ‘new’ reactions it is important to go back to the actual evidence presented for extra validations and to cross-validate the predictions with other resources or experiments. Ideally text mining will be used for generation of hypotheses, in which the researcher uses text mining findings to get ideas on, in our case, new connections between metabolites and enzymes; subsequently the researcher needs to go back to the original texts for further study. In this role text mining is an essential tool on the workbench of the molecular biologist.
Publiceren in het geniep
Gerritsma, Wouter - \ 2014
publishing - writing - forgery - scientists - ethics - publications
ICW-nota's digitaal beschikbaar
Massop, H.T.L. ; Bolt, F.J.E. van der - \ 2013
Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 19 (2013)1. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 53 - 54.
hydrologie - bodemwater - grondwater - oppervlaktewater - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - publicaties - databanken - hydrology - soil water - groundwater - surface water - scientific research - publications - databases
Het ICW is opgericht naar aanleiding van de watersnood van 1953. De door zout water geïnundeerde gronden weer geschikt maken voor landbouwkundige productie ging daarmee gepaard. Het onderzoek van destijds is o.a. vastgelegd in de zogenaamde ICW nota's. Anno 2013 zijn er vele rapporten gescand en daarmee beter toegankelijk gemaakt voor het werkveld van de hydrologie
Overzicht van de LEI-publicaties 2006-2010
Tap, H. - \ 2011
Den Haag : LEI - 40
publicaties - rapporten - overzichten - agrarische economie - landbouwkundig onderzoek - bibliografieën - nederland - publications - reports - reviews - agricultural economics - agricultural research - bibliographies - netherlands
Overzicht van de LEI-publicaties van 2006-2010. De resultaten van het LEI- onderzoek zijn voor het overgrote deel vrij toegankelijk voor iedereen die daar belang in stelt. De publicaties waarin zij worden vastgelegd, zijn zowel in gedrukte vorm verkrijgbaar als digitaal via internet. (www.lei.wur.nl) Een beperkt aantal vertrouwelijke rapporten of nota’s wordt op verzoek alleen aan de opdrachtgever beschikbaar gesteld en sommige achtergronddocumenten zijn niet opgenomen in de reeks openbare rapporten, maar wel op verzoek verkrijgbaar. De elektronische nieuwsbrief LEI Actueel biedt wekelijks recente informatie over het LEI-onderzoek. Deze publicatie is het vervolg van Overzichten van de LEI- publicaties 1940-2000 en 2000-2005
Repository as a tool for bibliometric analysis
Togt, Peter van der - \ 2009
libraries - publications - information retrieval - authors - scientific libraries
Relaties tussen planteigenschappen en welbevinden van mensen : literatuuronderzoek
Hoffman, M.H.A. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Rapport / Plant Research International 146) - 33
bloemen - sierplanten - welriekendheid - zintuiglijke waarneming - informatieverwerking - literatuuroverzichten - publicaties - databanken - informatiesystemen - invloeden - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - flowers - ornamental plants - fragrance - organolepsis - information processing - literature reviews - publications - databases - information systems - influences - scientific research
Aangetoond is dat een groene omgeving (natuur, stedelijk groen, tuinen, kamerplanten, etc.) positief werken op het welbevinden van mensen. Minder bekend is welke specifieke relaties hieraan ten grondslag liggen; welke kleuren, geuren, vormen, geluiden, specifieke plantensoorten, etc.? Resultaat van een zoektocht in verschillende databases en internet naar specifieke relaties tussen planteigenschappen en welbevinden van mensen. Hierbij is gezocht naar wetenschappelijke publicaties in het groene, medische en cosmetische circuit
Documentation: an effective tool in Farmer Field Schools
Belder, E. den; Garcia, M. ; Jansen, D.M. - \ 2006
LEISA : ILEIA newsletter for low-external-input and sustainable agriculture 22 (2006)1. - ISSN 1569-8424 - p. 6 - 9.
documentatie - publicaties - cultuurmethoden - koffie - bonen - peru - scholen - agrarisch onderwijs - kennisoverdracht - documentation - publications - cultural methods - coffee - beans - peru - schools - agricultural education - knowledge transfer
In the “Sustainable Coffee Project Peru”, relevant and well documented data has played an important role in supporting the learning processes of the Farmer Field Schools. This is illustrated here with three examples: a survey of the coffee farmers’ situation as a basis for developing the content of the curriculum for the FFSs, the development of field school leaflets to support the education process in FFSs, and the use of a field book in the evaluation and comparison of farmer practices as part of a Participatory Technology Development process
Bibliometric analysis of Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences (WIAS)
Gerritsma, W. ; Kersten, A.M.P. - \ 2004
In: Documentation over 1999-2003 for peer review of the graduate school WIAS Wageningen : Wageningen University - p. 285 - 294.
