Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    'Daglichtkas is bouwklaar, maar niet voor massaproductie'
    Zwart, H.F. de - \ 2012
    Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 67 (2012)47. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 38 - 38.
    glastuinbouw - kassen - zonnecollectoren - zonne-energieverwarming - gebruikswaarde - soorten - landbouwkundig onderzoek - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - solar collectors - solar heating - use value - species - agricultural research
    Tussen zonnepanelen en kasdekken zal altijd een haat-liefdeverhouding blijven bestaan. Zeker in Nederland, waar de zon zich regelmatig achter de wolken verschuilt. Afgelopen jaren zijn verschillende manieren onderzocht om met een kas elektriciteit op te wekken uit zonlicht. Met wisselend succes.
    Stille revolutie in de glastuinbouw (interview en rondleiding met Frank Kempkes)
    Kempkes, Frank - \ 2012
    market gardens - vegetable growing - ornamental horticulture - heating systems - geothermal energy - energy exchange - energy recovery - cogeneration - greenhouse horticulture - solar heating - environmental control - electricity generation - energy sources
    Praktijkervaringen met de DaglichtKas
    Zwart, H.F. de; Noort, F.R. van - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (rapporten GTB 1157) - 60
    glastuinbouw - kassen - daglicht - optische eigenschappen - potplanten - lichtdoorlating - zonne-energieverwarming - elektriciteit - warmteproductie - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - daylight - optical properties - pot plants - light transmission - solar heating - electricity - heat production
    De DaglichtKas is een innovatief ontwerp voor kassen voor schaduwminnende teelten waarbij gebruik gemaakt wordt van lenzen in het dak. Deze lenzen buigen het directe licht af naar een brandlijn waar een collector het omzet in warmte en in elektriciteit. De lens is alleen effectief voor direct licht en daardoor heeft het systeem nauwelijks effect op de diffuse doorlatendheid. Dit blijkt te resulteren in een zeer geschikt lichtklimaat voor de teelt van potplanten.
    Terra-Sea systeem - Zonnepanelen
    Ellen, H.H. ; Verstappen-Boerekamp, J.A.M. ; Emous, R.A. van - \ 2010
    Wageningen UR Livestock Research
    vleeskuikens - pluimveehouderij - pluimveehokken - stalklimaat - reinigers - warmteopslag - warmtewisselaars - warmtepompen - zonne-energie - zonne-energieverwarming - fijn stof - ammoniakemissie - broilers - poultry farming - poultry housing - stall climate - scrubbers - heat retention - heat exchangers - heat pumps - solar energy - solar heating - particulate matter - ammonia emission
    Terra-Sea is een systeem dat gebruik maakt van verschillende technieken om het energieverbruik terug te dringen en een optimaal klimaat in de stal te behalen. Daarmee worden de technische resultaten verbeterd en de emissies van ammoniak, geur en fijnstof gereduceerd.
    Algen en glastuinbouw
    Jansen, Roel - \ 2010
    algae culture - protected cultivation - closed systems - solar heating - bioenergy - greenhouse horticulture - energy saving - biobased economy
    Renewable energy development in China: policies, practices and performance
    Han, Jingyi - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854890 - 190
    milieubeleid - energie - vervangbare hulpbronnen - zonne-energie - zonne-energieverwarming - windenergie - bio-energie - economische evaluatie - projectbeoordeling - ontwikkeling - overheidsbeleid - energievoorraden - energiegebruik - china - environmental policy - energy - renewable resources - solar energy - solar heating - wind power - bioenergy - economic evaluation - project appraisal - development - government policy - energy resources - energy consumption - china
    Energy demand in China has risen rapidly, driven by its massive economic growth. Meanwhile, the energy system in China heavily depends on fossil fuels, which causes serious problems of climate change and air pollution. China started to develop renewable energy about 30 years ago, aiming to alleviate the pressure of energy shortage and fossil fuel related environmental problems. The central government has shown great determination to promote the utilization of renewable energy resources and it set ambitious targets to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the country’s total energy consumption to 10% by 2010 and 15% by 2020.
