European nature conservation policy: challenges for local implementation in Germany


  • A. Sauer


Due to limitations in the implementation process, policy programmes or plans often fail to develop their full effect on the landscape. In order to be successful, implementation strategies should meet the policy requirements and the interests and needs of the local people. Drawing on the local implementation of the European Habitats Directive in Germany this paper introduces conflict pattern analysis as a means to identify possible starting points for developing adapted implementation strategies. The results of ten socio-empirical case studies show the existence of typical conflicts within the actors’ arena which render implementation difficult and require adequate coping strategies. It is argued that the effort of carrying out conflict pattern analysis is compensated for by the resulting optimization of the implementation process which reduces transaction costs overall