landbouwkundig onderzoek - diergeneeskunde - zoölogie - dierhouderij - documentatie - evaluatie - onderzoek - publicaties - universiteiten - overzichten - nederland - wetenschap - agricultural research - veterinary science - zoology - animal husbandry - documentation - evaluation - research - publications - universities - reviews - netherlands - science
|Publishing in soil science: Historical developments and current trends
Hartemink, A.E. - \ 2002
Vienna : International Union of Soil Sciences - ISBN 9066720751 - 194
bodemkunde - publicaties - onderzoek - geschiedenis - publiceren - soil science - publications - research - history - publishing
Victor Westhoff (1916-2001); ich wôl 't laeve langs mich haer zeen stroume
Schaminée, J.H.J. - \ 2001
Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 90 (2001)8. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 141 - 142.
biologie - biologen - vegetatietypen - publicaties - onderzoekers - wetenschappers - natuurbescherming - erfgoed - landschapsbescherming - limburg - plantensociologie - vegetatie - biology - biologists - vegetation types - publications - research workers - scientists - nature conservation - heritage areas - landscape conservation - flora
De betekenis van Westhoff in zijn rol als leermeester en auteur van publicaties over vegetatie en het landschap van Limburg. Artikelen door hem geschreven en die betrekking hebben op Limburg, zijn in chronologische volgorde vermeld
|Bibliografie van de geschiedenis van de Nederlandse tuinarchitectuur 2000
Dijkstra, A. ; Missel, L. - \ 2001
Groen : vakblad voor groen in stad en landschap 57 (2001)7/8. - ISSN 0166-3534 - p. 50 - 52.
bibliografieën - publicaties - naslagwerken - landschapsarchitectuur - tuinen - parken - beroepsgeschiedenis - nederland - bibliographies - publications - reference works - landscape architecture - gardens - parks - occupational history - netherlands
Deze bibliografie is een selectie van publicaties over de geschiedenis van tuinen, parken, buitenplaatsen, begraafplaatsen en groenvoorzieningen. Deze titels vormen een onderdeel van een bestand TUINPAD van ruim 2200 titels, die via internet te raadplegen zijn
Research reports 1999
Anonymous, - \ 2000
Rosmalen : Research Institute for Pig Husbandry (Report / Research Institute for Pig Husbandry P 5.12) - 44
dierhouderij - varkenshouderij - varkens - onderzoeksinstituten - toegepast onderzoek - publicaties - diergezondheid - agrarische economie - milieubescherming - animal husbandry - pig farming - pigs - research institutes - applied research - publications - animal health - agricultural economics - environmental protection
At the Research Institute for Pig Husbandry, an organization with 70 employees, applied research has been carried out in order to find practical solutions for actual and future problems and to stimulate desirable developments in pig husbandry. In total 1200 sows and 3000 growingfinishing pigs at three experimental farms at Raalte, Rosmalen and Sterksel are available. The experiments are often multidisciplinary in nature but also disciplinary practical aspects of pig farming are investigated. This means that different aspects of pig production are under study. The results are published in reports and articles. This report gives an overview of all summaries of the publication in 1999
Research reports 1997
Anonymous, - \ 1998
Rosmalen : Research Institute for Pig Husbandry (Report / Research Institute for Pig Husbandry P 5.5) - 56
varkenshouderij - varkens - onderzoeksinstituten - toegepast onderzoek - publicaties - varkensvoeding - huisvesting, dieren - milieu - dierenwelzijn - vleeskwaliteit - agrarische economie - pig farming - pigs - research institutes - applied research - publications - pig feeding - animal housing - environment - animal welfare - meat quality - agricultural economics
At the Research Institute for Pig Husbandry, an organization with 65 employees, applied research has been carried out in order to find practical solutions for actual and future problems and to stimulate desirable developments in pig husbandry. In total 1200 sows and 3000 growingfinishing pigs at three experiment farms in Raalte, Rosmalen and Sterksel are available. The experiments are often multidisciplinair but also displinairy practical aspects of pig farming are investigated. This means that several different aspects of pig production are in study. The results are published in reports and articles. This report gives a review of the published data in 1997
Structurering van arbeidsverhoudingen : een vergelijkende studie van medezeggenschap in de grafische industrie en in het streekvervoer
Leisink, P. - \ 1989
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.L. Mok; H.M.J. Coenen. - S.l. : Leisink - ISBN 9789062245024 - 487
participatie - werkers - participatief management - publicaties - winkels - distributie - productie - boeken - industrie - transport - reizigers - nederland - participation - workers - participative management - publications - shops - distribution - production - books - industry - transport - travellers - netherlands
The significance of labour relations at company level has increased in the last few years. Employers have contributed to this by their striving for flexible working and their emphasis on made-to-measure arrangements. Likewise, unions are showing more interest for the company level. A recognizable presence in the company is thought necessary in order to recruit new members and to restore the numerical strength and position of authority of the union movement.