    China has a large amount of renewable energy resources within its vast territory. Large potentials of producing bioenergy, solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, geothermal and ocean energy have been identified in China. During the past three decades, the Chinese government made major efforts to develop these renewable energy resources. A series of policies have been formulated to promote renewable energy utilization. As the second largest investor on renewable energy in the world, China has invested considerable financial resources to renewable energy projects. As a result, the installed capacity of renewable energy in China has increased sharply, especially in the fields of wind power, solar thermal and hydro power. However, China lacks effective monitoring and evaluation systems to review the performance of renewable energy policies, programs and projects. It is not yet clear whether the objectives of China’s renewable energy development policy will be reached in an efficient and effective way.
    Under such circumstances, this study evaluates the performance of renewable energy policies and practices in China. The following three research questions are given a central place: What is the performance of the implementation of renewable energy policies and practices in China up till now? What are the driving forces behind the successes/failures of renewable energy development in China? What reforms can be recommended for future renewable energy policies and programs in China?
    In order to answer these questions, this study uses various ideas and concepts of policy evaluation theories as sources of inspiration and information to build an analytical model for evaluating the performance of renewable energy developments in China. Within this analytical model, the performance of renewable energy development is evaluated by criteria of economic performance, technological performance, and environmental and social impacts. The driving (f)actors behind the performance are subsequently analyzed using a triad-network model. Finally, recommendations for future development of renewable energy in China are formulated, based on these analyses.
    This study takes primarily a qualitative research strategy, based on case study research. Three main cases form the central part of this study: one case of biogasification developments in Shandong Province, one case of onshore wind power developments in Inner Mongolia, and one case of solar water heater developments in Zhejiang Province. Data for each case study are collected through site observation, via in-depth interviews with key informants, via questionnaires and through secondary analysis of existing data, statistics and written sources. A structured approach – triangulation – is applied to combine the various data sources and data collection methods.
    Results of the case study on biogasification prove that these projects do not bring developers and users economic benefit, due to the large-scale close down of biogas stations after a relatively short life time. The biogas stations also suffer from various technological problems such as tar jam, leakage of gas pipes and difficulties in treating wet feedstock. However, the establishment of biogasification projects improves the environmental quality of local area and the quality of life of local residents.
    The analyses of wind power projects illustrate the poor economic performance of wind power projects due to the vicious competition for concession projects. Most of the wind farms are well designed and equipped with relatively new wind turbine technology, but many of them are used at low efficiency. The wind power projects reduce the consumption of fossil fuels for power generation and thus contribute to the reduction of air pollutant emission (among which greenhouse gasses). The construction of wind farms has marginal direct impacts on the life of local people and ecosystems. Nevertheless, these projects bring local areas some indirect benefits, such as improvements in the mobility infrastructure and accessibility and attractiveness to tourists (and thus economic income).
    From the solar water heater case study it could be concluded that this technology brings both producers and end users major economic benefits. The use of solar water heater also reduces air pollutant emissions by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels. While overall this relatively simple technology functions well, the expansion of solar water heater utilization encounters some technological challenges. It proves difficult to adapt the solar water heaters onto existing buildings. Water tanks and pipes installed outside of the buildings are not resistant to extreme temperatures, as they freeze during extremely cold winters. The development and implementation of solar water heater has comes together with a number of social problems, especially in relation to obstructions by city administrations and real estate management in some cities.
    The analyses of the driving forces behind these three renewable energy developments show some remarkable differences. The biogasification projects in China are strongly influenced and pushed by policy networks and societal networks, while economic networks play a marginal role in their development and implementation. Wind power projects in China are strongly influenced and advanced by policy networks and economic networks, while the influence of social networks is marginal. And the solar water heater projects in China are strongly guided and implemented by economic networks and societal networks, whereas policy network institutions and actors play less prominent roles. These driving networks, and the absence other networks, partly explain the performance of each of the renewable energy projects in China.
    These findings also result in a number of recommendations for further developing renewable energy in China. In order to strengthen the poorly developed or absent network drivers in each case, improvements should be made with respect to institutional reform and policy revision, the further creation of market dynamics, and technology improvement. Some of the concrete recommendations formulated in this study are:
    • The management of and investment in renewable energy projects should be improved by involving private companies into project development.
    • Feed-in tariffs should be introduced in wind power projects.
    • It is necessary to open up renewable energy development planning and siting to public participation and create a better platform for the public to express their opinion.
    • A semi-protected market should be established to promote renewable energy development. In this semi-protected market, the developers continue to receive governmental subsidies, while the renewable energy products are sold increasingly according to “real” market rules and conditions, and foreign investments play a more important role than present.
    • Technology improvements should aim to solve the technological problems in the short term, to improve efficiency of renewable energy utilization in the medium term, and to diversify the renewable energy technologies in the long term.
    Finally this study formulates implications for future research. Research is recommended especially with respect to public participation and acceptance of renewable energy development as that hardly takes place at the moment; with respect to evaluation modes of performance evaluation itself; and with respect to China’s post-Kyoto renewable energy development strategies.


    Bij gebruik van buffer en aquifer kan aardgasverbruik met 50% omlaag : Binnen twee jaar praktijktoepassing Fresnelkas
    Kierkels, T. ; Sonneveld, P.J. - \ 2009
    Onder Glas 6 (2009)5. - p. 76 - 77.
    kassen - elektriciteit - zonnecollectoren - zonne-energieverwarming - zonne-energie - energiecentrales - glastuinbouw - energiebesparing - greenhouses - electricity - solar collectors - solar heating - solar energy - power industry - greenhouse horticulture - energy saving
    Metingen in een Venlokas met Fresnellenzen leert dat de kas jaarlijks 29 kWh elektriciteit oplevert per m2 lensoppervlak. Tevens resulteert er 144 kWh aan warmte. Bij gebruik van een buffer en aquifer kan hierdoor het aardgasverbruik met de helft omlaag. Verdere verbetering is mogelijk. De terugverdientijd is momenteel nog lang. In de toekomst daalt die drastisch. Onderzoeker Piet Sonneveld verwacht binnen twee jaar de eerste praktijktoepassing op initiatief van de energiemaatschappijen
    Development of appropriate processing technology for fruit export by smallholder farmers : technical assistance in the processing of products of Equator Products Ltd. in Kenya : report of research activities in 2008
    Bartels, P.V. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group (A&F report / Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group 990) - ISBN 9789085853428 - 49
    voedselbewaring - drogen - droogmethoden - drogers - zonne-energie - zonne-energieverwarming - decontaminatie - spaanse pepers - kenya - food preservation - drying - drying methods - driers - solar energy - solar heating - decontamination - chillies - kenya
    ElKas zet overtollige warmte om in elektriciteit
    Visser, P. de; Sonneveld, P.J. - \ 2008
    Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 2008 (2008)27. - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 20 - 21.
    kassen - zonnestraling - zonnecollectoren - zonne-energieverwarming - verwarmingssystemen - elektriciteit - rotatie - thermisch rendement - folie - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - greenhouses - solar radiation - solar collectors - solar heating - heating systems - electricity - rotation - thermal efficiency - foil - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology
    In 2005 vroeg Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw Energie Onderzoek Subsidie (EOS) aan, voor de bouw van de elektriciteit producerende kas (ElKas). Deze ElKas staat sinds 2008 in Wageningen, met een dek in de vorm van een parabool. Het is de eerste kas die elektriciteit produceert. Waar in de huidige semi-gesloten kassen zonlicht wordt benut om laagwaardige warmte te oogsten, maken ze in de ElKas hoogwaardige electriciteit van dit licht
    Zonnewarmtekas mag zich gaan bewijzen
    Visser, P. ; Zwart, H.F. de - \ 2008
    Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 63 (2008)27. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 32 - 33.
    kassen - zonne-energie - zonne-energieverwarming - milieubeheersing - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - thermisch rendement - glastuinbouw - greenhouses - solar energy - solar heating - environmental control - sustainability - thermal efficiency - greenhouse horticulture
    Zonnewarmtekas mag zich gaan bewijzen
    Visser, P. ; Zwart, H.F. de - \ 2008
    Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 2008 (2008)26. - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 30 - 31.
    kassen - zonne-energie - zonne-energieverwarming - milieubeheersing - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - thermisch rendement - glastuinbouw - greenhouses - solar energy - solar heating - environmental control - sustainability - thermal efficiency - greenhouse horticulture
    Zonneboiler voor vloerverwarming voorlopig nog te duur
    Wagenberg, V. van - \ 2003
    Praktijkkompas. Varkens 17 (2003)6. - ISSN 1570-8578 - p. 18 - 19.