Decentralization does not necessarily mean democratization, no more than flexible working would have to produce more freedom for the individual. Even so, many employees are susceptible to the arguments of employers for flexible working and decentralization. According to Negt the cause of this, amongst others, is to be found in the deficiency of the co- determination policy of the union movement. Employees themselves have not actually experienced what democracy can mean. Consequently there is no fundamental opposition to the policy of the employers.
The union movement, however, does not form a consistent unity where co-determination policy is at issue. Differences in policy exist between unions which are affiliated to the FNV with regard to participation in the works council and with respect to trade union activities within the company. The question of whether differences in policy are allied to differences in co-determination practice in the company has never previously been investigated. In this study an account is given of an investigation into co-determination practices in the printing industry and in the regional transport sector. Comparable research data are used to determine what the co-determination practices are, what differences exist and whether the differences can be traced back to differences in the co- determination policy of the unions.
The approach to co-determination as a form of action practice concurs with Reynaerts' definition of industrial relations in which the interaction processes between employers and employees are emphasised. The action approach is further developed in chapter 2. As theoretical orientation, the structuration theory -as developed in the first instance by Giddenshas been chosen. The system approaches dominant in the field of industrial relations are critized on three points.
The first point of criticism is the quest for laws bound up with the systems model approach. The structuration theory emphasizes that every actor monitors his actions reflexively. Actors do not have complete knowledge of the conditions and consequences of their actions. The fact that they reproduce social structures in and by their actions, belongs in general to the non-recognized conditions of action. However, actors do have the possibility of becoming acquainted with non-recognized conditions of their actions and have, on that basis, the possibility to chose another line of behaviour. For this reason the structuration theory terms generalisations concerning social reality as intrinsically unstable.
The second point of comment on the system approach concerns the influence of surrounding contexts on the action of actors. Actors themselves bring forward the environment in the interaction situation in the form of a certain interpretation of the same. It is the subjective interpretation of the actor which guides his actions, not some functional requirement of an objective economic or technological context. Moreover, the surrounding context itself is the result of human action. The technological context is, for example, the result of decisions of engineers and managers. The activities of the employees are limited by this context and can not do very much about changing it at this particular moment. The fact that the context is the result of human action demonstrates that it can be changed in principle, as is aimed at, for example, by technology agreements.
The third point of criticism is that the open system approaches, such as the strategic choice variant, are more alive to the action competence of actors than the original Dunlop approach, but that these still do not account for the action itself. The context is only one of the factors in the rational guidance of the action of actors. In their action actors always assimilate other motives, intentions and reasons. An intention important for the action of works council members and union representatives is the striving for greater autonomy. The structuration theory, emphasizes that the action of actors should be understood and accounted for from the point of view of the reflexive supervision which the actors themselves, maintain over their action.
In this study, co-determination is approached as an action practice of works council members and trade union representatives in the company. Co-determination is not on a par with the legally arranged consultation between the works council and the company management. Union representatives are, moreover not considered exclusively as the rank and file of the union members on the works council. Their independent action to acquire influence in policy determination in the company is also seen as co- determination. This approach to co-determination is linked to a certain view of the union movement which is developed in chapter 3.
The union movement has a two-fold character. It is a regulating factor and a countervailing power. The extent to which the union movement functions as a countervailing power is measured in this study by the extent to which it strives, as an emancipatory movement, for a fundamental transformation of existing social relationships. Democratization of society and of the company is impossible without a fundamental transformation of the domination-structures which are characteristic for a capitalist system. The works council has a place within this approach but there are several reasons for not considering the works council as the sole institution of co- determination
A further definition of employees' interests produces the most important reason for not viewing co-determination as a matter exclusive to the works council. The concept of a broad union movement results in a further ascertainment of employees' interests. Firstly the mutual solidarity of employees and of those in work with the unemployed. Secondly the connection of interests in the working situation with socio-political interests. When the works council limits itself to the representation of those working within the company the danger of sectionalism. threatens. No natural connection exists between co-determination in the company and a broad promotion of interests, that relationship will have to be continually established anew. The paid trade union executive who supervises the works council members and union representatives in the company plays an important role in the process of giving concrete form to the broadly defined employees' interests. Moreover, an independent position of power outside the hierarchical line of the company is necessary in order to avoid a management definition of participation and of employees' interests. The works members group (BLG) and lively union activities within the company provide such a position. The participation of works council members m the union activities facilitates the orientation of the view of the works council members towards broad and independently articulated employees' interests.