    varkenshouderij - varkensstallen - kraamstallen - kraamhokken - verwarming - verwarmingssystemen - zonnecollectoren - zonne-energieverwarming - vloeren - verwarmingsapparatuur - ketels - kosten-batenanalyse - rentabiliteit - economische haalbaarheid - thermisch rendement - rendement - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - pig farming - pig housing - farrowing houses - farrowing pens - heating - heating systems - solar collectors - solar heating - floors - heaters - boilers - cost benefit analysis - profitability - economic viability - thermal efficiency - returns - farm management
    Op Praktijkcentrum Sterksel deden we afgelopen jaar onderzoek aan een zonneboiler. Deze leverde warm water dat gebruikt werd voor de vloerverwarming in kraamafdelingen en biggenopfokafdelingen. Het blijkt dat de zonneboiler een bijdrage had van 12% van de warmtevraag; een besparing van circa 340,- per jaar op aardgas. De terugverdientijd is berekend op 22 jaar; te lang voor een rendabele toepassing van zonneboilers in de varkenshouderij.
    Zonne-energie is bruikbaar
    Leeuw, M. de; Wagenberg, V. van - \ 2002
    Praktijkkompas. Varkens 16 (2002)4. - ISSN 1570-8578 - p. 12 - 13.
    zonne-energie - varkens - varkenshouderij - zonnecollectoren - energiebronnen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - brijvoedering - varkensvoeding - biggenvoeding - voedselbereiding - verwarmingssystemen - verwarmingsapparatuur - zonne-energieverwarming - verwarming - kosten - kosten-batenanalyse - investering - solar energy - pigs - pig farming - solar collectors - energy sources - farm management - wet feeding - pig feeding - piglet feeding - food preparation - heating systems - heaters - solar heating - heating - costs - cost benefit analysis - investment
    Verwarmen van brijvoer als nieuwe toepassing
    Bench heating for potplant cultivation : analysis of effects of root- and air temperature on growth, development and production
    Vogelezang, J.V.M. - \ 1993
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H. Challa. - S.l. : Vogelezang - ISBN 9789054850694 - 115
    groeistadia - gewassen, groeifasen - potplanten - grondverwarming - verwarming - zonne-energieverwarming - binnen kweken (van planten) - growth stages - crop growth stage - pot plants - soil heating - heating - solar heating - indoor culture

    This thesis deals with the application of bench heating systems for potplant cultivation, which were developed for application of low temperature heating water from flue gas condensers and external waste heat sources. Compared to the traditional way of heating, a 'reversed' temperature gradient is created on heated benches, with a high root-zone temperature compared to the air temperature. Knowledge of root-zone temperature requirements and - tolerances is necessary in order to fully exploit the potentials of bench heating systems.

    The influence of bench heating on microclimate was established for an aluminium bench heating system, which was mainly used in this study. It provided a uniform horizontal temperature distribution, and a rather constant vertical temperature gradient up to 45 cm crop height. Humidity did not detoriate with increasing root-zone temperatures.

    Growth and flowering of Saintpaulia were enhanced by increased root-zone temperature (23-26°C). Flowering of Begonia showed narrow tolerances for the air temperature, whereas the root-zone temperature was of minor importance in the range 18- 26°C. Elevated root-zone (19-30°C) and/or air temperatures (19-24°C) affected growth rate of Ficusbenjamina and Schefflera positively during the first three weeks of growth, but in later stages of growth no effect of root temperature could be detected. Flowering and growth of Spathiphyllum were largely influenced by the air temperature, whereas root-zone temperature was of less importance for flowering in the range 20-26°C. Increasing root-zone (19-26°C) and air temperatures (19-22°C) promoted flowering of Guzmania with out negative effects on size of inflorescences. Plant quality and keepability were not unfavourably affected in the crops under investigation. For Saintpaulia and Spathiphyllum, the number of lateral shoots was reduced at increased root temperatures.

    Response patterns of plant processes affected by root temperature were analysed with respect to optimal range and tolerances. There is no evidence that water and nutrient uptake were limiting growth of most potplants in the investigated root temperature range. Growth was influenced more by the air temperature than the root-zone temperature. The growth response of Saintpaulia was an exception, where a lower plant dry matter percentage was observed at increased root-zone temperature (resulting in increased plant fresh weight), which might have been due to a reduced resistance for water uptake at these temperatures. Effects of the root temperature were most pronounced on development processes (flowering, shoot formation). For crops with a shoot meristern situated close to the root-zone, effects of increased root-zone temperature on earliness of flowering were most likely due to the locally increased temperature of the shoot apex. Consequences for the use of bench heating systems in commercial practice are discussed with respect to bench construction, climate control, crop management and economical perspectives.

    Guzmania en Spathiphyllum op verwarmde tabletten
    Vogelezang, J. ; Berg, T. van den - \ 1990
    Aalsmeer : Proefstation voor de Bloemisterij (Rapport / Proefstation voor de Bloemisterij nr. 87) - 37
    dozen - containers - verwarming - potplanten - plantpotten - grondverwarming - zonne-energieverwarming - kweektafels - guzmania - spathiphyllum - binnen kweken (van planten) - boxes - containers - heating - pot plants - pots - soil heating - solar heating - staging - guzmania - spathiphyllum - indoor culture
    Dynamic optimization of artificial lighting in greenhouses.
    Heuvelink, E. ; Challa, H. - \ 1989
    Acta Horticulturae 260 (1989). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 401 - 412.
    verwarming - licht - modellen - fotoperiode - fotoperiodiciteit - fotosynthese - teelt onder bescherming - onderzoek - schaduw - grondverwarming - zonne-energieverwarming - heating - light - models - photoperiod - photoperiodism - photosynthesis - protected cultivation - research - shade - soil heating - solar heating
    A principle for dynamic optimization of artificial lighting in greenhouses is presented, where the optimization criterion is maximization of the term <economic yield minus related costs>. To this purpose it is important to consider the break-even point for artificial lighting, which can be defined as the natural light intensity in a greenhouse at which the costs of using supplementary light equal the additional yield (in economic terms) caused by that supplementary light. Based on a mechanistic model of crop photosynthesis, break-even points are calculated and their dependency on CO2 concentration in the greenhouse, product price, leaf area index (LAI), price of electricity and crop conversion efficiency (g fresh weight of harvestable product per g crop gross CO2 assimilation) is shown. At given CO2 concentration and LAI the economic value of 1 g gross CO2 assimilation and the price of electricity are the 2 major parameters determining the break-even point for artificial lighting. Economic value of 1 g CO2 assimilated for any specific situation depends on the fraction of dry weight diverted to harvestable products (Fso) and percentage dry matter and price of the harvestable product. In the present paper a method to obtain this value for a given situation is worked out and the relation with break-even points for artificial lighting is graphically summarized. The same graph can also be used to get a first impression of the feasibility of the use of artificial light in a specific situation by considering the marginal profit. According to the present calculations, use of artificial lighting is not profitable for Chinese cabbage in The Netherlands nowadays. Artificial lighting might be feasible with radish (high Fso), egg plant and sweet pepper (high auction prices). For cucumber, lettuce and tomato use of artificial lighting is unprofitable during a large part of the year.
    Bladplanten op verwarmde tabletten : teeltonderzoek en houdbaarheid
    Vogelezang, J.V.M. ; Mulderij, G.E. ; Berg, T. van den - \ 1988
    Aalsmeer : Proefstation voor de Bloemisterij in Nederland (Rapport / Proefstation voor de Bloemisterij nr. 66) - 36
    kassen - verwarming - bladplanten als sierplanten - grondverwarming - zonne-energieverwarming - greenhouses - heating - ornamental foliage plants - soil heating - solar heating
    Begonia op verwarmde tabletten : teeltonderzoek, houdbaarheid en kwaliteit
    Vogelezang, J. ; Mulderij, B. ; Oprel, L. - \ 1988
    Aalsmeer : Proefstation voor de Bloemisterij (Rapport / Proefstation voor de Bloemisterij no. 65) - 55
    verwarming - sierplanten - grondverwarming - zonne-energieverwarming - begonia - onderwijzen - heating - ornamental plants - soil heating - solar heating - begonia - teaching
    Onderzoek naar de opzet en exploitatiemogelijkheden van vollegrondsgroentebedrijven met bodemverwarming
    Kramer, C. ; Schoneveld, J.A. - \ 1987
    In: Jaarboek 1987-1992 : verslagen van in 1987-1992 afgesloten onderzoekprojecten op Regionale Onderzoek Centra en het PAGV Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra no. 38-64) - p. 271 - 273.
    verwarming - grondverwarming - zonne-energieverwarming - vollegrondsteelt - heating - soil heating - solar heating - outdoor cropping
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