The union representatives can signal problems in their contacts with memberslemployees which can be a cause for discussion of the companypolicy in the consultation meetings with the management. It is also possible that the union representatives together with the members/employees present the problem directly to the management. This second possibility is linked with the emancipatory objective of the union movement: to allow the employees to experience which action possibilities they have and to develop their action competence.
Cooperation and a division of tasks between works council members and union representatives and members in the company is seen as a basis for achieving effective influence on company policy from the point of view of a broad definition of interests.
An account of the theoretical points of departure of the chosen approach of industrial relations and of co-determination in the company having been given, there follows the empirical investigation.
In chapter 4 the design and implementation of the investigation is accounted for. The action practice of works council members and union representatives is conceptualized as activities, contacts, views, intentions and reasons. In so far as data are available concerning the research population, the conclusion is justified that the samples investigated are reasonably representative.
In chapter 5 the industrial relations in the printing industry are sketched. Attention is devoted to economic and technical developments in that branch of industry. A special point of interest in the graphic sector is the closed shop, not only because it is unique in the Netherlands but also due to its significance for the development of co-determination at company level. Special attention is focused on the policy of Druk en Papier FNV with regard to participation in the works council and the position of shop- stewards. Strengthening of co-determination is particularly sought in CAO regulations and to a much lesser degree in the building up of the trade union organisation in the company. In many large companies there is often only a single shop-steward present. Subsequently the research data concerning the action practices of works council members and shop-stewards are presented.
In chapter 6 the industrial relations in the regional transport sector are set out in a comparable fashion. The role of the public authorities is extensively illustrated. The interference of the authorities has increased in particular since the end of the 1960s when regional transport could no longer continue to exist at an acceptable level without considerable government subsidies. The recent withdrawal by the authorities and the introduction of tighter financial budgets has strengthened mutual competition and the individual responsibility of the bus companies. The policy of the Transport Union FM in the regional transport sector with regard to co-determination in the company is likewise examined. From the middle of the 1970s that policy has been directed towards common action on the part of the trade union members on the works council, the construction of trade union groups with sub-divisions at shopfloor level and intensive cooperation between works council members and the trade union group.
The co-determination practices in the printing industry and regional transport display substantial differences in a comparison of the main outlines (chapter 7). One cannot really speak of direct opposites, but one can speak of a tendency towards contrasting types. The activities of works council members in the printing industry can be typified as a statutory and individual action practice and those of works council members in regional transport as a collective union action practice. The activities of shop- stewards in the printing industry can be typified as a dependent supportive and individual action practice and those of the union representatives in regional transport as an independent, executive and collective action practice.
The conclusion that the variations can be explained to a large extent by the differences in orientation of co-determination policy of Druk en Papier and the Transport Union is founded on two observations. Firstly on the extent of substantial agreement between the respective actionpractices and co-determination policy of the unions. Secondly on an analysis of other factors which possibly, to a greater or lesser extent, could be responsible for the differences which have been found. Although some factors may exercise influence, the variations in co-determination practices can be traced back mainly to trade union policy.
Chapter 7 is concluded with a consideration of a number of main points of the study. Insights are adopted from the structuration theory which are of value for the development of co-determination in practice. Essential for that purpose is the fact that co-determination be viewed as an action practice. Subsequently the organisation of co-determination is dealt with. For a co-determination practice not oriented towards sectional self-interest, trade union activities within the company are a necessary condition. Other conditions however also make an important contribution: the supervision of works council members and union representatives and members by paid trade union executives, consultation platforms for union re presentatives at sector level and the democratization of the trade unions themselves. In conclusion the significance of trade union activities in the company for the future of the trade union movement is dealt with.
In flexible industrial relations as envisaged by the employers, the position of a broad trade union movement is threatened by sectional associations and possibly also by the works council. For the marginal groups in society, a further weakening of a broad trade union movement offers a gloomy perspective. Strengthening of the position of the trade union movement in the company is a necessity but so is the finding of a balance between central and decentral union policy. With the increasing significance of socio-political interests such as a clean environment, peace and international division of wealth, the importance of the development of a socio-political consciousness of trade union members also increases. A specific trade union policy is necessary to bring about this broadening. The twin tasks of developing a broad trade union policy and the construction of trade union activities within the company will not be brought to a swift conclusion. The hopeful conclusion of this study, however, is that the trade union's its own policy is the pivotal point.
Handleiding rapporteren en publiceren
Groot, M.N. de - \ 1988
Den Haag : LEI (Interne nota / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut 363) - 91
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D.J.M. : uitgeg. ter gel. van het bereiken van de pensioengerechtigde leeftijd van ir. D.J. Maltha
Anonymous, - \ 1973
Wageningen : Pudoc - 67
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